5.2.12: Physical science principles, including fundamental ideas about matter, energy, and motion, are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of phenomena in physical, living, and Earth systems science.

5.2.12.A: All objects and substances in the natural world are composed of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties: matter takes up space, and matter has inertia.

5.2.12.A.a: Electrons, protons, and neutrons are parts of the atom and have measurable properties, including mass and, in the case of protons and electrons, charge. The nuclei of atoms are composed of protons and neutrons. A kind of force that is only evident at nuclear distances holds the particles of the nucleus together against the electrical repulsion between the protons.

 Element Builder

5.2.12.A.c: In the Periodic Table, elements are arranged according to the number of protons (the atomic number). This organization illustrates commonality and patterns of physical and chemical properties among the elements.

 Electron Configuration
 Element Builder

5.2.12.A.3: Predict the placement of unknown elements on the Periodic Table based on their physical and chemical properties.

 Electron Configuration

5.2.12.A.d: In a neutral atom, the positively charged nucleus is surrounded by the same number of negatively charged electrons. Atoms of an element whose nuclei have different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes.

 Element Builder

5.2.12.A.4: Explain how the properties of isotopes, including half-lives, decay modes, and nuclear resonances, lead to useful applications of isotopes.

 Half-life
 Nuclear Decay

5.2.12.B: Substances can undergo physical or chemical changes to form new substances. Each change involves energy.

5.2.12.B.a: An atom?s electron configuration, particularly of the outermost electrons, determines how the atom interacts with other atoms. Chemical bonds are the interactions between atoms that hold them together in molecules or between oppositely charged ions.

 Electron Configuration
 Element Builder
 Ionic Bonds

5.2.12.B.1: Model how the outermost electrons determine the reactivity of elements and the nature of the chemical bonds they tend to form.

 Covalent Bonds
 Electron Configuration
 Ionic Bonds

5.2.12.B.b: A large number of important reactions involve the transfer of either electrons or hydrogen ions between reacting ions, molecules, or atoms. In other chemical reactions, atoms interact with one another by sharing electrons to create a bond.

 Covalent Bonds
 Ionic Bonds

5.2.12.B.c: The conservation of atoms in chemical reactions leads to the ability to calculate the mass of products and reactants using the mole concept.

 Chemical Equations

5.2.12.B.3: Balance chemical equations by applying the law of conservation of mass.

 Balancing Chemical Equations
 Chemical Equations

5.2.12.C: Knowing the characteristics of familiar forms of energy, including potential and kinetic energy, is useful in coming to the understanding that, for the most part, the natural world can be explained and is predictable.

5.2.12.C.a: Gas particles move independently and are far apart relative to each other. The behavior of gases can be explained by the kinetic molecular theory. The kinetic molecular theory can be used to explain the relationship between pressure and volume, volume and temperature, pressure and temperature, and the number of particles in a gas sample. There is a natural tendency for a system to move in the direction of disorder or entropy.

 Temperature and Particle Motion

5.2.12.C.1: Use the kinetic molecular theory to describe and explain the properties of solids, liquids, and gases.

 Temperature and Particle Motion

5.2.12.D: The conservation of energy can be demonstrated by keeping track of familiar forms of energy as they are transferred from one object to another.

5.2.12.D.a: The potential energy of an object on Earth?s surface is increased when the object?s position is changed from one closer to Earth?s surface to one farther from Earth?s surface.

 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Potential Energy on Shelves

5.2.12.D.b: The driving forces of chemical reactions are energy and entropy. Chemical reactions either release energy to the environment (exothermic) or absorb energy from the environment (endothermic).

 Chemical Changes

5.2.12.D.d: Energy may be transferred from one object to another during collisions.

 2D Collisions
 Air Track

5.2.12.D.4: Measure quantitatively the energy transferred between objects during a collision.

 2D Collisions
 Air Track

5.2.12.D.e: Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic process that is significant in many systems, including biological, ecological, environmental, and geological systems. Chemical reactions occur at different rates. Factors such as temperature, mixing, concentration, particle size, and surface area affect the rates of chemical reactions.

 Chemical Changes
 Collision Theory
 Equilibrium and Concentration

5.2.12.D.5: Model the change in rate of a reaction by changing a factor.

 Collision Theory

5.2.12.E: It takes energy to change the motion of objects. The energy change is understood in terms of forces.

5.2.12.E.a: The motion of an object can be described by its position and velocity as functions of time and by its average speed and average acceleration during intervals of time.

 Distance-Time Graphs
 Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs
 Free-Fall Laboratory
 Golf Range
 Shoot the Monkey

5.2.12.E.1: Compare the calculated and measured speed, average speed, and acceleration of an object in motion, and account for differences that may exist between calculated and measured values.

 Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs
 Free-Fall Laboratory
 Golf Range
 Shoot the Monkey

5.2.12.E.b: Objects undergo different kinds of motion (translational, rotational, and vibrational).

 Inclined Plane - Rolling Objects

5.2.12.E.2: Compare the translational and rotational motions of a thrown object and potential applications of this understanding.

 Inclined Plane - Rolling Objects

5.2.12.E.c: The motion of an object changes only when a net force is applied.

 Atwood Machine

5.2.12.E.d: The magnitude of acceleration of an object depends directly on the strength of the net force, and inversely on the mass of the object. This relationship (a=Fnet/m) is independent of the nature of the force.

 Atwood Machine

5.2.12.E.4: Measure and describe the relationship between the force acting on an object and the resulting acceleration.

 Free-Fall Laboratory

5.3.12: Life science principles are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of the complexity, diversity, and interconnectedness of life on Earth. Order in natural systems arises in accordance with rules that govern the physical world, and the order of natural systems can be modeled and predicted through the use of mathematics.

5.3.12.A: Living organisms are composed of cellular units (structures) that carry out functions required for life. Cellular units are composed of molecules, which also carry out biological functions.

5.3.12.A.3: Predict a cell?s response in a given set of environmental conditions.

 Paramecium Homeostasis

5.3.12.A.d: Cells divide through the process of mitosis, resulting in daughter cells that have the same genetic composition as the original cell.

 Cell Division

5.3.12.A.f: There is a relationship between the organization of cells into tissues and the organization of tissues into organs. The structures and functions of organs determine their relationships within body systems of an organism.

 Circulatory System
 Digestive System

5.3.12.B: Food is required for energy and building cellular materials. Organisms in an ecosystem have different ways of obtaining food, and some organisms obtain their food directly from other organisms.

5.3.12.B.3: Predict what would happen to an ecosystem if an energy source was removed.

 Food Chain

5.3.12.B.4: Explain how environmental factors (such as temperature, light intensity, and the amount of water available) can affect photosynthesis as an energy storing process.

 Photosynthesis Lab
 Pond Ecosystem

5.3.12.B.5: Investigate and describe the complementary relationship (cycling of matter and flow of energy) between photosynthesis and cellular respiration.

 Cell Energy Cycle

5.3.12.B.f: All organisms must break the high-energy chemical bonds in food molecules during cellular respiration to obtain the energy needed for life processes.

 Cell Energy Cycle

5.3.12.C: All animals and most plants depend on both other organisms and their environment to meet their basic needs.

5.3.12.C.a: Biological communities in ecosystems are based on stable interrelationships and interdependence of organisms.

 Food Chain

5.3.12.C.1: Analyze the interrelationships and interdependencies among different organisms, and explain how these relationships contribute to the stability of the ecosystem.

 Food Chain

5.3.12.C.b: Stability in an ecosystem can be disrupted by natural or human interactions.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Coral Reefs 2 - Biotic Factors
 Pond Ecosystem

5.3.12.C.2: Model how natural and human-made changes in the environment will affect individual organisms and the dynamics of populations.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Coral Reefs 2 - Biotic Factors
 Pond Ecosystem
 Rabbit Population by Season

5.3.12.D: Organisms reproduce, develop, and have predictable life cycles. Organisms contain genetic information that influences their traits, and they pass this on to their offspring during reproduction.

5.3.12.D.a: Genes are segments of DNA molecules located in the chromosome of each cell. DNA molecules contain information that determines a sequence of amino acids, which result in specific proteins.

 Human Karyotyping
 RNA and Protein Synthesis

5.3.12.D.b: Inserting, deleting, or substituting DNA segments can alter the genetic code. An altered gene may be passed on to every cell that develops from it. The resulting features may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring?s success in its environment.

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection
 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection

5.3.12.D.2: Predict the potential impact on an organism (no impact, significant impact) given a change in a specific DNA code, and provide specific real world examples of conditions caused by mutations.

 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection

5.3.12.E: Sometimes, differences between organisms of the same kind provide advantages for surviving and reproducing in different environments. These selective differences may lead to dramatic changes in characteristics of organisms in a population over extremely long periods of time.

5.3.12.E.d: Evolution occurs as a result of a combination of the following factors; Ability of a species to reproduce; Genetic variability of offspring due to mutation and recombination of genes; Finite supply of the resources required for life; Natural selection, due to environmental pressure, of those organisms better able to survive and leave offspring.

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection
 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection
 Microevolution
 Rainfall and Bird Beaks

5.4.12: Earth operates as a set of complex, dynamic, and interconnected systems, and is a part of the all-encompassing system of the universe.

5.4.12.A: Our universe has been expanding and evolving for 13.7 billion years under the influence of gravitational and nuclear forces. As gravity governs its expansion, organizational patterns, and the movement of celestial bodies, nuclear forces within stars govern its evolution through the processes of stellar birth and death. These same processes governed the formation of our solar system 4.6 billion years ago.

5.4.12.A.c: Stars experience significant changes during their life cycles, which can be illustrated with an Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) Diagram.

 H-R Diagram

5.4.12.A.3: Analyze an H-R diagram and explain the life cycle of stars of different masses using simple stellar models.

 H-R Diagram

5.4.12.B: From the time that Earth formed from a nebula 4.6 billion years ago, it has been evolving as a result of geologic, biological, physical, and chemical processes.

5.4.12.B.3: Account for the evolution of species by citing specific absolute-dating evidence of fossil samples.

 Human Evolution - Skull Analysis

5.4.12.D: The theory of plate tectonics provides a framework for understanding the dynamic processes within and on Earth.

5.4.12.D.a: Convection currents in the upper mantle drive plate motion. Plates are pushed apart at spreading zones and pulled down into the crust at subduction zones.

 Plate Tectonics

5.4.12.D.1: Explain the mechanisms for plate motions using earthquake data, mathematics, and conceptual models.

 Earthquakes 1 - Recording Station
 Plate Tectonics

5.4.12.E: Internal and external sources of energy drive Earth systems.

5.4.12.E.2: Predict what the impact on biogeochemical systems would be if there were an increase or decrease in internal and external energy.

 Cell Energy Cycle

5.4.12.F: Earth?s weather and climate systems are the result of complex interactions between land, ocean, ice, and atmosphere.

5.4.12.F.a: Global climate differences result from the uneven heating of Earth?s surface by the Sun. Seasonal climate variations are due to the tilt of Earth?s axis with respect to the plane of Earth?s nearly circular orbit around the Sun.

 Seasons Around the World
 Seasons in 3D
 Seasons: Why do we have them?

5.4.12.G: The biogeochemical cycles in the Earth systems include the flow of microscopic and macroscopic resources from one reservoir in the hydrosphere, geosphere, atmosphere, or biosphere to another, are driven by Earth's internal and external sources of energy, and are impacted by human activity.

5.4.12.G.3: Demonstrate, using models, how internal and external sources of energy drive the hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and oxygen cycles.

 Cell Energy Cycle

5.4.12.G.d: Natural and human activities impact the cycling of matter and the flow of energy through ecosystems.

 Carbon Cycle
 Pond Ecosystem

5.4.12.G.4: Compare over time the impact of human activity on the cycling of matter and energy through ecosystems.

 Carbon Cycle

5.4.12.G.e: Human activities have changed Earth?s land, oceans, and atmosphere, as well as its populations of plant and animal species.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Coral Reefs 2 - Biotic Factors
 Pond Ecosystem
 Rabbit Population by Season

5.4.12.G.f: Scientific, economic, and other data can assist in assessing environmental risks and benefits associated with societal activity.

 Pond Ecosystem

5.4.12.G.7: Relate information to detailed models of the hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and oxygen cycles, identifying major sources, sinks, fluxes, and residence times.

 Cell Energy Cycle

Correlation last revised: 5/18/2018

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