5.2.8: Physical science principles, including fundamental ideas about matter, energy, and motion, are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of phenomena in physical, living, and Earth systems science.

5.2.8.A: All objects and substances in the natural world are composed of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties: matter takes up space, and matter has inertia.

5.2.8.A.c: Properties of solids, liquids, and gases are explained by a model of matter as composed of tiny particles (atoms) in motion.

 Temperature and Particle Motion

5.2.8.A.d: The Periodic Table organizes the elements into families of elements with similar properties.

 Element Builder
 Ionic Bonds

5.2.8.A.e: Elements are a class of substances composed of a single kind of atom. Compounds are substances that are chemically formed and have physical and chemical properties that differ from the reacting substances.

 Element Builder

5.2.8.A.5: Identify unknown substances based on data regarding their physical and chemical properties.

 Density Experiment: Slice and Dice
 Mineral Identification

5.2.8.A.f: Substances are classified according to their physical and chemical properties. Metals are a class of elements that exhibit physical properties, such as conductivity, and chemical properties, such as producing salts when combined with nonmetals.

 Circuit Builder
 Density Experiment: Slice and Dice
 Ionic Bonds
 Mineral Identification

5.2.8.A.6: Determine whether a substance is a metal or nonmetal through student-designed investigations.

 Mineral Identification

5.2.8.A.g: Substances are classified according to their physical and chemical properties. Acids are a class of compounds that exhibit common chemical properties, including a sour taste, characteristic color changes with litmus and other acid/base indicators, and the tendency to react with bases to produce a salt and water.

 Density Experiment: Slice and Dice
 Mineral Identification
 pH Analysis
 pH Analysis: Quad Color Indicator

5.2.8.A.7: Determine the relative acidity and reactivity of common acids, such as vinegar or cream of tartar, through a variety of student-designed investigations.

 Mineral Identification

5.2.8.B: Substances can undergo physical or chemical changes to form new substances. Each change involves energy.

5.2.8.B.a: When substances undergo chemical change, the number and kinds of atoms in the reactants are the same as the number and kinds of atoms in the products. The mass of the reactants is the same as the mass of the products.

 Chemical Equations

5.2.8.B.1: Explain, using an understanding of the concept of chemical change, why the mass of reactants and the mass of products remain constant.

 Chemical Equations

5.2.8.B.b: Chemical changes can occur when two substances, elements, or compounds react and produce one or more different substances. The physical and chemical properties of the products are different from those of the reacting substances.

 Chemical Equations

5.2.8.B.2: Compare and contrast the physical properties of reactants with products after a chemical reaction, such as those that occur during photosynthesis and cellular respiration.

 Cell Energy Cycle

5.2.8.C: Knowing the characteristics of familiar forms of energy, including potential and kinetic energy, is useful in coming to the understanding that, for the most part, the natural world can be explained and is predictable.

5.2.8.C.b: Energy is transferred from place to place. Light energy can be thought of as traveling in rays. Thermal energy travels via conduction and convection.

 Conduction and Convection
 Heat Transfer by Conduction

5.2.8.D: The conservation of energy can be demonstrated by keeping track of familiar forms of energy as they are transferred from one object to another.

5.2.8.D.a: When energy is transferred from one system to another, the quantity of energy before transfer equals the quantity of energy after transfer. As an object falls, its potential energy decreases as its speed, and consequently its kinetic energy, increases. While an object is falling, some of the object?s kinetic energy is transferred to the medium through which it falls, setting the medium into motion and heating it.

 2D Collisions
 Air Track
 Energy Conversion in a System

5.2.8.D.1: Relate the kinetic and potential energies of a roller coaster at various points on its path.

 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Roller Coaster Physics

5.2.8.D.b: Nuclear reactions take place in the Sun. In plants, light energy from the Sun is transferred to oxygen and carbon compounds, which in combination, have chemical potential energy (photosynthesis).

 Cell Energy Cycle

5.2.8.E: It takes energy to change the motion of objects. The energy change is understood in terms of forces.

5.2.8.E.a: An object is in motion when its position is changing. The speed of an object is defined by how far it travels divided by the amount of time it took to travel that far.

 Free Fall Tower
 Free-Fall Laboratory
 Golf Range
 Measuring Motion
 Shoot the Monkey

5.2.8.E.1: Calculate the speed of an object when given distance and time.

 Free Fall Tower
 Free-Fall Laboratory
 Measuring Motion

5.2.8.E.b: Forces have magnitude and direction. Forces can be added. The net force on an object is the sum of all the forces acting on the object. An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion at constant velocity will continue at the same velocity unless acted on by an unbalanced force.

 Fan Cart Physics
 Force and Fan Carts
 Gravitational Force

5.3.8: Life science principles are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of the complexity, diversity, and interconnectedness of life on Earth. Order in natural systems arises in accordance with rules that govern the physical world, and the order of natural systems can be modeled and predicted through the use of mathematics.

5.3.8.A: Living organisms are composed of cellular units (structures) that carry out functions required for life. Cellular units are composed of molecules, which also carry out biological functions.

5.3.8.A.a: All organisms are composed of cell(s). In multicellular organisms, specialized cells perform specialized functions. Tissues, organs, and organ systems are composed of cells and function to serve the needs of cells for food, air, and waste removal.

 Digestive System

5.3.8.A.2: Relate the structures of cells, tissues, organs, and systems to their functions in supporting life.

 Circulatory System
 Digestive System

5.3.8.B: Food is required for energy and building cellular materials. Organisms in an ecosystem have different ways of obtaining food, and some organisms obtain their food directly from other organisms.

5.3.8.B.b: All animals, including humans, are consumers that meet their energy needs by eating other organisms or their products.

 Food Chain
 Forest Ecosystem

5.3.8.B.2: Analyze the components of a consumer?s diet and trace them back to plants and plant products.

 Food Chain
 Forest Ecosystem

5.3.8.C: All animals and most plants depend on both other organisms and their environment to meet their basic needs.

5.3.8.C.a: Symbiotic interactions among organisms of different species can be classified as: Producer/consumer, Predator/prey, Parasite/host, Scavenger/prey, Decomposer/prey.

 Forest Ecosystem

5.3.8.D: Organisms reproduce, develop, and have predictable life cycles. Organisms contain genetic information that influences their traits, and they pass this on to their offspring during reproduction.

5.3.8.D.a: Some organisms reproduce asexually. In these organisms, all genetic information comes from a single parent. Some organisms reproduce sexually, through which half of the genetic information comes from each parent.

 Pollination: Flower to Fruit

5.3.8.D.1: Defend the principle that, through reproduction, genetic traits are passed from one generation to the next, using evidence collected from observations of inherited traits.

 Inheritance
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

5.3.8.D.c: Characteristics of organisms are influenced by heredity and/or their environment.

 Inheritance
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

5.3.8.D.3: Describe the environmental conditions or factors that may lead to a change in a cell?s genetic information or to an organism?s development, and how these changes are passed on.

 Inheritance

5.3.8.E: Sometimes, differences between organisms of the same kind provide advantages for surviving and reproducing in different environments. These selective differences may lead to dramatic changes in characteristics of organisms in a population over extremely long periods of time.

5.3.8.E.a: Individual organisms with certain traits are more likely than others to survive and have offspring in particular environments. The advantages or disadvantages of specific characteristics can change when the environment in which they exist changes. Extinction of a species occurs when the environment changes and the characteristics of a species are insufficient to allow survival.

 Natural Selection
 Rainfall and Bird Beaks

5.3.8.E.b: Anatomical evidence supports evolution and provides additional detail about the sequence of branching of various lines of descent.

 Human Evolution - Skull Analysis

5.4.8: Earth operates as a set of complex, dynamic, and interconnected systems, and is a part of the all-encompassing system of the universe.

5.4.8.A: Our universe has been expanding and evolving for 13.7 billion years under the influence of gravitational and nuclear forces. As gravity governs its expansion, organizational patterns, and the movement of celestial bodies, nuclear forces within stars govern its evolution through the processes of stellar birth and death. These same processes governed the formation of our solar system 4.6 billion years ago.

5.4.8.A.a: The relative positions and motions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon result in the phases of the Moon, eclipses, and the daily and monthly cycle of tides.

 2D Eclipse
 3D Eclipse
 Moonrise, Moonset, and Phases
 Phases of the Moon
 Tides

5.4.8.A.1: Analyze moon-phase, eclipse, and tidal data to construct models that explain how the relative positions and motions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon cause these three phenomena.

 2D Eclipse
 3D Eclipse
 Phases of the Moon
 Tides

5.4.8.A.b: Earth?s tilt, rotation, and revolution around the Sun cause changes in the height and duration of the Sun in the sky. These factors combine to explain the changes in the length of the day and seasons.

 Comparing Earth and Venus
 Seasons Around the World
 Seasons in 3D
 Seasons: Earth, Moon, and Sun
 Seasons: Why do we have them?
 Summer and Winter

5.4.8.A.2: Use evidence of global variations in day length, temperature, and the amount of solar radiation striking Earth?s surface to create models that explain these phenomena and seasons.

 Seasons Around the World
 Seasons: Earth, Moon, and Sun
 Seasons: Why do we have them?
 Summer and Winter

5.4.8.A.c: Gravitation is a universal attractive force by which objects with mass attract one another. The gravitational force between two objects is proportional to their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the objects.

 Gravitational Force

5.4.8.A.3: Predict how the gravitational force between two bodies would differ for bodies of different masses or bodies that are different distances apart.

 Gravitational Force

5.4.8.A.4: Analyze data regarding the motion of comets, planets, and moons to find general patterns of orbital motion.

 Gravity Pitch
 Solar System Explorer

5.4.8.D: The theory of plate tectonics provides a framework for understanding the dynamic processes within and on Earth.

5.4.8.D.b: Major geological events, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building, result from the motion of plates. Sea floor spreading, revealed in mapping of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and subduction zones are evidence for the theory of plate tectonics.

 Earthquakes 1 - Recording Station
 Plate Tectonics

5.4.8.D.2: Present evidence to support arguments for the theory of plate motion.

 Plate Tectonics

5.4.8.E: Internal and external sources of energy drive Earth systems.

5.4.8.E.a: The Sun provides energy for plants to grow and drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing winds, ocean currents, and the water cycle.

 Coastal Winds and Clouds
 Water Cycle

5.4.8.E.1: Explain how energy from the Sun is transformed or transferred in global wind circulation, ocean circulation, and the water cycle.

 Water Cycle

5.4.8.F: Earth?s weather and climate systems are the result of complex interactions between land, ocean, ice, and atmosphere.

5.4.8.F.1: Determine the origin of local weather by exploring national and international weather maps.

 Weather Maps

5.4.8.F.b: Climate is influenced locally and globally by atmospheric interactions with land masses and bodies of water.

 Coastal Winds and Clouds

5.4.8.F.2: Explain the mechanisms that cause varying daily temperature ranges in a coastal community and in a community located in the interior of the country.

 Coastal Winds and Clouds

5.4.8.F.c: Weather (in the short term) and climate (in the long term) involve the transfer of energy and water in and out of the atmosphere.

 Water Cycle

5.4.8.F.3: Create a model of the hydrologic cycle that focuses on the transfer of water in and out of the atmosphere. Apply the model to different climates around the world.

 Water Cycle

Correlation last revised: 1/20/2017

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