5.2.6: Physical science principles, including fundamental ideas about matter, energy, and motion, are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of phenomena in physical, living, and Earth systems science.

5.2.6.A: All objects and substances in the natural world are composed of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties: matter takes up space, and matter has inertia.

5.2.6.A.a: The volume of some objects can be determined using liquid (water) displacement.

5.2.6.A.1: Determine the volume of common objects using water displacement methods.

5.2.6.A.b: The density of an object can be determined from its volume and mass.

5.2.6.A.2: Calculate the density of objects or substances after determining volume and mass.

5.2.6.A.c: Pure substances have characteristic intrinsic properties, such as density, solubility, boiling point, and melting point, all of which are independent of the amount of the sample.

5.2.6.A.3: Determine the identity of an unknown substance using data about intrinsic properties.

5.2.6.C: Knowing the characteristics of familiar forms of energy, including potential and kinetic energy, is useful in coming to the understanding that, for the most part, the natural world can be explained and is predictable.

5.2.6.C.a: Light travels in a straight line until it interacts with an object or material. Light can be absorbed, redirected, bounced back, or allowed to pass through. The path of reflected or refracted light can be predicted.

5.2.6.C.b: Visible light from the Sun is made up of a mixture of all colors of light. To see an object, light emitted or reflected by that object must enter the eye.

5.2.6.C.2: Describe how to prisms can be used to demonstrate that visible light from the Sun is made up of different colors.

5.2.6.D: The conservation of energy can be demonstrated by keeping track of familiar forms of energy as they are transferred from one object to another.

5.2.6.D.a: The flow of current in an electric circuit depends upon the components of the circuit and their arrangement, such as in series or parallel. Electricity flowing through an electrical circuit produces magnetic effects in the wires.

5.2.6.D.1: Use simple circuits involving batteries and motors to compare and predict the current flow with different circuit arrangements.

5.2.6.E: It takes energy to change the motion of objects. The energy change is understood in terms of forces.

5.2.6.E.b: Magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces can act at a distance.

5.2.6.E.2: Describe the force between two magnets as the distance between them is changed.

5.2.6.E.c: Friction is a force that acts to slow or stop the motion of objects.

5.2.6.E.d: Sinking and floating can be predicted using forces that depend on the relative densities of objects and materials.

5.2.6.E.4: Predict if an object will sink or float using evidence and reasoning.

5.3.6: Life science principles are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of the complexity, diversity, and interconnectedness of life on Earth. Order in natural systems arises in accordance with rules that govern the physical world, and the order of natural systems can be modeled and predicted through the use of mathematics.

5.3.6.A: Living organisms are composed of cellular units (structures) that carry out functions required for life. Cellular units are composed of molecules, which also carry out biological functions.

5.3.6.A.a: Systems of the human body are interrelated and regulate the body?s internal environment.

5.3.6.A.1: Model the interdependence of the human body?s major systems in regulating its internal environment.

5.3.6.A.b: Essential functions of plant and animal cells are carried out by organelles.

5.3.6.A.2: Model and explain ways in which organelles work together to meet the cell?s needs.

5.3.6.B: Food is required for energy and building cellular materials. Organisms in an ecosystem have different ways of obtaining food, and some organisms obtain their food directly from other organisms.

5.3.6.B.a: Plants are producers: They use the energy from light to make food (sugar) from carbon dioxide and water. Plants are used as a source of food (energy) for other organisms.

5.3.6.B.1: Describe the sources of the reactants of photosynthesis and trace the pathway to the products.

5.3.6.B.b: All animals, including humans, are consumers that meet their energy needs by eating other organisms or their products.

5.3.6.B.2: Illustrate the flow of energy (food) through a community.

5.3.6.C: All animals and most plants depend on both other organisms and their environment to meet their basic needs.

5.3.6.C.a: Various human activities have changed the capacity of the environment to support some life forms.

5.3.6.C.1: Explain the impact of meeting human needs and wants on local and global environments.

5.3.6.C.b: The number of organisms and populations an ecosystem can support depends on the biotic resources available and on abiotic factors, such as quantities of light and water, range of temperatures, and soil composition.

5.3.6.C.2: Predict the impact that altering biotic and abiotic factors has on an ecosystem.

5.3.6.C.3: Describe how one population of organisms may affect other plants and/or animals in an ecosystem.

5.3.6.D: Organisms reproduce, develop, and have predictable life cycles. Organisms contain genetic information that influences their traits, and they pass this on to their offspring during reproduction.

5.3.6.D.a: Reproduction is essential to the continuation of every species.

5.3.6.D.c: Traits such as eye color in human beings or fruit/flower color in plants are inherited.

5.3.6.D.3: Distinguish between inherited and acquired traits/characteristics.

5.3.6.E: Sometimes, differences between organisms of the same kind provide advantages for surviving and reproducing in different environments. These selective differences may lead to dramatic changes in characteristics of organisms in a population over extremely long periods of time.

5.3.6.E.a: Changes in environmental conditions can affect the survival of individual organisms and entire species.

5.4.6: Earth operates as a set of complex, dynamic, and interconnected systems, and is a part of the all-encompassing system of the universe.

5.4.6.A: Our universe has been expanding and evolving for 13.7 billion years under the influence of gravitational and nuclear forces. As gravity governs its expansion, organizational patterns, and the movement of celestial bodies, nuclear forces within stars govern its evolution through the processes of stellar birth and death. These same processes governed the formation of our solar system 4.6 billion years ago.

5.4.6.A.a: The height of the path of the Sun in the sky and the length of a shadow change over the course of a year.

5.4.6.A.1: Generate and analyze evidence (through simulations) that the Sun?s apparent motion across the sky changes over the course of a year.

5.4.6.A.b: Earth?s position relative to the Sun, and the rotation of Earth on its axis, result in patterns and cycles that define time units of days and years.

5.4.6.A.2: Construct and evaluate models demonstrating the rotation of Earth on its axis and the orbit of Earth around the Sun.

5.4.6.A.c: The Sun?s gravity holds planets and other objects in the solar system in orbit, and planets? gravity holds moons in orbit.

5.4.6.A.3: Predict what would happen to an orbiting object if gravity were increased, decreased, or taken away.

5.4.6.A.d: The Sun is the central and most massive body in our solar system, which includes eight planets and their moons, dwarf planets, asteroids, and comets.

5.4.6.A.4: Compare and contrast the major physical characteristics (including size and scale) of solar system objects using evidence in the form of data tables and photographs.

5.4.6.B: From the time that Earth formed from a nebula 4.6 billion years ago, it has been evolving as a result of geologic, biological, physical, and chemical processes.

5.4.6.B.b: Earth?s current structure has been influenced by both sporadic and gradual events. Changes caused by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions can be observed on a human time scale, but many geological processes, such as mountain building and the shifting of continents, are observed on a geologic time scale.

5.4.6.B.2: Examine Earth?s surface features and identify those created on a scale of human life or on a geologic time scale.

5.4.6.C: Earth?s composition is unique, is related to the origin of our solar system, and provides us with the raw resources needed to sustain life.

5.4.6.C.a: Soil attributes/properties affect the soil?s ability to support animal life and grow plants.

5.4.6.C.b: The rock cycle is a model of creation and transformation of rocks from one form (sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic) to another. Rock families are determined by the origin and transformations of the rock.

5.4.6.C.2: Distinguish physical properties of sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic rocks and explain how one kind of rock could eventually become a different kind of rock.

5.4.6.D: The theory of plate tectonics provides a framework for understanding the dynamic processes within and on Earth.

5.4.6.D.a: Lithospheric plates consisting of continents and ocean floors move in response to movements in the mantle.

5.4.6.D.1: Apply understanding of the motion of lithospheric plates to explain why the Pacific Rim is referred to as the Ring of Fire.

5.4.6.E: Internal and external sources of energy drive Earth systems.

5.4.6.E.1: Generate a conclusion about energy transfer and circulation by observing a model of convection currents.

5.4.6.F: Earth?s weather and climate systems are the result of complex interactions between land, ocean, ice, and atmosphere.

5.4.6.F.a: Weather is the result of short-term variations in temperature, humidity, and air pressure.

5.4.6.F.1: Explain the interrelationships between daily temperature, air pressure, and relative humidity data.

5.4.6.F.b: Climate is the result of long-term patterns of temperature and precipitation.

5.4.6.F.2: Create climatographs for various locations around Earth and categorize the climate based on the yearly patterns of temperature and precipitation.

5.4.6.G: The biogeochemical cycles in the Earth systems include the flow of microscopic and macroscopic resources from one reservoir in the hydrosphere, geosphere, atmosphere, or biosphere to another, are driven by Earth's internal and external sources of energy, and are impacted by human activity.

5.4.6.G.a: Circulation of water in marine environments is dependent on factors such as the composition of water masses and energy from the Sun or wind.

5.4.6.G.b: An ecosystem includes all of the plant and animal populations and nonliving resources in a given area. Organisms interact with each other and with other components of an ecosystem.

5.4.6.G.2: Create a model of ecosystems in two different locations, and compare and contrast the living and nonliving components.

5.4.6.G.c: Personal activities impact the local and global environment.

5.4.6.G.3: Describe ways that humans can improve the health of ecosystems around the world.

Correlation last revised: 5/18/2018

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