5.2.6: Physical science principles, including fundamental ideas about matter, energy, and motion, are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of phenomena in physical, living, and Earth systems science.

5.2.6.A: All objects and substances in the natural world are composed of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties: matter takes up space, and matter has inertia.

5.2.6.A.a: The volume of some objects can be determined using liquid (water) displacement.

 Determining Density via Water Displacement
 Measuring Volume

5.2.6.A.1: Determine the volume of common objects using water displacement methods.

 Determining Density via Water Displacement
 Measuring Volume

5.2.6.A.b: The density of an object can be determined from its volume and mass.

 Density
 Density Laboratory

5.2.6.A.2: Calculate the density of objects or substances after determining volume and mass.

 Density
 Density Laboratory

5.2.6.A.c: Pure substances have characteristic intrinsic properties, such as density, solubility, boiling point, and melting point, all of which are independent of the amount of the sample.

 Density
 Density Laboratory

5.2.6.A.3: Determine the identity of an unknown substance using data about intrinsic properties.

 Density
 Density Experiment: Slice and Dice
 Density Laboratory
 Mineral Identification

5.2.6.C: Knowing the characteristics of familiar forms of energy, including potential and kinetic energy, is useful in coming to the understanding that, for the most part, the natural world can be explained and is predictable.

5.2.6.C.a: Light travels in a straight line until it interacts with an object or material. Light can be absorbed, redirected, bounced back, or allowed to pass through. The path of reflected or refracted light can be predicted.

 Basic Prism
 Color Absorption
 Heat Absorption

5.2.6.C.b: Visible light from the Sun is made up of a mixture of all colors of light. To see an object, light emitted or reflected by that object must enter the eye.

 Herschel Experiment
 Radiation

5.2.6.C.2: Describe how to prisms can be used to demonstrate that visible light from the Sun is made up of different colors.

 Basic Prism
 Herschel Experiment

5.2.6.D: The conservation of energy can be demonstrated by keeping track of familiar forms of energy as they are transferred from one object to another.

5.2.6.D.a: The flow of current in an electric circuit depends upon the components of the circuit and their arrangement, such as in series or parallel. Electricity flowing through an electrical circuit produces magnetic effects in the wires.

 Circuit Builder
 Circuits

5.2.6.D.1: Use simple circuits involving batteries and motors to compare and predict the current flow with different circuit arrangements.

 Circuit Builder

5.2.6.E: It takes energy to change the motion of objects. The energy change is understood in terms of forces.

5.2.6.E.b: Magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces can act at a distance.

 Charge Launcher
 Free Fall Tower
 Free-Fall Laboratory

5.2.6.E.2: Describe the force between two magnets as the distance between them is changed.

 Magnetism

5.2.6.E.c: Friction is a force that acts to slow or stop the motion of objects.

 Free Fall Tower
 Free-Fall Laboratory
 Golf Range

5.2.6.E.d: Sinking and floating can be predicted using forces that depend on the relative densities of objects and materials.

 Density

5.2.6.E.4: Predict if an object will sink or float using evidence and reasoning.

 Density

5.3.6: Life science principles are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of the complexity, diversity, and interconnectedness of life on Earth. Order in natural systems arises in accordance with rules that govern the physical world, and the order of natural systems can be modeled and predicted through the use of mathematics.

5.3.6.A: Living organisms are composed of cellular units (structures) that carry out functions required for life. Cellular units are composed of molecules, which also carry out biological functions.

5.3.6.A.a: Systems of the human body are interrelated and regulate the body?s internal environment.

 Digestive System
 Homeostasis
 Human Homeostasis

5.3.6.A.1: Model the interdependence of the human body?s major systems in regulating its internal environment.

 Homeostasis
 Human Homeostasis

5.3.6.A.b: Essential functions of plant and animal cells are carried out by organelles.

 Cell Structure

5.3.6.A.2: Model and explain ways in which organelles work together to meet the cell?s needs.

 Cell Structure

5.3.6.B: Food is required for energy and building cellular materials. Organisms in an ecosystem have different ways of obtaining food, and some organisms obtain their food directly from other organisms.

5.3.6.B.a: Plants are producers: They use the energy from light to make food (sugar) from carbon dioxide and water. Plants are used as a source of food (energy) for other organisms.

 Food Chain
 Forest Ecosystem

5.3.6.B.1: Describe the sources of the reactants of photosynthesis and trace the pathway to the products.

 Cell Energy Cycle
 Photosynthesis Lab

5.3.6.B.b: All animals, including humans, are consumers that meet their energy needs by eating other organisms or their products.

 Food Chain
 Forest Ecosystem
 Prairie Ecosystem

5.3.6.B.2: Illustrate the flow of energy (food) through a community.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Food Chain
 Forest Ecosystem
 Prairie Ecosystem

5.3.6.C: All animals and most plants depend on both other organisms and their environment to meet their basic needs.

5.3.6.C.a: Various human activities have changed the capacity of the environment to support some life forms.

 Rabbit Population by Season

5.3.6.C.1: Explain the impact of meeting human needs and wants on local and global environments.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Pond Ecosystem

5.3.6.C.b: The number of organisms and populations an ecosystem can support depends on the biotic resources available and on abiotic factors, such as quantities of light and water, range of temperatures, and soil composition.

 Rabbit Population by Season

5.3.6.C.2: Predict the impact that altering biotic and abiotic factors has on an ecosystem.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Pond Ecosystem

5.3.6.C.3: Describe how one population of organisms may affect other plants and/or animals in an ecosystem.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Food Chain

5.3.6.D: Organisms reproduce, develop, and have predictable life cycles. Organisms contain genetic information that influences their traits, and they pass this on to their offspring during reproduction.

5.3.6.D.a: Reproduction is essential to the continuation of every species.

 Rainfall and Bird Beaks

5.3.6.D.c: Traits such as eye color in human beings or fruit/flower color in plants are inherited.

 Inheritance
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)

5.3.6.D.3: Distinguish between inherited and acquired traits/characteristics.

 Inheritance

5.3.6.E: Sometimes, differences between organisms of the same kind provide advantages for surviving and reproducing in different environments. These selective differences may lead to dramatic changes in characteristics of organisms in a population over extremely long periods of time.

5.3.6.E.a: Changes in environmental conditions can affect the survival of individual organisms and entire species.

 Natural Selection
 Rabbit Population by Season
 Rainfall and Bird Beaks

5.4.6: Earth operates as a set of complex, dynamic, and interconnected systems, and is a part of the all-encompassing system of the universe.

5.4.6.A: Our universe has been expanding and evolving for 13.7 billion years under the influence of gravitational and nuclear forces. As gravity governs its expansion, organizational patterns, and the movement of celestial bodies, nuclear forces within stars govern its evolution through the processes of stellar birth and death. These same processes governed the formation of our solar system 4.6 billion years ago.

5.4.6.A.a: The height of the path of the Sun in the sky and the length of a shadow change over the course of a year.

 Seasons Around the World
 Seasons in 3D
 Seasons: Earth, Moon, and Sun

5.4.6.A.1: Generate and analyze evidence (through simulations) that the Sun?s apparent motion across the sky changes over the course of a year.

 Seasons Around the World
 Seasons in 3D
 Seasons: Earth, Moon, and Sun

5.4.6.A.b: Earth?s position relative to the Sun, and the rotation of Earth on its axis, result in patterns and cycles that define time units of days and years.

 Comparing Earth and Venus
 Seasons: Earth, Moon, and Sun

5.4.6.A.2: Construct and evaluate models demonstrating the rotation of Earth on its axis and the orbit of Earth around the Sun.

 Comparing Earth and Venus
 Seasons: Earth, Moon, and Sun

5.4.6.A.c: The Sun?s gravity holds planets and other objects in the solar system in orbit, and planets? gravity holds moons in orbit.

 Gravity Pitch

5.4.6.A.3: Predict what would happen to an orbiting object if gravity were increased, decreased, or taken away.

 Gravity Pitch

5.4.6.A.d: The Sun is the central and most massive body in our solar system, which includes eight planets and their moons, dwarf planets, asteroids, and comets.

 Comparing Earth and Venus
 Solar System

5.4.6.A.4: Compare and contrast the major physical characteristics (including size and scale) of solar system objects using evidence in the form of data tables and photographs.

 Solar System

5.4.6.B: From the time that Earth formed from a nebula 4.6 billion years ago, it has been evolving as a result of geologic, biological, physical, and chemical processes.

5.4.6.B.b: Earth?s current structure has been influenced by both sporadic and gradual events. Changes caused by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions can be observed on a human time scale, but many geological processes, such as mountain building and the shifting of continents, are observed on a geologic time scale.

 Building Pangaea
 Earthquakes 1 - Recording Station
 Plate Tectonics
 Rock Cycle

5.4.6.B.2: Examine Earth?s surface features and identify those created on a scale of human life or on a geologic time scale.

 Rock Cycle

5.4.6.C: Earth?s composition is unique, is related to the origin of our solar system, and provides us with the raw resources needed to sustain life.

5.4.6.C.a: Soil attributes/properties affect the soil?s ability to support animal life and grow plants.

 Porosity

5.4.6.C.b: The rock cycle is a model of creation and transformation of rocks from one form (sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic) to another. Rock families are determined by the origin and transformations of the rock.

 Rock Cycle

5.4.6.C.2: Distinguish physical properties of sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic rocks and explain how one kind of rock could eventually become a different kind of rock.

 Rock Classification
 Rock Cycle

5.4.6.D: The theory of plate tectonics provides a framework for understanding the dynamic processes within and on Earth.

5.4.6.D.a: Lithospheric plates consisting of continents and ocean floors move in response to movements in the mantle.

 Plate Tectonics

5.4.6.D.1: Apply understanding of the motion of lithospheric plates to explain why the Pacific Rim is referred to as the Ring of Fire.

 Plate Tectonics

5.4.6.E: Internal and external sources of energy drive Earth systems.

5.4.6.E.1: Generate a conclusion about energy transfer and circulation by observing a model of convection currents.

 Coastal Winds and Clouds

5.4.6.F: Earth?s weather and climate systems are the result of complex interactions between land, ocean, ice, and atmosphere.

5.4.6.F.a: Weather is the result of short-term variations in temperature, humidity, and air pressure.

 Coastal Winds and Clouds

5.4.6.F.1: Explain the interrelationships between daily temperature, air pressure, and relative humidity data.

 Relative Humidity

5.4.6.F.b: Climate is the result of long-term patterns of temperature and precipitation.

 Coastal Winds and Clouds

5.4.6.F.2: Create climatographs for various locations around Earth and categorize the climate based on the yearly patterns of temperature and precipitation.

 Weather Maps

5.4.6.G: The biogeochemical cycles in the Earth systems include the flow of microscopic and macroscopic resources from one reservoir in the hydrosphere, geosphere, atmosphere, or biosphere to another, are driven by Earth's internal and external sources of energy, and are impacted by human activity.

5.4.6.G.a: Circulation of water in marine environments is dependent on factors such as the composition of water masses and energy from the Sun or wind.

 Pond Ecosystem

5.4.6.G.b: An ecosystem includes all of the plant and animal populations and nonliving resources in a given area. Organisms interact with each other and with other components of an ecosystem.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Food Chain
 Plants and Snails

5.4.6.G.2: Create a model of ecosystems in two different locations, and compare and contrast the living and nonliving components.

 Pond Ecosystem

5.4.6.G.c: Personal activities impact the local and global environment.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Coral Reefs 2 - Biotic Factors
 Pond Ecosystem

5.4.6.G.3: Describe ways that humans can improve the health of ecosystems around the world.

 Pond Ecosystem

Correlation last revised: 1/20/2017

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