5.2.4: Physical science principles, including fundamental ideas about matter, energy, and motion, are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of phenomena in physical, living, and Earth systems science.

5.2.4.A: All objects and substances in the natural world are composed of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties: matter takes up space, and matter has inertia.

5.2.4.A.b: Each state of matter has unique properties (e.g., gases can be compressed, while solids and liquids cannot; the shape of a solid is independent of its container; liquids and gases take the shape of their containers).

 Phases of Water

5.2.4.A.c: Objects and substances have properties, such as weight and volume, that can be measured using appropriate tools. Unknown substances can sometimes be identified by their properties.

 Weight and Mass

5.2.4.A.3: Determine the weight and volume of common objects using appropriate tools.

 Weight and Mass

5.2.4.A.d: Objects vary in the extent to which they absorb and reflect light and conduct heat (thermal energy) and electricity.

 Circuit Builder
 Color Absorption
 Conduction and Convection
 Heat Absorption

5.2.4.A.4: Categorize objects based on the ability to absorb or reflect light and conduct heat or electricity.

 Circuit Builder
 Conduction and Convection
 Heat Absorption

5.2.4.B: Substances can undergo physical or chemical changes to form new substances. Each change involves energy.

5.2.4.B.a: Many substances can be changed from one state to another by heating or cooling.

 Phases of Water

5.2.4.B.1: Predict and explain what happens when a common substance, such as shortening or candle wax, is heated to melting and then cooled to a solid.

 Phases of Water

5.2.4.C: Knowing the characteristics of familiar forms of energy, including potential and kinetic energy, is useful in coming to the understanding that, for the most part, the natural world can be explained and is predictable.

5.2.4.C.a: Heat (thermal energy), electricity, light, and sound are forms of energy.

 Energy Conversions

5.2.4.C.1: Compare various forms of energy as observed in everyday life and describe their applications.

 Energy Conversions

5.2.4.C.b: Heat (thermal energy) results when substances burn, when certain kinds of materials rub against each other, and when electricity flows though wires. Metals are good conductors of heat (thermal energy) and electricity. Increasing the temperature of any substance requires the addition of energy.

 Circuit Builder
 Conduction and Convection

5.2.4.C.c: Energy can be transferred from one place to another. Heat energy is transferred from warmer things to colder things.

 Conduction and Convection
 Heat Absorption
 Radiation

5.2.4.C.d: Light travels in straight lines. When light travels from one substance to another (air and water), it changes direction.

 Basic Prism

5.2.4.D: The conservation of energy can be demonstrated by keeping track of familiar forms of energy as they are transferred from one object to another.

5.2.4.D.a: Electrical circuits require a complete loop through conducting materials in which an electrical current can pass.

 Circuit Builder

5.2.4.D.1: Repair an electric circuit by completing a closed loop that includes wires, a battery (or batteries), and at least one other electrical component to produce observable change.

 Circuit Builder

5.2.4.E: It takes energy to change the motion of objects. The energy change is understood in terms of forces.

5.2.4.E.a: Motion can be described as a change in position over a period of time.

 Free Fall Tower

5.2.4.E.c: Magnets can repel or attract other magnets, but they attract all matter made of iron. Magnets can make some things move without being touched.

 Magnetism

5.2.4.E.3: Investigate and categorize materials based on their interaction with magnets.

 Magnetism

5.2.4.E.d: Earth pulls down on all objects with a force called gravity. Weight is a measure of how strongly an object is pulled down toward the ground by gravity. With a few exceptions, objects fall to the ground no matter where they are on Earth.

 Free Fall Tower
 Golf Range
 Gravitational Force
 Pith Ball Lab
 Shoot the Monkey
 Weight and Mass

5.2.4.E.4: Investigate, construct, and generalize rules for the effect that force of gravity has on balls of different sizes and weights.

 Weight and Mass

5.3.4: Life science principles are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of the complexity, diversity, and interconnectedness of life on Earth. Order in natural systems arises in accordance with rules that govern the physical world, and the order of natural systems can be modeled and predicted through the use of mathematics.

5.3.4.A: Living organisms are composed of cellular units (structures) that carry out functions required for life. Cellular units are composed of molecules, which also carry out biological functions.

5.3.4.A.a: Living organisms: Interact with and cause changes in their environment. Exchange materials (such as gases, nutrients, water, and waste) with the environment. Reproduce. Grow and develop in a predictable manner.

 Flower Pollination

5.3.4.A.1: Develop and use evidence-based criteria to determine if an unfamiliar object is living or nonliving.

 Pond Ecosystem

5.3.4.A.c: Essential functions of the human body are carried out by specialized systems: Digestive, Circulatory, Respiratory, Nervous, Skeletal, Muscular, Reproductive.

 Circulatory System

5.3.4.B: Food is required for energy and building cellular materials. Organisms in an ecosystem have different ways of obtaining food, and some organisms obtain their food directly from other organisms.

5.3.4.B.a: Almost all energy (food) and matter can be traced to the Sun.

 Energy Conversions

5.3.4.B.1: Identify sources of energy (food) in a variety of settings (farm, zoo, ocean, forest).

 Forest Ecosystem

5.3.4.C: All animals and most plants depend on both other organisms and their environment to meet their basic needs.

5.3.4.C.1: Predict the biotic and abiotic characteristics of an unfamiliar organism?s habitat.

 Pond Ecosystem

5.3.4.D: Organisms reproduce, develop, and have predictable life cycles. Organisms contain genetic information that influences their traits, and they pass this on to their offspring during reproduction.

5.3.4.D.a: Plants and animals have life cycles (they begin life, develop into adults, reproduce, and eventually die). The characteristics of each stage of life vary by species.

 Flower Pollination

5.4.4: Earth operates as a set of complex, dynamic, and interconnected systems, and is a part of the all-encompassing system of the universe.

5.4.4.A: Our universe has been expanding and evolving for 13.7 billion years under the influence of gravitational and nuclear forces. As gravity governs its expansion, organizational patterns, and the movement of celestial bodies, nuclear forces within stars govern its evolution through the processes of stellar birth and death. These same processes governed the formation of our solar system 4.6 billion years ago.

5.4.4.A.a: Objects in the sky have patterns of movement. The Sun and Moon appear to move across the sky on a daily basis. The shadows of an object on Earth change over the course of a day, indicating the changing position of the Sun during the day.

 Phases of the Moon
 Seasons: Earth, Moon, and Sun

5.4.4.A.1: Formulate a general description of the daily motion of the Sun across the sky based on shadow observations. Explain how shadows could be used to tell the time of day.

 Seasons: Earth, Moon, and Sun

5.4.4.A.b: The observable shape of the Moon changes from day to day in a cycle that lasts 29.5 days.

 Phases of the Moon

5.4.4.A.2: Identify patterns of the Moon?s appearance and make predictions about its future appearance based observational data.

 Phases of the Moon

5.4.4.A.d: Earth is the third planet from the Sun in our solar system, which includes seven other planets.

 Solar System

5.4.4.C: Earth?s composition is unique, is related to the origin of our solar system, and provides us with the raw resources needed to sustain life.

5.4.4.C.b: Earth materials in nature include rocks, minerals, soils, water, and the gases of the atmosphere. Attributes of rocks and minerals assist in their identification.

 Mineral Identification

5.4.4.C.2: Categorize unknown samples as either rocks or minerals.

 Mineral Identification

5.4.4.E: Internal and external sources of energy drive Earth systems.

5.4.4.E.a: Land, air, and water absorb the Sun?s energy at different rates.

 Heat Absorption

5.4.4.G: The biogeochemical cycles in the Earth systems include the flow of microscopic and macroscopic resources from one reservoir in the hydrosphere, geosphere, atmosphere, or biosphere to another, are driven by Earth's internal and external sources of energy, and are impacted by human activity.

5.4.4.G.c: Most of Earth?s surface is covered by water. Water circulates through the crust, oceans, and atmosphere in what is known as the water cycle.

 Water Cycle

5.4.4.G.3: Trace a path a drop of water might follow through the water cycle.

 Water Cycle

5.4.4.G.4: Model how the properties of water can change as water moves through the water cycle.

 Water Cycle

Correlation last revised: 5/18/2018

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