### B: Kinematics

#### B.1: analyse technologies that apply concepts related to kinematics, and assess the technologies? social and environmental impact;

B.1.1: analyse, on the basis of research, a technology that applies concepts related to kinematics (e.g., devices used to measure speed in sports; rocket accelerators; motion-detecting sensors for security systems; speedometers in automobiles)

#### B.2: investigate, in qualitative and quantitative terms, uniform and non-uniform linear motion, and solve related problems;

B.2.1: use appropriate terminology related to kinematics, including, but not limited to: time, distance, position, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration

B.2.2: analyse and interpret position?time, velocity? time, and acceleration?time graphs of motion in one dimension (e.g., use tangent slopes to create velocity?time graphs from position?time graphs and acceleration?time graphs from velocity?time graphs; use the area under the curve to create position?time graphs from velocity?time graphs and velocity?time graphs from acceleration?time graphs)

B.2.3: use a velocity?time graph for constant acceleration to derive the equation for average velocity [e.g., vav = (v1 + v2)/2] and the equations for displacement [e.g., "Delta"d = ((v1 + v2)/2) "Delta"t, "Delta"d = v1"Delta"t + ½a ("Delta"t2)], and solve simple problems in one dimension using these equations

B.2.4: conduct an inquiry into the uniform and non-uniform linear motion of an object (e.g., use probeware to record the motion of a cart moving at a constant velocity or a constant acceleration; view a computer simulation of an object attaining terminal velocity; observe a video of a bouncing ball or a skydiver; observe the motion of a balloon with a small mass suspended from it)

B.2.6: plan and conduct an inquiry into the motion of objects in one dimension, using vector diagrams and uniform acceleration equations

B.2.7: solve problems involving uniform and non-uniform linear motion in one and two dimensions, using graphical analysis and algebraic equations

B.2.8: use kinematic equations to solve problems related to the horizontal and vertical components of the motion of a projectile (e.g., a cannon ball shot horizontally off a cliff, a ball rolling off a table, a golf ball launched at a 45º angle to the horizontal)

B.2.9: conduct an inquiry into the projectile motion of an object, and analyse, in qualitative and quantitative terms, the relationship between the horizontal and vertical components (e.g., airborne time, range, maximum height, horizontal velocity, vertical velocity)

#### B.3: demonstrate an understanding of uniform and non-uniform linear motion, in one and two dimensions.

B.3.1: distinguish between the terms constant, instantaneous, and average with reference to speed, velocity, and acceleration, and provide examples to illustrate each term

B.3.2: distinguish between, and provide examples of, scalar and vector quantities as they relate to the description of uniform and non-uniform linear motion (e.g., time, distance, position, velocity, acceleration)

B.3.3: describe the characteristics and give examples of a projectile?s motion in vertical and horizontal planes

### C: Forces

#### C.2: investigate, in qualitative and quantitative terms, net force, acceleration, and mass, and solve related problems;

C.2.1: use appropriate terminology related to forces, including, but not limited to: mass, time, speed, velocity, acceleration, friction, gravity, normal force, and free-body diagrams

C.2.2: conduct an inquiry that applies Newton?s laws to analyse, in qualitative and quantitative terms, the forces acting on an object, and use free-body diagrams to determine the net force and the acceleration of the object

C.2.3: conduct an inquiry into the relationship between the acceleration of an object and its net force and mass (e.g., view a computer simulation of an object attaining terminal velocity; observe the motion of an object subject to friction; use electronic probes to observe the motion of an object being pulled across the floor), and analyse the resulting data

C.2.4: analyse the relationships between acceleration and applied forces such as the force of gravity, normal force, force of friction, coefficient of static friction, and coefficient of kinetic friction, and solve related problems involving forces in one dimension, using free-body diagrams and algebraic equations (e.g., use a drag sled to find the coefficient of friction between two surfaces)

C.2.5: plan and conduct an inquiry to analyse the effect of forces acting on objects in one dimension, using vector diagrams, free-body diagrams, and Newton?s laws

C.2.6: analyse and solve problems involving the relationship between the force of gravity and acceleration for objects in free fall

#### C.3: demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between changes in velocity and unbalanced forces in one dimension.

C.3.1: distinguish between, and provide examples of, different forces (e.g., friction, gravity, normal force), and describe the effect of each type of force on the velocity of an object

C.3.3: state Newton?s laws, and apply them, in qualitative terms, to explain the effect of forces acting on objects

C.3.4: describe, in qualitative and quantitative terms, the relationships between mass, gravitational field strength, and force of gravity

### D: Energy and Society

#### D.2: investigate energy transformations and the law of conservation of energy, and solve related problems;

D.2.1: use appropriate terminology related to energy transformations, including, but not limited to: mechanical energy, gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, work, power, fission, fusion, heat, heat capacity, temperature, and latent heat

D.2.2: solve problems relating to work, force, and displacement along the line of force

D.2.3: use the law of conservation of energy to solve problems in simple situations involving work, gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, and thermal energy and its transfer (heat)

D.2.4: plan and conduct inquiries involving transformations between gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy (e.g., using a pendulum, a falling ball, an object rolling down a ramp) to test the law of conservation of energy

D.2.7: compare and contrast the input energy, useful output energy, and per cent efficiency of selected energy generation methods (e.g., hydroelectric, thermal, geothermal, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, wind, solar)

D.2.9: conduct an inquiry to determine the specific heat capacity of a single substance (e.g., aluminum, iron, brass) and of two substances when they are mixed together (e.g., the heat lost by a sample of hot water and the heat gained by a sample of cold water when the two samples are mixed together)

D.2.10: solve problems involving changes in temperature and changes of state, using algebraic equations (e.g., Q = mc"Delta"T, Q = mLf, Q = mLv)

D.2.11: draw and analyse heating and cooling curves that show temperature changes and changes of state for various substances

#### D.3: demonstrate an understanding of work, efficiency, power, gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, nuclear energy, and thermal energy and its transfer (heat).

D.3.1: describe a variety of energy transfers and transformations, and explain them using the law of conservation of energy

D.3.2: explain the concepts of and interrelationships between energy, work, and power, and identify and describe their related units

D.3.3: explain the following concepts, giving examples of each, and identify their related units: thermal energy, kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, heat, specific heat capacity, specific latent heat, power, and efficiency

D.3.4: identify, qualitatively, the relationship between efficiency and thermal energy transfer

D.3.5: describe, with reference to force and displacement along the line of force, the conditions that are required for work to be done

D.3.7: explain, using the kinetic molecular theory, the energy transfer that occurs during changes of state

D.3.10: compare the characteristics of (e.g., mass, charge, speed, penetrating power, ionizing ability) and safety precautions related to alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays

D.3.11: explain radioactive half-life for a given radioisotope, and describe its applications and their consequences

### E: Waves and Sound

#### E.2: investigate, in qualitative and quantitative terms, the properties of mechanical waves and sound, and solve related problems;

E.2.1: use appropriate terminology related to mechanical waves and sound, including, but not limited to: longitudinal wave, transverse wave, frequency, period, cycle, amplitude, phase, wavelength, velocity, superposition, constructive interference, destructive interference, standing waves, and resonance

E.2.2: conduct laboratory inquiries or computer simulations involving mechanical waves and their interference (e.g., using a mass oscillating on a spring, a mass oscillating on a pendulum, the oscillation in a string instrument)

E.2.3: plan and conduct inquiries to determine the speed of waves in a medium (e.g., a vibrating air column, an oscillating string of a musical instrument), compare theoretical and empirical values, and account for discrepancies

E.2.4: investigate the relationship between the wavelength, frequency, and speed of a wave, and solve related problems

E.2.5: analyse the relationship between a moving source of sound and the change in frequency perceived by a stationary observer (i.e., the Doppler effect)

#### E.3: demonstrate an understanding of the properties of mechanical waves and sound and of the principles underlying their production, transmission, interaction, and reception.

E.3.1: distinguish between longitudinal and transverse waves in different media, and provide examples of both types of waves

E.3.3: explain and graphically illustrate the principle of superposition with respect to standing waves and beat frequencies

E.3.4: identify the properties of standing waves, and, for both mechanical and sound waves, explain the conditions required for standing waves to occur

E.3.6: explain selected natural phenomena (e.g., echo location, or organisms that produce or receive infrasonic, audible, or ultrasonic sound) with reference to the characteristics and properties of waves

### F: Electricity and Magnetism

#### F.2: investigate, in qualitative and quantitative terms, magnetic fields and electric circuits, and solve related problems;

F.2.1: use appropriate terminology related to electricity and magnetism, including, but not limited to: direct current, alternating current, conventional current, electron flow, electrical potential difference, electrical resistance, power, energy, step-up transformer, and step-down transformer

F.2.2: analyse diagrams of series, parallel, and mixed circuits with reference to Ohm?s law (V = IR) and Kirchhoff?s laws

F.2.5: investigate, through laboratory inquiry or computer simulation, the magnetic fields produced by an electric current flowing through a long straight conductor and a solenoid (e.g., use sensors to map the magnetic field around a solenoid)

F.2.7: investigate electromagnetic induction, and, using Lenz?s law, the law of conservation of energy, and the right-hand rule, explain and illustrate the direction of the electric current induced by a changing magnetic field

#### F.3: demonstrate an understanding of the properties of magnetic fields, the principles of current and electron flow, and the operation of selected technologies that use these properties and principles to produce and transmit electrical energy.

F.3.2: explain, by applying the right-hand rule, the direction of the magnetic field produced when electric current flows through a long straight conductor and through a solenoid

F.3.4: explain Ohm?s law, Kirchhoff?s laws, Oersted?s principle, the motor principle, Faraday?s law, and Lenz?s law in relation to electricity and magnetism

F.3.5: describe the production and interaction of magnetic fields, using diagrams and the principles of electromagnetism (e.g., Oersted?s principle, the motor principle, Faraday?s law, Lenz?s law)

F.3.6: explain the operation of an electric motor and a generator, including the roles of their respective components

F.3.9: describe and explain safety precautions (e.g., ?call before you dig?, current-limiting outlets in bathrooms) related to electrical circuits and higher transmission voltages (e.g., with reference to transformer substations, buried cables, overhead power lines)

Correlation last revised: 8/18/2015

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this province's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.