B.1.1: Cells are enclosed within semi-permeable membranes that regulate their interaction with their surroundings.
B.1.3: Prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells (including those from plants and animals), and viruses differ in complexity and general structure.
B.1.4: The central dogma of molecular biology outlines the flow of information from transcription of ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the nucleus to translation of proteins on ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
B.1.6: Usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide.
B.1.7: The role of the mitochondria is making stored chemical-bond energy available to cells by completing the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide.
B.2.3: Random chromosome segregation explains the probability that a particular allele will be in a gamete.
B.2.6: Genes on specific chromosomes determine an individual’s sex.
B.2.7: Possible combinations of alleles in a zygote can be predicted from the genetic makeup of the parents.
B.3.1: The probable outcome of phenotypes in a genetic cross can be predicted from the genotypes of the parents and mode of inheritance (autosomal or X-linked, dominant or recessive).
B.3.2: Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment are the basis of genetics.
B.3.3: The probable mode of inheritance can be predicted from a pedigree diagram showing phenotypes.
B.4.1: Ribosomes synthesize proteins, using tRNAs to translate genetic information in the mRNA.
B.4.2: The sequence of amino acids in a protein can be predicted from the sequence of codons in the RNA, by applying universal genetic coding rules.
B.4.3: Mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may or may not affect the expression of the gene or the sequence of amino acids in an encoded protein.
B.4.4: Specialization of cells in multi-cellular organisms is usually due to different patterns of gene expression rather than to differences of the genes themselves.
B.5.1: The precise copying of DNA during semi-conservative replication and transcription of information from DNA into mRNA is based on base-pairing rules.
B.6.2: Changes in an ecosystem resulting from changes in climate, human activity, introduction of nonnative species, or changes in population size.
B.6.4: Water, carbon, and nitrogen cycle between abiotic resources and organic matter in the ecosystem and oxygen cycles through photosynthesis and respiration.
B.6.5: A vital part of an ecosystem is the stability of its producers and decomposers.
B.6.7: The accommodation of an individual organism to its environment is different from the gradual adaptation of a lineage of organisms through genetic change.
B.7.1: Natural selection acts on the phenotype rather than the genotype of an organism.
B.7.2: Alleles that are lethal in a homozygous individual may be carried in a heterozygote and thus maintained in a gene pool.
B.7.3: New mutations are constantly being generated in a gene pool.
B.7.4: Variation within a species increases the likelihood that at least some members of a species will survive under changed environmental conditions.
B.8.1: Natural selection determines the differential survival of groups of organisms.
B.8.2: A great diversity of species increases the chance that at least some organisms survive major changes in the environment.
B.8.3: Genetic drift affects the diversity of organisms in a population.
B.8.5: Fossil evidence contributes to our understanding of biological diversity, episodic speciation, and mass extinction.
B.8.6: Several independent molecular clocks, calibrated against each other and combined with evidence from the fossil record, can help to estimate how long ago various groups of organisms diverged evolutionarily from one another.
B.9.1: The complementary activity of major body systems provides cells with oxygen and nutrients and removes toxic waste products such as carbon dioxide.
B.9.9: Actin, myosin, Caƒy2, and ATP have a role in the cellular and molecular basis of muscle contraction.
B.9.10: Hormones (including digestive, reproductive, osmo-regulatory) provide internal feedback mechanisms for homeostasis at the cellular level and in whole organisms.
B.10.4: There are important differences between bacteria and viruses with respect to their requirements for growth and replication, the body’s primary defenses against bacterial and viral infections, and effective treatments of these infections.
E.1.1: The differences and similarities among the sun, the terrestrial planets, and the gas planets may have been established during the formation of the solar system.
E.1.6: The solar system is located in an outer edge of the disc-shaped Milky Way galaxy, which spans 100,000 light years.
E.1.8: Evidence indicating that all elements with an atomic number greater than that of lithium have been formed by nuclear fusion in stars.
E.2.1: Features of the ocean floor, as well as the shape and rock composition of the major plates provide evidence of plate tectonics.
E.2.2: Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes are the result of movement of matter and energy within the Earth.
E.2.3: The properties of rocks and minerals can be explained based on the physical and chemical conditions in which they were formed, including plate tectonic processes.
E.3.2: Some of the solar radiation is reflected back into the atmosphere, some is absorbed by matter and photosynthetic processes.
E.3.4: The greenhouse effect may cause climatic changes.
E.4.4: The interaction of wind patterns, ocean currents, and the distribution of land masses result in a global pattern of latitudinal bands of rain forests and deserts.
E.5.1: Weather and climate involve the transfer of energy into and out of the atmosphere.
E.5.2: Latitude, elevation, topography, and proximity to large bodies of water and cold or warm ocean currents affect the climate.
E.5.3: Earth's climate has changed over time, corresponding to changes in Earth's geography, atmospheric composition, and other factors, such as solar radiation and plate movement.
E.6.1: The movement of matter among reservoirs is driven by Earth's internal and external sources of energy.
E.6.2: Carbon cycles through the reservoirs of the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere.
C.1.1: The nucleus of the atom is much smaller than the atom yet contains most of its mass.
C.1.2: The quantum model of the atom is based on experiments and analyses by many scientists, including Dalton, Thomson, Bohr, Rutherford, Millikan, and Einstein.
C.1.3: The position of an element in the periodic table is related to its atomic number.
C.1.4: The periodic table can be used to identify metals, semimetals, non-metals, and halogens.
C.1.5: The periodic table can be used to identify trends in ionization energy, electronegativity, the relative sizes of ions and atoms and the number of electrons available for bonding.
C.1.6: The electronic configuration of elements and their reactivity can be identified based on their position in the periodic table.
C.2.2: Chemical bonds between atoms in molecules such as H2, CH4, NH3, H2CCH2, N2, Cl2, and many large biological molecules are covalent.
C.2.5: Lewis dot structures can provide models of atoms and molecules.
C.2.8: Solids and liquids held together by van der Waals forces or hydrogen bonds that affect their volatility and boiling/melting point temperatures.
C.3.1: Chemical reactions can be described by writing balanced equations.
C.3.2: The quantity one mole is set by defining one mole of carbon-12 atoms to have a mass of exactly 12 grams.
C.3.3: One mole equals 6.02.x 1023 particles (atoms or molecules).
C.3.4: The molar mass of a molecule can be determined from its chemical formula and a table of atomic masses
C.3.5: The mass of a molecular substance can be converted to moles, number of particles, or volume of gas at standard temperature and pressure.
C.4.1: The rate of reaction is the decrease in concentration of reactants or the increase in concentration of products with time.
C.4.2: Reaction rates depend on such factors as concentration, temperature and pressure.
C.4.4: Catalyst plays a role in increasing the reaction rate by changing the activation energy in a chemical reaction.
P.1.1: When forces are balanced, no acceleration occurs; thus an object continues to move at a constant speed or stays at rest.
P.1.2: The law F = ma is used to solve motion problems that involve constant forces.
P.1.3: When one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object always exerts a force of equal magnitude and in the opposite direction.
P.1.4: Applying a force to an object perpendicular to the direction of its motion causes the object to change direction.
P.1.5: Circular motion requires the application of a constant force directed toward the center of the circle.
P.1.6: Newton's laws are not exact but provide very good approximations unless an object is small enough that quantum effects become important.
P.2.1: Kinetic energy can be calculated by using the formula E = (1/2)mv2.
P.2.2: Changes in gravitational potential energy near Earth can be calculated by using the formula (change in potential energy) = mgh.
P.2.3: Momentum is calculated as the product mv.
P.2.4: Momentum is a separately conserved quantity different from energy.
P.2.5: An unbalanced force on an object produces a change in its momentum.
P.2.6: The principles of conservation of momentum and energy can be used to solve problems involving elastic and inelastic collisions.
P.3.1: Heat flow and work are two forms of energy transfer between systems.
P.3.2: The work done by a heat engine that is working in a cycle is the difference between the heat flow into the engine at high temperature and the heat flow out at a lower temperature.
P.3.3: The internal energy of an object includes the energy of random motion of the object's atoms and molecules. The greater the temperature of the object, the greater the energy of motion of the atoms and molecules that make up the object.
P.4.1: Waves carry energy from one place to another.
P.4.2: Transverse and longitudinal waves exist in mechanical media, such as springs and ropes, and in the earth as seismic waves.
P.4.3: Wavelength, frequency, and wave speed are related.
P.4.4: Sound is a longitudinal wave whose speed depends on the properties of the medium in which it propagates.
P.4.6: Waves have characteristic behaviors such as interference, diffraction, refraction and polarization.
P.4.7: Beats and the Doppler Effect result from the characteristic behavior of waves.
P.5.1: The voltage or current in simple direct current (DC) electric circuits constructed from batteries, wires, resistors, and capacitors can be predicted using Ohm's law.
P.5.2: Any resistive element in a DC circuit dissipates energy, which heats the resistor.
P.5.7: Plasmas, the fourth state of matter, contain ions or free electrons or both and conduct electricity.
Correlation last revised: 12/1/2009