Ontario Curriculum

A.2.1: determine, through investigation with technology (e.g., graphing calculator, spreadsheet) and without technology, key features (i.e., vertical and horizontal asymptotes, domain and range, intercepts, increasing/decreasing behaviour) of the graphs of logarithmic functions of the form f(x) = log base b of x, and make connections between the algebraic and graphical representations of these logarithmic functions

Logarithmic Functions - Activity A

Logarithmic Functions: Translating and Scaling

A.2.2: recognize the relationship between an exponential function and the corresponding logarithmic function to be that of a function and its inverse, deduce that the graph of a logarithmic function is the reflection of the graph of the corresponding exponential function in the line y = x, and verify the deduction using technology

Exponential Functions - Activity A

Exponential Growth and Decay - Activity B

Logarithmic Functions - Activity A

Logarithmic Functions: Translating and Scaling

A.2.3: determine, through investigation using technology, the roles of the parameters d and c in functions of the form y = log base 10 of (x - d) + c and the roles of the parameters a and k in functions of the form y = alog base 10 of (kx), and describe these roles in terms of transformations on the graph of f(x) = log base 10 of x (i.e., vertical and horizontal translations; reflections in the axes; vertical and horizontal stretches and compressions to and from the x- and y-axes)

Logarithmic Functions - Activity A

Logarithmic Functions: Translating and Scaling

Translating and Scaling Functions

Translating and Scaling Sine and Cosine Functions - Activity A

A.2.4: pose problems based on real-world applications of exponential and logarithmic functions (e.g., exponential growth and decay, the Richter scale, the pH scale, the decibel scale), and solve these and other such problems by using a given graph or a graph generated with technology from a table of values or from its equation

Exponential Functions - Activity A

Exponential Growth and Decay - Activity B

Half-life

Logarithmic Functions - Activity A

Logarithmic Functions: Translating and Scaling

B.1.1: recognize the radian as an alternative unit to the degree for angle measurement, define the radian measure of an angle as the length of the arc that subtends this angle at the centre of a unit circle, and develop and apply the relationship between radian and degree measure

Cosine Function

Sine Function

Tangent Function

Unit Circle

B.1.3: determine, with technology, the primary trigonometric ratios (i.e., sine, cosine, tangent) and the reciprocal trigonometric ratios (i.e., cosecant, secant, cotangent) of angles expressed in radian measure

Sine and Cosine Ratios - Activity A

Sine, Cosine and Tangent

Tangent Ratio

B.1.4: determine, without technology, the exact values of the primary trigonometric ratios and the reciprocal trigonometric ratios for the special angles 0, pi/6, pi/4, pi/3, pi/2, and their multiples less than or equal to 2pi

Sine and Cosine Ratios - Activity A

Sine, Cosine and Tangent

Tangent Ratio

B.2.1: sketch the graphs of f(x) = sin x and f(x) = cos x for angle measures expressed in radians, and determine and describe some key properties (e.g., period of 2pi, amplitude of 1) in terms of radians

Cosine Function

Sine Function

Tangent Function

Translating and Scaling Functions

Translating and Scaling Sine and Cosine Functions - Activity A

Unit Circle

B.2.2: make connections between the tangent ratio and the tangent function by using technology to graph the relationship between angles in radians and their tangent ratios and defining this relationship as the function f(x) = tan x, and describe key properties of the tangent function

Sine, Cosine and Tangent

Tangent Ratio

B.2.3: graph, with technology and using the primary trigonometric functions, the reciprocal trigonometric functions (i.e., cosecant, secant, cotangent) for angle measures expressed in radians, determine and describe key properties of the reciprocal functions (e.g., state the domain, range, and period, and identify and explain the occurrence of asymptotes), and recognize notations used to represent the reciprocal functions [e.g., the reciprocal of f(x) = sin x can be represented using csc x, 1/f(x), or 1/sin x, but not using f to the -1 power (x) or sin to the -1 one power times x, which represent the inverse function]

Cosine Function

Sine Function

Tangent Function

B.2.4: determine the amplitude, period, and phase shift of sinusoidal functions whose equations are given in the form f(x) = a sin (k(x - d)) + c or f(x) = a cos(k(x - d)) + c, with angles expressed in radians

Cosine Function

Sine Function

Tangent Function

Translating and Scaling Functions

Translating and Scaling Sine and Cosine Functions - Activity A

B.2.5: sketch graphs of y = a sin (k(x - d)) + c and y = a cos(k(x - d)) + c by applying transformations to the graphs of f(x) = sin x and f(x) = cos x with angles expressed in radians, and state the period, amplitude, and phase shift of the transformed functions

Translating and Scaling Functions

Translating and Scaling Sine and Cosine Functions - Activity A

B.2.6: represent a sinusoidal function with an equation, given its graph or its properties, with angles expressed in radians

Cosine Function

Exponential Functions - Activity A

Sine Function

Tangent Function

Translating and Scaling Sine and Cosine Functions - Activity A

Unit Circle

B.2.7: pose problems based on applications involving a trigonometric function with domain expressed in radians (e.g., seasonal changes in temperature, heights of tides, hours of daylight, displacements for oscillating springs), and solve these and other such problems by using a given graph or a graph generated with or without technology from a table of values or from its equation

Cosine Function

Sine Function

Tangent Function

Unit Circle

B.3.1: recognize equivalent trigonometric expressions [e.g., by using the angles in a right triangle to recognize that sin x and cos (pi/2 - x) are equivalent; by using transformations to recognize that cos (x + pi/2) and -sin x are equivalent], and verify equivalence using graphing technology

Sine and Cosine Ratios - Activity A

Translating and Scaling Functions

Translating and Scaling Sine and Cosine Functions - Activity A

B.3.2: explore the algebraic development of the compound angle formulas (e.g., verify the formulas in numerical examples, using technology; follow a demonstration of the algebraic development [student reproduction of the development of the general case is not required]), and use the formulas to determine exact values of trigonometric ratios [e.g., determining the exact value of sin (pi/12) by first rewriting it in terms of special angles as sin (pi/4 - pi/6)]

Simplifying Trigonometric Expressions

Sum and Difference Identities for Sine and Cosine

B.3.3: recognize that trigonometric identities are equations that are true for every value in the domain (i.e., a counter-example can be used to show that an equation is not an identity), prove trigonometric identities through the application of reasoning skills, using a variety of relationships (e.g., tan x = sin x / cos x; sin²x + cos²x = 1; the reciprocal identities; the compound angle formulas), and verify identities using technology

Simplifying Trigonometric Expressions

C.1.1: recognize a polynomial expression (i.e., a series of terms where each term is the product of a constant and a power of x with a nonnegative integral exponent, such as x³ - 5x² + 2x - 1); recognize the equation of a polynomial function, give reasons why it is a function, and identify linear and quadratic functions as examples of polynomial functions

Cubic Function Activity

Fourth-Degree Polynomials - Activity A

Quadratic and Absolute Value Functions

Quadratics in Factored Form

Quadratics in Polynomial Form - Activity A

Roots of a Quadratic

C.1.2: compare, through investigation using graphing technology, the numeric, graphical, and algebraic representations of polynomial (i.e., linear, quadratic, cubic, quartic) functions (e.g., compare finite differences in tables of values; investigate the effect of the degree of a polynomial function on the shape of its graph and the maximum number of x-intercepts; investigate the effect of varying the sign of the leading coefficient on the end behaviour of the function for very large positive or negative x-values)

Cubic Function Activity

Fourth-Degree Polynomials - Activity A

Polynomials and Linear Factors

Quadratic and Absolute Value Functions

Quadratics in Factored Form

Quadratics in Polynomial Form - Activity A

Roots of a Quadratic

C.1.3: describe key features of the graphs of polynomial functions (e.g., the domain and range, the shape of the graphs, the end behaviour of the functions for very large positive or negative x-values)

Cubic Function Activity

Fourth-Degree Polynomials - Activity A

Quadratics in Factored Form

Quadratics in Polynomial Form - Activity A

C.1.4: distinguish polynomial functions from sinusoidal and exponential functions [e.g., f(x) = sin x, g(x) = 2 to the x power], and compare and contrast the graphs of various polynomial functions with the graphs of other types of functions

Cosine Function

Exponential Functions - Activity A

Sine Function

Tangent Function

Translating and Scaling Sine and Cosine Functions - Activity A

C.1.5: make connections, through investigation using graphing technology (e.g., dynamic geometry software), between a polynomial function given in factored form [e.g., f(x) = 2(x - 3)(x + 2)(x - 1)] and the x-intercepts of its graph, and sketch the graph of a polynomial function given in factored form using its key features (e.g., by determining intercepts and end behaviour; by locating positive and negative regions using test values between and on either side of the x-intercepts)

Polynomials and Linear Factors

C.1.6: determine, through investigation using technology, the roles of the parameters a, k, d, and c in functions of the form y = af (k(x - d)) + c, and describe these roles in terms of transformations on the graphs of f(x) = x³ and f(x) = x to the 4th power (i.e., vertical and horizontal translations; reflections in the axes; vertical and horizontal stretches and compressions to and from the x- and y-axes)

Reflections of a Quadratic Function

Translating and Scaling Functions

Translating and Scaling Sine and Cosine Functions - Activity A

C.1.7: determine an equation of a polynomial function that satisfies a given set of conditions (e.g., degree of the polynomial, intercepts, points on the function), using methods appropriate to the situation (e.g., using the x-intercepts of the function; using a trial-and-error process with a graphing calculator or graphing software; using finite differences), and recognize that there may be more than one polynomial function that can satisfy a given set of conditions (e.g., an infinite number of polynomial functions satisfy the condition that they have three given x-intercepts)

Cubic Function Activity

Fourth-Degree Polynomials - Activity A

Polynomials and Linear Factors

C.1.8: determine the equation of the family of polynomial functions with a given set of zeros and of the member of the family that passes through another given point [e.g., a family of polynomial functions of degree 3 with zeros 5, -3, and -2 is defined by the equation f(x) = k(x - 5)(x + 3)(x + 2), where k is a real number, k does not equal 0; the member of the family that passes through (-1, 24) is f(x) = -2(x - 5)(x + 3)(x + 2)]

Polynomials and Linear Factors

C.1.9: determine, through investigation, and compare the properties of even and odd polynomial functions [e.g., symmetry about the y-axis or the origin; the power of each term; the number of x-intercepts; f(x) = f(- x) or f(- x) = - f(x)], and determine whether a given polynomial function is even, odd, or neither

Cubic Function Activity

Fourth-Degree Polynomials - Activity A

Polynomials and Linear Factors

C.2.1: determine, through investigation with and without technology, key features (i.e., vertical and horizontal asymptotes, domain and range, intercepts, positive/negative intervals, increasing/decreasing intervals) of the graphs of rational functions that are the reciprocals of linear and quadratic functions, and make connections between the algebraic and graphical representations of these rational functions [e.g., make connections between f(x) = 1/(x² - 4) and its graph by using graphing technology and by reasoning that there are vertical asymptotes at x = 2 and x = -2 and a horizontal asymptote at y = 0 and that the function maintains the same sign as f(x) = x² - 4]

General Form of a Rational Function

Rational Functions

C.2.2: determine, through investigation with and without technology, key features (i.e., vertical and horizontal asymptotes, domain and range, intercepts, positive/negative intervals, increasing/decreasing intervals) of the graphs of rational functions that have linear expressions in the numerator and denominator [e.g., f(x) = 2x/(x - 3), h(x)= (x - 2)/(3x + 4)], and make connections between the algebraic and graphical representations of these rational functions

General Form of a Rational Function

Rational Functions

C.2.3: sketch the graph of a simple rational function using its key features, given the algebraic representation of the function

General Form of a Rational Function

Rational Functions

C.3.1: make connections, through investigation using technology (e.g., computer algebra systems), between the polynomial function f(x), the divisor x - a, the remainder from the division f(x)/(x - a), and f(a) to verify the remainder theorem and the factor theorem

Dividing Polynomials Using Synthetic Division

C.3.2: factor polynomial expressions in one variable, of degree no higher than four, by selecting and applying strategies (i.e., common factoring, difference of squares, trinomial factoring, factoring by grouping, remainder theorem, factor theorem)

Dividing Polynomials Using Synthetic Division

Factoring Special Products

Modeling the Factorization of *ax*^{2}+*bx*+*c*

Modeling the Factorization of *x*^{2}+*bx*+*c*

C.3.3: determine, through investigation using technology (e.g., graphing calculator, computer algebra systems), the connection between the real roots of a polynomial equation and the x-intercepts of the graph of the corresponding polynomial function, and describe this connection [e.g., the real roots of the equation x to the 4th power - 13x² + 36 = 0 are the x-intercepts of the graph of f(x) = x to the 4th power - 13x² + 36]

Polynomials and Linear Factors

C.3.4: solve polynomial equations in one variable, of degree no higher than four (e.g., 2x³ - 3x² + 8x - 12 = 0), by selecting and applying strategies (i.e., common factoring, difference of squares, trinomial factoring, factoring by grouping, remainder theorem, factor theorem), and verify solutions using technology (e.g., using computer algebra systems to determine the roots; using graphing technology to determine the x-intercepts of the graph of the corresponding polynomial function)

Dividing Polynomials Using Synthetic Division

Factoring Special Products

Modeling the Factorization of *x*^{2}+*bx*+*c*

Polynomials and Linear Factors

C.3.5: determine, through investigation using technology (e.g., graphing calculator, computer algebra systems), the connection between the real roots of a rational equation and the x-intercepts of the graph of the corresponding rational function, and describe this connection [e.g., the real root of the equation (x - 2)/(x - 3) = 0 is 2, which is the x-intercept of the function f(x) = (x - 2)/(x - 3); the equation 1/(x - 3) = 0 has no real roots, and the function f(x) = 1/(x - 3) does not intersect the x-axis]

General Form of a Rational Function

Rational Functions

C.3.6: solve simple rational equations in one variable algebraically, and verify solutions using technology (e.g., using computer algebra systems to determine the roots; using graphing technology to determine the x-intercepts of the graph of the corresponding rational function)

General Form of a Rational Function

Rational Functions

C.3.7: solve problems involving applications of polynomial and simple rational functions and equations [e.g., problems involving the factor theorem or remainder theorem, such as determining the values of k for which the function f(x) = x³ + 6x² + kx - 4 gives the same remainder when divided by x - 1 and x + 2]

Dividing Polynomials Using Synthetic Division

General Form of a Rational Function

Rational Functions

C.4.1: explain, for polynomial and simple rational functions, the difference between the solution to an equation in one variable and the solution to an inequality in one variable, and demonstrate that given solutions satisfy an inequality (e.g., demonstrate numerically and graphically that the solution to (1/(x + 1)) less than (5 is x) less than -1 or x greater than -4/5);

General Form of a Rational Function

Rational Functions

Solving Linear Inequalities using Addition and Subtraction

Solving Linear Inequalities using Multiplication and Division

C.4.2: determine solutions to polynomial inequalities in one variable [e.g., solve f(x) ? 0, where f(x) = x³ - x² + 3x - 9] and to simple rational inequalities in one variable by graphing the corresponding functions, using graphing technology, and identifying intervals for which x satisfies the inequalities

Fourth-Degree Polynomials - Activity A

General Form of a Rational Function

Rational Functions

C.4.3: solve linear inequalities and factorable polynomial inequalities in one variable (e.g., (x³ + x²) greater than 0) in a variety of ways (e.g., by determining intervals using x-intercepts and evaluating the corresponding function for a single x-value within each interval; by factoring the polynomial and identifying the conditions for which the product satisfies the inequality), and represent the solutions on a number line or algebraically (e.g., for the inequality (x to the 4th power - 5x² + 4) less than 0, the solution represented algebraically is -2 less than x less than -1 or 1 less than x less than 2)

Dividing Polynomials Using Synthetic Division

Solving Linear Inequalities using Addition and Subtraction

Solving Linear Inequalities using Multiplication and Division

D.1.1: gather, interpret, and describe information about real-world applications of rates of change, and recognize different ways of representing rates of change (e.g., in words, numerically, graphically, algebraically)

Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs

D.1.2: recognize that the rate of change for a function is a comparison of changes in the dependent variable to changes in the independent variable, and distinguish situations in which the rate of change is zero, constant, or changing by examining applications, including those arising from real-world situations (e.g., rate of change of the area of a circle as the radius increases, inflation rates, the rising trend in graduation rates among Aboriginal youth, speed of a cruising aircraft, speed of a cyclist climbing a hill, infection rates)

Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs

D.1.4: calculate and interpret average rates of change of functions (e.g., linear, quadratic, exponential, sinusoidal) arising from real-world applications (e.g., in the natural, physical, and social sciences), given various representations of the functions (e.g., tables of values, graphs, equations)

Exponential Functions - Activity A

Quadratics in Factored Form

Roots of a Quadratic

Sine Function

Tangent Function

Translating and Scaling Sine and Cosine Functions - Activity A

D.1.7: make connections, through investigation, between the slope of a secant on the graph of a function (e.g., quadratic, exponential, sinusoidal) and the average rate of change of the function over an interval, and between the slope of the tangent to a point on the graph of a function and the instantaneous rate of change of the function at that point

Exponential Functions - Activity A

Quadratics in Factored Form

Roots of a Quadratic

Sine Function

Tangent Function

Translating and Scaling Sine and Cosine Functions - Activity A

D.2.1: determine, through investigation using graphing technology, key features (e.g., domain, range, maximum/minimum points, number of zeros) of the graphs of functions created by adding, subtracting, multiplying, or dividing functions [e.g., f(x) = 2 to the -x power sin 4x, g(x) = x² + 2 to the x power, h(x) = (sin x)/(cos x)], and describe factors that affect these properties

Addition and Subtraction of Polynomials

D.2.3: determine, through investigation, and explain some properties (i.e., odd, even, or neither; increasing/decreasing behaviours) of functions formed by adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing general functions [e.g., f(x) + g(x), f(x)g(x)]

Addition and Subtraction of Polynomials

D.2.4: determine the composition of two functions [i.e., f(g(x))] numerically (i.e., by using a table of values) and graphically, with technology, for functions represented in a variety of ways (e.g., function machines, graphs, equations), and interpret the composition of two functions in real-world applications

Absolute Value with Linear Functions - Activity B

D.2.6: solve problems involving the composition of two functions, including problems arising from real-world applications

Absolute Value with Linear Functions - Activity B

D.2.8: make connections, through investigation using technology, between transformations (i.e., vertical and horizontal translations; reflections in the axes; vertical and horizontal stretches and compressions to and from the x- and y-axes) of simple functions f(x) [e.g., f(x) = x to the 3rd power + 20, f(x) = sin x, f(x) = log x] and the composition of these functions with a linear function of the form g(x) = A(x + B)

Translating and Scaling Functions

D.3.1: compare, through investigation using a variety of tools and strategies (e.g., graphing with technology; comparing algebraic representations; comparing finite differences in tables of values) the characteristics (e.g., key features of the graphs, forms of the equations) of various functions (i.e., polynomial, rational, trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic)

Cosine Function

Cubic Function Activity

Exponential Functions - Activity A

Fourth-Degree Polynomials - Activity A

General Form of a Rational Function

Logarithmic Functions - Activity A

Quadratic and Absolute Value Functions

Quadratics in Factored Form

Quadratics in Polynomial Form - Activity A

Rational Functions

Sine Function

Tangent Function

Correlation last revised: 8/18/2015

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this province's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.