### 1: Kinematics and Dynamics

#### 1.1: Attitudes

1.1.1: appreciate the need for computational competence in quantifying motion, energy, work and power

1.1.3: be open-minded in evaluating potential applications of mechanical principles to new technology

1.1.1.A: the motion of objects and systems can be described in terms of displacement, time, velocity and acceleration, by extending from Science 10, Unit 4, the principles of one-dimensional motion, and by:

1.1.1.A.2: defining velocity as a change in position during a time interval

1.1.1.A.3: defining acceleration as a change in velocity during a time interval

1.1.1.A.4: comparing motion with constant velocity and variable velocity, and motion with constant acceleration and variable acceleration, average and instantaneous velocity

1.1.1.A.5: explaining uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion, using position-time, velocity-time and acceleration-time graphs

1.1.1.A.6: applying the concepts of slope and area under a line or curve to determine velocity, displacement and acceleration from position-time and velocity-time graphs

1.1.1.A.7: explaining, quantitatively, two-dimensional motion, in horizontal or vertical planes, using vector components addition

1.1.1.A.8: explaining the uniform motion of objects, using algebraic and graphical methods, from verbal or written descriptions and mathematical data

1.1.2: accept uncertainty in the descriptions and explanations of motion in the physical world

1.1.2.A: performing experiments to demonstrate the relationships among acceleration, displacement, velocity and time, using interval timers to gather the necessary data

1.1.2.B: inferring from a graphical analysis of empirical data the mathematical relationships among acceleration, displacement, velocity and time for uniformly accelerated motion

1.1.2.C: analyzing empirical data graphically, using line-of-best-fit to discover mathematical relationships

1.1.2.D: performing experiments to determine the local value of the acceleration due to gravity.

1.1.3.A: understanding the motion of objects and systems in terms of position, time, velocity and acceleration, and explaining uniform motion, using graphical, algorithmic and vector methods; and by gathering, and numerically and graphically analyzing relevant data to determine mathematical relationships among acceleration, displacement, velocity and time, within the context of:

1.1.3.A.2: analyzing the use of kinematics concepts in the synchronization of traffic lights

1.1.3.A.3: researching and reporting on the use of kinematics principles in traffic accident investigations

1.1.3.A.4: any other relevant context.

#### 1.2: The concepts of dynamics explicitly relate forces to change in velocity.

1.2.1: Knowledge

1.2.1.A: changes in velocity are the result of a non-zero net force, by recalling from Science 7, Unit 3, the notions of force, inertia and friction, and by:

1.2.1.A.2: explaining how a force effects a change in motion

1.2.1.A.3: applying Newton's first law of motion to explain an object's state of rest or uniform motion

1.2.1.A.4: applying Newton's second law of motion, and using it to relate force, mass and acceleration

1.2.1.A.5: relating Newton's third law of motion to interaction between two objects, recognizing that the two forces, equal in magnitude and opposite in direction, act on different bodies

1.2.1.A.6: determining, quantitatively, the net or resultant force acting on an object, using vector components addition graphically and mathematically

1.2.1.A.7: applying Newton's laws of motion to solve, algebraically, linear motion problems in horizontal, vertical and inclined planes, near the surface of Earth (whenever friction is included, only the resistive effect of the force of friction is considered)

1.2.1.A.8: solving projectile motion problems near the surface of Earth, ignoring air resistance.

1.2.2: Skills

1.2.2.A: performing experiments to determine the relationships among acceleration, force and mass, using interval timers to gather the necessary data

1.2.2.B: using free-body diagrams in organizing and communicating the solutions of dynamics problems.

1.2.3: STS Connections

1.2.3.A: understanding changes in velocity in terms of non-zero net forces, and applying Newton's laws of motion to explain, and quantitatively solve, linear motion problems; and by performing experiments to gather and mathematically analyze data relevant to dynamics problems, within the context of:

1.2.3.A.1: explaining the movement of passengers in a vehicle changing speed and/or direction, in terms of the law of inertia

1.2.3.A.2: assessing the design and use of injury prevention devices in cars and sports (business and industry) in terms of the principle of inertia and Newton's laws

1.2.3.A.5: any other relevant context.

#### 1.3: Work is a transfer of energy.

1.3.1: Knowledge

1.3.1.A: mechanical energy exchanges involve changes in kinetic and/or potential energy, by extending the mechanical energy concepts studied in Science 10, Unit 4, and by:

1.3.1.A.1: defining work as a measure of the mechanical energy transferred

1.3.1.A.3: analyzing, quantitatively, mechanical energy transformations, using the law of conservation of mechanical energy.

1.3.2: Skills

1.3.2.A: performing experiments investigating the relationships among mechanical energy, work and power

1.3.2.B: illustrating the relationships among mechanical energy, work and power, using empirical data and algorithms.

1.3.3: STS Connections

1.3.3.A: understanding and quantitatively analyzing mechanical energy transformations, using the concept of conservation of mechanical energy; and by investigating and illustrating the relationships among mechanical energy, work and power, using empirical evidence and algorithms, within the context of:

1.3.3.A.1: evaluating the design of energy transfer devices, such as simple household tools, elevators, escalators and ski lifts, in terms of the relationships among mechanical energy, work and power

1.3.3.A.2: investigating and reporting on careers, supported by societal needs and interests, that require an understanding and application of kinematics and dynamics

1.3.3.A.3: any other relevant context.

### 2: Circular Motion and Gravitation

#### 2.1: Attitudes

2.1.1: appreciate the need for computational competence in quantifying motion and gravitational effects

2.1.3: be open-minded in evaluating potential applications of the principles of circular motion and gravitation to new technology

2.1.4: appreciate the fundamental role the principles of circular motion have in explaining observed artificial and natural phenomena

2.1.5: appreciate the fundamental role the principles of circular motion and gravitation play in our everyday world

2.1.6: appreciate the contribution made by Kepler, Newton and Cavendish to the development of Newton's universal law of gravitation.

2.1.1.A: uniform circular motion requires a non-zero net force of constant magnitude, by:

2.1.1.A.1: describing uniform circular motion as a special case of two-dimensional motion

2.1.1.A.2: describing forces in circular motion as gravitational, frictional, electrostatic

2.1.1.A.3: explaining, quantitatively, that the acceleration in circular motion is centripetal

2.1.1.A.4: explaining, quantitatively, circular motion in terms of Newton's laws of motion

2.1.1.A.5: solving, quantitatively, circular motion problems, using algebraic and/or graphical vector analysis

2.1.1.A.6: explaining, quantitatively, the relationships among speed, frequency, period and circular motion

2.1.1.A.7: analyzing, quantitatively, the motion of objects moving with constant speed in horizontal or vertical circles near the surface of Earth.

2.1.2: accept uncertainty in the descriptions and explanations of circular motion and gravitation in the physical world

2.1.2.A: performing experiments to determine the relationships among the net force, acting on an object in uniform circular motion, frequency, mass, speed and path radius.

2.1.3.A: understanding uniform circular motion and its relationship to Newton's laws of motion, and explaining and solving, quantitatively, circular motion problems, using algebraic and/or graphical vector analysis; and by determining, empirically, the relationships among net force acting on an object moving in uniform circular motion, frequency, mass, speed and path radius, within the context of:

2.1.3.A.2: analyzing the motion of a car, moving through a curve with constant speed, in terms of Newton's laws as applied to uniform circular motion, friction and road banking

2.1.3.A.3: analyzing, in terms of Newton's laws as applied to uniform circular motion, the motion of carnival rides and playground equipment moving in horizontal or vertical circles

2.1.3.A.4: analyzing, qualitatively, the function of a potter's wheel, in terms of Newton's laws as applied to uniform circular motion

2.1.3.A.5: any other relevant context.

#### 2.2: Gravitational effects extend throughout the Universe.

2.2.1: Knowledge

2.2.1.A: gravity is a universal force of nature, by:

2.2.1.A.1: explaining, qualitatively, how mechanical understanding of circular motion and Kepler's laws were used in the development of Newton's universal law of gravitation

2.2.1.A.3: relating the universal gravitational constant to the local value of the acceleration due to gravity

2.2.1.A.4: predicting, quantitatively, changes in weight that objects experience on different planets

2.2.1.A.6: applying, quantitatively, Newton's second law, combined with the universal law of gravitation, to explain planetary and satellite motion, using the circular motion approximation

2.2.1.A.7: predicting the mass of a planet from the orbital data of a satellite in uniform circular motion

2.2.1.A.8: explaining, qualitatively, the shape of our solar system, and that of galaxies, in terms of Newton's laws of motion and Newton's law of gravitation.

2.2.2: Skills

2.2.2.A: relating the gravitational force, using Newton's second law, to planetary and satellite motion problems.

2.2.3: STS Connections

2.2.3.A: understanding that gravity is a universal force of nature, and defining "field" as a concept explaining action at a distance and applying it to describing gravitational effects, and explaining, quantitatively, planetary and satellite motion, using Newton's second law combined with Newton's universal law of gravitation and the circular motion approximation, within the context of:

2.2.3.A.3: explaining the mass distribution in our solar system and/or the Universe in terms of the chaos theory and gravitational attraction

2.2.3.A.5: any other relevant context.

### 3: Mechanical Waves

#### 3.1: Attitudes

3.1.1: appreciate the need for computational competence in quantifying wave behaviour and characteristics

3.1.2: accept uncertainty in the descriptions and explanations of wave phenomena in the physical world

3.1.3: be open-minded in evaluating potential applications of mechanical wave principles to new technology

3.1.4: appreciate the fundamental role the principles of mechanical waves have in explaining observed artificial and natural phenomena

3.1.5: appreciate the fundamental role the principles of mechanical waves play in our everyday world.

3.1.1.A: simple harmonic motion is used to describe mechanical wave motion, by:

3.1.1.A.1: defining simple harmonic motion as motion toward a fixed point, with an acceleration, due to a restoring force, that is proportional to the displacement from the equilibrium position

3.1.1.A.2: explaining, qualitatively, the relationships among displacement, acceleration, velocity and time, for simple harmonic motion, in terms of uniform circular motion

3.1.1.A.3: explaining, quantitatively, the relationships among kinetic, potential and total mechanical energies of a mass executing simple harmonic motion

3.1.1.A.5: describing wave motion in terms of the simple harmonic motion of particles.

3.1.2.A: designing and performing an experiment to demonstrate that simple harmonic motion can be observed in objects within certain limits, and relate the frequency and period of the motion to physical characteristics of the system; e.g., a mass on a light, vertical spring or a simple pendulum

3.1.3.A: understanding that simple harmonic motion links uniform circular motion to the characteristics of mechanical waves, and explaining and solving, using mathematical methods, simple harmonic motion problems; and by relating, from empirical evidence, frequency and period of a simple harmonic motion to the physical characteristics of a system, within the context of:

3.1.3.A.2: analyzing seismic waves and their impact on structures on Earth's surface

3.1.3.A.4: any other relevant context.

#### 3.2: Waves are a means of transmitting energy.

3.2.1: Knowledge

3.2.1.A: energy from simple harmonic motion can be transmitted as a wave through a medium, by:

3.2.1.A.2: comparing and contrasting energy transmission by matter that moves and by waves that move

3.2.1.A.4: defining and using the terms wavelength, amplitude, transverse and longitudinal, in describing waves

3.2.1.A.5: explaining how a wave travels with a speed determined by the characteristics of the medium

3.2.1.A.7: predicting, quantitatively, and verifying, the effects of changing one, or a combination, of the variables in the relationship v = f l

3.2.1.A.8: explaining the behaviour of waves at the boundaries between mediums; e.g., reflection and refraction at "open" and "closed" ends

3.2.1.A.9: predicting the resultant displacement when two waves interfere

3.2.1.A.10: explaining the Doppler effect on a stationary observer with a moving source, and a moving observer with a stationary source.

3.2.2: Skills

3.2.2.B: observing the phenomena of reflection, refraction, diffraction and interference of mechanical waves

3.2.2.C: drawing a diagram of the resultant wave, when two waves interfere, using the principle of superposition

3.2.2.E: identifying the differences between sounds, such as loudness, pitch and quality.

3.2.3: STS Connections

3.2.3.A: understanding that mechanical waves are a means of transmitting energy through a medium, and describing and explaining wave characteristics and behaviour, such as reflection, refraction, interference, resonance and the Doppler effect, using appropriate terms; and by gathering and analyzing empirical evidence describing the characteristics and behaviour of mechanical waves, within the context of:

3.2.3.A.1: investigating the application of acoustical phenomena, and other wave characteristics and behaviour, to solve practical problems in recreational, medical, industrial and research technology, and the influence of the needs, interests and financial support of society on scientific and technological research; e.g., sonar, ultrasound, sonography, radar, pipe organs, wind and brass instruments

3.2.3.A.4: any other relevant context.

### 4: Light

#### 4.1: Attitudes

4.1.1: appreciate that models are modified, as new and/or conflicting evidence is presented

4.1.1.A: geometric optics can be used to explain observed phenomena of light, by:

4.1.1.A.5: explaining, using ray diagrams, the phenomena of dispersion, reflection and refraction at plane and uniformly curved surfaces

4.1.1.A.6: stating and using Snell's law in the form of n1 sin theta 1 = n2 sin theta 2

4.1.1.A.7: deriving the curved mirror equation from empirical data

4.1.1.A.8: solving reflection and refraction problems, using algebraic, trigonometric and graphical methods

4.1.1.A.9: analyzing simple optical systems, consisting of no more than two lenses or one mirror and one lens, using algebraic and/or graphical methods.

4.1.2: appreciate the need for computational competence in quantifying the behaviour of light

4.1.2.B: performing experiments demonstrating reflection and refraction at plane and uniformly curved surfaces

4.1.2.C: deriving the mathematical representations of the laws of reflection and refraction, from the data obtained from these experiments

4.1.2.D: performing an experiment to determine the index of refraction of several different substances, and predicting the conditions required for total internal reflection to occur.

4.1.3: accept uncertainty in the descriptions and explanations of the behaviour and nature of light

4.1.3.A: understanding and explaining observed light phenomena, reflection, refraction and dispersion in terms of geometric optics, and solving reflection and refraction problems, using algebraic, trigonometric and graphical means; and by gathering and mathematically analyzing relevant data describing the characteristics and behaviour of light, within the context of:

4.1.3.A.2: assessing the processes in which light affects living organisms, and the use of light technology to solve practical problems; e.g., growth, vision

4.1.3.A.3: evaluating and explaining technological and biological applications of linear propagation, reflection, refraction and total internal reflection of light to solve practical problems, and how these applications reflect the needs, interests and financial support of society; e.g., binoculars, eyeglasses, design of greenhouses, solar collectors, fibre optics

4.1.3.A.5: any other relevant context.

#### 4.2: The wave model of light improves our understanding of the behaviour of light.

4.2.1: Knowledge

4.2.1.A: wave optics can explain light phenomena that geometric optics cannot, by recalling from Unit 3, the behaviour of waves during reflection, refraction and interference, and by:

4.2.1.A.1: comparing the explanations of reflection and refraction by the particle theory and by the wave theory of light

4.2.1.A.2: explaining, using the wave theory of light, the phenomena of reflection and refraction

4.2.1.A.8: demonstrating how Snell's law in the form sin theta1/sin theta2 = n2/n1 = v1/v2 = l1/l2 offers support for the wave model of light.

4.2.2: Skills

4.2.2.C: predicting and performing an experiment to verify the effects on an interference pattern due to changes in any one or more of the following variables: wavelength, slit separation or screen distance.

4.2.3: STS Connections

4.2.3.A: understanding how the wave model explains the behaviour of light in the phenomena of interference, double-slit diffraction and polarization; and by empirically investigating and mathematically analyzing the phenomena of diffraction and interference, within the context of:

4.2.3.A.2: identifying and explaining, qualitatively, Poisson's spot as an example of the role of experimental evidence in the accumulation of knowledge, and the way in which proposed theories may be supported, modified or refuted where a model predicted new light phenomena

4.2.3.A.4: any other relevant context.

Correlation last revised: 2/26/2010

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this province's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.