#### 4.6: Demonstrate a practical understanding of wheels, gears and levers by constructing devices in which energy is transferred to produce motion.

4.6.1: Explain how rollers can be used to move an object, and demonstrate the use of rollers in a practical situation.

4.6.2: Compare the wheel and the roller, and identify examples where each are used.

4.6.3: Construct devices that use wheels and axles, and demonstrate and describe their use in:

4.6.3.a: model vehicles

4.6.3.b: pulley systems

4.6.3.c: gear systems.

4.6.4: Construct and explain the operation of a drive system that uses one or more of the following:

4.6.4.a: wheel-to-wheel contact

4.6.4.b: a belt or elastic

4.6.4.c: a chain

4.6.5: Construct and explain the operation of a drive system that transfers motion from one shaft to a second shaft, where the second shaft is: Students who have achieved this expectation will be aware of changes in speed and direction that result from different ways of linking components. Introduction of gear ratios, however, is not recommended at this grade level. Students will have an opportunity to develop the concept of ratio as part of their junior high mathematics program.

4.6.5.a: parallel to the first

4.6.6: Demonstrate ways to use a lever that:

4.6.6.a: applies a small force to create a large force

4.6.6.b: applies a small movement to create a large movement.

4.6.7: Predict how changes in the size of a lever or the position of the fulcrum will affect the forces and movements involved.

4.6.8: Construct models of levers; and explain how levers are involved in such devices as: teetertotters, scissors, pliers, pry bars, tongs, nutcrackers, fishing rods, wheelbarrows.

#### 4.8: Explore and evaluate variations to the design of a mechanical device, demonstrating that control is an important element in the design and construction of that device.

4.8.1: Design and construct devices and vehicles that move or have moving parts?linkages, wheels and axles.

4.8.4: Recognize the need for control in mechanical devices, and apply control mechanisms where necessary.

4.8.5: Compare two designs, identifying the relative strengths and weaknesses of each.

#### 4.9: Identify sources of light, describe the interaction of light with different materials, and infer the pathway of a light beam.

4.9.5: Describe changes in the size and location of Sun shadows during the day?early morning, to midday, to late afternoon.

4.9.6: Recognize that opaque materials cast shadows, and predict changes in the size and location of shadows resulting from the movement of a light source or from the movement of a shade-casting object.

4.9.7: Distinguish transparent materials from opaque materials by determining if light passes through them and by examining their shadows.

4.9.11: Recognize that light can be broken into colours and that different colours of light can be combined to form a new colour.

4.10.2: Identify and describe the general purpose of plant roots, stems, leaves and flowers.

4.10.5: Identify examples of plants that have special needs.

4.10.7: Recognize that plants of the same kind have a common life cycle and produce new plants that are similar, but not identical, to the parent plants.

4.10.9: Nurture a plant through one complete life cycle?from seed to seed.

4.10.10: Describe the care and growth of a plant that students have nurtured, in particular:

4.10.10.a: identify the light, temperature, water and growing medium requirements of the plant

4.10.10.c: identify the reproductive structures of the plant.

Correlation last revised: 9/16/2020

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this province's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.