Core Learning Goals
2.1.1: The student will describe the purpose and advantage of current tools, delivery systems and techniques used to study the universe.
2.1.1.a: Tools (optical and radio telescopes, spectrometers)
2.2.1: The student will explain the role of forces in the formation and operation of the universe.
2.2.1.a: Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation
2.2.1.c: Stellar structure and evolution (life cycle of stars, stellar systems, H-R diagram)
2.2.1.e: Kepler's 3 Laws of Planetary Motion
2.2.2: The student will explain the role and interaction of revolution, rotation and gravity on the Sun-Earth-Moon system.
2.2.2.a: Seasons (change in solar angle, yearly variation in length of day/night, absorption/reflection/scattering of insolation, solstices and equinoxes, rotation/revolution/precession, yearly variation of the sun's altitude and azimuth)
2.2.2.b: Eclipses (lunar, solar, total, annular, partial, umbra, penumbra, 2 eclipse "seasons" per Earth year, yearly/monthly variations in lunar position and length of visibility of the moon)
2.2.2.c: Earth-moon interactions (relationship between lunar phase and tide, tidal bulge and rate of lunar revolution, tides and Earth-moon distance, sidereal and synodic lunar months)
2.3.2: The student will explain how global conditions are affected when natural and human-induced change alter the transfer of energy and matter.
2.3.2.a: Atmospheric composition and structure (greenhouse gases, stratospheric ozone concentration and distribution, aerosols, temperature)
2.4.3: The student will explain changes in Earth's surface using plate tectonics.
2.4.3.b: Sea floor spreading (age evidence, mantle circulation, outer core circulation/magnetic reversals, seismic activity, volcanism, mountain building, ocean ridges)
2.4.3.c: Theory of Plate Tectonics (crustal plate composition, mantle circulation, divergent/convergent/transform fault boundaries, subduction zones, trenches, island arcs, seismic activity, volcanism, mountain building)
2.5.1: The student will apply geologic principles used to date Earth's geologic and biologic events.
2.5.1.b: Absolute dating (radioactive dating)
3.1.1: The student will be able to describe the unique characteristics of chemical substances and macromolecules utilized by living systems.
3.1.1.d: proteins (organic molecule; amino acids are building blocks; structural and functional role, including enzymes)
3.1.1.e: nucleic acids (organic molecule; nucleotides are building blocks - sugar, phosphate, & nitrogen bases; DNA is a double helix, RNA is a single strand; DNA replication;DNA role in storage of genetic information)
3.1.2: The student will be able to discuss factors involved in the regulation of chemical activity as part of a homeostatic mechanism.
3.1.2.a: osmosis (predicting water flow across a membrane based on the cell's environment; explain role in living systems)
3.1.3: The student will be able to compare the transfer and use of matter and energy in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organisms.
3.1.3.b: carbon cycle (movement of carbon between living systems and the environment, cyclic relationship between photosynthesis and respiration)
3.1.3.d: photosynthesis (energy conversion: light, chemical; basic molecules involved)
3.1.3.e: cellular respiration (distinctions between aerobic and anaerobic, energy released, use of oxygen; basic molecules involved in aerobic)
3.2.1: The student will explain processes and the function of related structures found in unicellular and multicellular organisms.
3.2.1.b: waste disposal (role of cellular membrane; role of excretory and circulatory systems)
3.2.1.d: feedback (maintaining cellular and organismal homeostasis - water balance, pH, temperature, role of endocrine system)
3.2.1.e: asexual (binary fission, budding, vegetative, mitosis: role in growth and repair, chromosome number remains the same) and sexual reproduction (angiosperms, mammals)
3.2.1.f: control of structures (cellular organelles and human systems) and related functions (role of nucleus, role of sensory organs and nervous system)
3.2.1.g: capture and release of energy (chloroplasts, mitochondria)
3.2.1.h: protein synthesis (ribosomes)
3.2.2: The student will conclude that cells exist within a narrow range of environmental conditions and changes to that environment, either naturally occurring or induced, may cause changes in the metabolic activity of the cell or organism.
3.2.2.g: radiation (role in cancer or mutations)
3.3.2: The student will illustrate and explain how expressed traits are passed from parent to offspring.
3.3.2.a: phenotypes (expression of inherited characteristics)
3.3.2.b: dominant and recessive traits
3.3.2.d: genotypes (represented by heterozygous and homozygous pairs of alleles)
3.3.2.e: punnett square (use to predict and/or interpret the results of a genetic cross; translate genotypes into phenotypes - monohybrid only)
3.3.3: The student will explain how a genetic trait is determined by the code in a DNA molecule.
3.3.3.a: definition of gene (a segment of DNA that codes for a protein or RNA)
3.3.3.b: sequence of nitrogen bases directing protein formation (role of DNA, mRNA, tRNA, rRNA)
3.3.4: The student will interpret how the effects of DNA alteration can be beneficial or harmful to the individual, society, and/or the environment.
3.3.4.b: chromosome number (abnormalities)
3.4.1: The student will explain how new traits may result from new combinations of existing genes or from mutations of genes in reproductive cells within a population.
3.4.1.a: natural selection (definition; effects of environmental pressure)
3.4.1.b: adaptations (effects on survival)
3.4.1.c: variation (effects on survival and reproductive success)
3.4.2: The student will estimate degrees of relatedness among organisms or species.
3.4.2.b: anatomical similarities (evolutionary relationships; homologous structures)
3.4.2.c: similarities of DNA base and/or amino acid sequence (including results from gel electrophoresis)
3.5.1: The student will analyze the relationships between biotic diversity and abiotic factors in environments and the resulting influence on ecosystems.
3.5.1.a: Abiotic/ Biotic Factors
3.5.1.b.1: predator - prey
3.5.2: The student will analyze the interrelationships and interdependencies among different organisms and explain how these relationships contribute to the stability of the ecosystem.
3.5.2.c: trophic level (producer; consumer: herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, scavenger; decomposer)
3.5.2.d: niche(role of organism within an ecosystem)
3.5.2.e: pyramid (energy, biomass)
3.5.3: The student will investigate how natural and man-made changes in environmental conditions will affect individual organisms and the dynamics of populations.
3.5.3.a: depletion of food
3.5.3.b: destruction of habitats
4.1.1: The student will analyze the structure of the atom and describe the characteristics of the particles found there.
4.1.1.a: subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, & electrons -not to include quantum mechanical details of electron configurations)
4.1.1.c: atomic number, mass number, and isotopes (definitions; calculate numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons; notations)
4.1.1.e: neutral atom
4.1.1.f: historical development and/or experimental evidence for the existence and structure of the atom (Democritus, Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr, electron cloud model)
4.1.2: The student will demonstrate that the arrangement and number of electrons and the properties of elements repeat in a periodic manner illustrated by their arrangement in the periodic table.
4.1.2.a: groups/families and periods/series (groups 1-18; Alkali Metals, Alkaline Earth Metals, Transition Metals, Halogens, Noble Gases; Periods 1-7; Lanthanide Series, Actinide Series)
4.1.2.b: how trends behave (valence electrons; atomic radius; ionization energy; relative chemical reactivity; metallic/nonmetallic properties)
4.1.3: The student will explain how atoms interact with other atoms through the transfer and sharing of electrons in the formation of chemical bonds.
4.1.3.b: bond (definition)
4.1.3.c: formation of ionic bond (definition; metal-nonmetal; based on valence electrons / location of elements on the Periodic Table)
4.1.3.d: formation of covalent bond (definition; nonmetal-nonmetal; based on valence electrons / location of elements on the Periodic Table; formation of single, double, and triple bonds)
4.1.3.h: metallic, ionic, and molecular substances (melting point, boiling point, electrical conductivity)
4.2.1: The student will explain how the properties of a molecule are determined by the atoms it contains and their arrangement.
4.2.1.c: water (definition and explanation of shape and polarity of molecule, observed changes in density as phases change, use as a "universal" solvent; conceptual understanding of hydrogen bonding, high surface tension, high specific heat)
4.2.2: The student will explain why organic compounds are so numerous and diverse.
4.2.2.b: ability of carbon to form chains and make rings (recognize, but not produce structural formulas)
4.2.3: The student will describe the properties of solutions and explain how they form.
4.2.3.d: concentration (relative: dilute, concentrated, unsaturated, saturated, supersaturated; molarity - conceptual only; interpretation of solubility curves)
4.2.3.e: dissociation/ionization (basic description; factors that influence rate: surface area of solute, temperature, agitation)
4.2.4: The student will differentiate among acids, bases, and salts based on their properties.
4.2.4.a: Arrhenius definition (H+ and OH-)
4.2.4.b: ability of water to act as either an acid or a base
4.2.4.c: neutralization (definition)
4.2.4.e: indicators (phenolphthalein)
4.3.1: The student will explain that thermal energy in a material consists of the ordered and disordered motions of its colliding particles.
4.3.1.a: thermal energy (differentiate between thermal energy and temperature)
4.3.1.b: phase changes
4.3.1.c: heating / cooling (temperature vs. time) curve (interpret the different parts of the curve in terms of motion / kinetic energy and organization of the particles; changes in particle motion and organization between phase changes; identify melting/freezing and boiling point; not to include potential energy or calculations of Q)
4.4.1: The student will illustrate that substances can be represented by formulas.
4.4.1.a: subscripts (determine the numbers of atoms represented by a given formula; describe the function of subscripts in a chemical formula)
4.4.2: The student will show that chemical reactions can be represented by symbolic or word equations that specify all reactants and products involved.
4.4.2.a: convert word equations to symbolic equations
4.4.2.b: convert symbolic equations to word equations
4.5.1: The student will describe the general types of chemical reactions.
4.5.1.a: synthesis and decomposition (definition; identify type given balanced formula equation or written description)
4.5.1.b: combustion (definition; identify type given balanced formula equation or written description)
4.5.1.c: single displacement (definition; identify type given balanced formula equation or written description; apply activity series to determine if reaction will occur)
4.5.1.d: double displacement (definition; identify type given balanced formula equation or written description; apply solubility rules to predict if a precipitate will form)
4.5.2: The student will balance simple equations (not to include redox reactions).
4.5.2.a: Law of Conservation of Mass (apply to reactions to account for the same number of atoms of each type appearing in both the reactants and products)
4.5.2.b: coefficients (define; use to balance symbolic equations; explain meaning in symbolic equations; differentiate between the use and meaning of coefficients and subscripts)
4.5.4: The student will recognize that chemical reactions occur at different speeds.
4.5.4.a: reaction rate (in order for atoms to react they must collide with sufficient energy; reaction rate increases as frequency of molecular collisions increases)
4.5.4.b: effects of surface area, temperature, and concentration on the frequency and energy of molecular collisions (no calculations or specific concentration units)
5.1.1: The student will use analytical techniques appropriate to the study of physics.
5.1.1.a: distinguish between scalar and vector quantities (e.g. speed v. velocity; distance v. displacement)
5.1.1.c: add vectors (same and opposite directions and at right angles)
5.1.1.d: resolve vectors graphically
5.1.2: The student will use algebraic and geometric concepts to qualitatively and quantitatively describe an object's motion.
5.1.2.b: motion with a constant acceleration
5.1.2.d: projectile motion (mathematical solutions limited to initial horizontal velocity only; conceptual questions not restricted)
5.1.2.e: free fall
5.1.3: The student will analyze and explain how Newton's Laws describe changes in an object's motion.
5.1.3.a: the effect of balanced forces (fnet = 0) (quantitative and qualitative)
5.1.3.b: the effect of unbalanced forces (fnet is not equal to 0) (quantitative and qualitative)
5.1.3.c: inertia (application) (qualitative only)
5.1.3.d: relationship among force, mass and acceleration (describe qualitative relationships and calculate)
5.1.3.e: action/reaction (application)
5.1.4: The student will analyze the behavior of forces.
5.1.4.a: friction (qualitative description of its nature and behavior)
5.1.4.b: inverse square relationship of gravity (describe how the force changes as the distance changes)
5.1.4.c: relation to work and power (qualitative and quantitative)
5.1.4.d: relation to impulse and momentum (qualitative and quantitative)
5.1.5: The student will analyze systems with regard to the conservation laws.
5.1.5.a: conservation of momentum (applications and calculation in one dimension)
5.1.5.b: conservation of energy (relationship between potential and kinetic including calculations and conversions)
5.2.1: The student will describe the types of electric charges and the forces that exist between them.
5.2.1.a: inverse square relationship of electrical forces (describe how the force changes as the distance changes)
5.2.1.b: the attractive/repulsive nature of the forces between charges
5.2.1.c: Coulomb's Law (describe qualitative relationships)
5.2.2: The student will describe the sources and effects of electric and magnetic fields.
5.2.2.b: Qualitative description of magnetic field created by moving charges
5.2.2.c: Qualitative description of the force on a moving charge or on a current carrying wire in a magnetic field
5.2.2.d: Simple D.C. series and parallel circuits (diagram of series and parallel circuits; use of meters to measure quantities in each circuit; calculations of voltage, current, and resistance using Ohm's Law; and calculations of equivalent resistance and power)
5.2.2.e: Practical applications (safety, grounding, circuit breakers, fuses)
5.2.3: The student will qualitatively describe the applications of electromagnetic induction.
5.2.3.a: Electromagnetic induction (definition)
5.3.1: The student will relate thermodynamics to the balance of energy in a system.
5.3.1.b: Heat energy transfer (conduction, convection, radiation)
5.3.1.c: Application of heat energy to the Law of Conservation of Energy
5.3.1.e: Specific heat and calorimetry (both describe and calculate)
5.4.1: The student will compare qualitatively how waves are propagated and transmit energy.
5.4.1.a: Physical v. electromagnetic (transmission media, relative speeds, examples such as sound and light)
5.4.1.b: Longitudinal v. transverse (direction of vibration relative to direction of transmission, examples such as sound and light)
5.4.2: The student will describe wave characteristics using both diagrams and calculations.
5.4.2.b: Frequency (including relationship to period and energy transmitted)
5.4.2.d: Amplitude (including relationship to energy transmitted)
5.4.3: The student will qualitatively describe the physical behaviors of waves.
5.4.3.b: Refraction (causes and resultant behavior, which may include ray diagrams for behavior at a plane boundary and for double convex lenses)
5.4.3.c: Diffraction (causes and relationship between wavelength and size of opening)
5.4.3.d: Interference (constructive and destructive)
5.4.3.f: Doppler effect (examples and explanation including frequency shift)
5.5.1: The student will cite evidence of the wave/particle duality in the nature of matter.
5.5.1.b: Photoelectric effect (relationship of current produced to frequency and intensity of wave)
5.5.2: The student will qualitatively explain the processes associated with nuclear energy and its applications.
5.5.2.a: Radioactive decay (half-life; alpha, beta, and gamma emission processes)
6.1.1: The student will demonstrate that matter cycles through and between living systems and the physical environment constantly being recombined in different ways.
6.1.1.b: carbon cycle
6.2.1: The student will explain how organisms are linked by the transfer and transformation of matter and energy at the ecosystem level.
6.2.1.b: Producers, consumers, decomposers
6.2.1.c: Trophic levels
6.2.1.d: Pyramid of energy/pyramid of biomass
6.2.2: The student will explain why interrelationships & interdependencies of organisms contribute to the dynamics of ecosystems.
6.2.2.c: Cycling of materials among organisms
6.2.2.d: Equilibrium/cyclic fluctuations
6.2.3: The student will conclude that populations grow or decline due to a variety of factors.
6.2.3.b: Carrying capacity/limiting factors
6.2.4: The student will provide examples and evidence showing that natural selection leads to organisms that are well suited for survival in particular environments.
6.2.4.b: variation within a species increases survival potential
6.2.4.c: natural selection provides a mechanism for evolution
6.2.4.d: adaptations of organisms within biomes
Correlation last revised: 3/5/2015