### 2: Students know and understand common properties, forms, and changes in matter and energy.

#### 2.1: Students know that matter has characteristic properties, which are related to its composition and structure.

2.1.a: examining, describing, comparing, measuring, and classifying objects based on common physical and chemical properties (for example, states of matter, mass, volume, electrical charge, temperature, density, boiling points, pH, magnetism, solubility);

2.1.b: separating mixtures of substances based on their properties (for example, solubility, boiling points, magnetic properties, densities);

#### 2.2: Students know that energy appears in different forms, and can move (be transferred) and change (be transformed).

2.2.a: measuring quantities associated with energy forms (for example, temperature, mass, speed, distance, electrical charge, current, voltage);

2.2.b: describing qualitative and quantitative relationships, using data and observations and graphs, associated with energy transfer or energy transformation (for example, speed of object vs. height of ramp; length of string vs. pitch of sound; electric current vs. volume of gas produced in electrolysis, with length of time kept constant).

#### 2.3: Students understand that interactions can produce changes in a system, although the total quantities of matter and energy remain unchanged.

2.3.a: identifying and classifying factors causing change within a system (for example, force, light, heat);

2.3.b: identifying and predicting what will change and what will remain unchanged when matter experiences an external force or energy change (for example, boiling a liquid; comparing the force, distance, and work involved in simple machines);

2.3.d: describing, measuring (for example, temperature, mass, volume, melting point of a substance) and calculating quantities before and after a chemical or physical change within a system (for example, temperature change, mass change, specific heat);

2.3.e: describing, measuring (for example, time, distance, mass, force) and calculating quantities that characterize moving objects and their interactions within a system (for example, force, velocity, acceleration, potential energy, kinetic energy).

### 3: Students know and understand the characteristics and structure of living things, the processes of life, and how living things interact with each other and their environment.

#### 3.1: Students know and understand the characteristics of living things, the diversity of life, and how living things interact with each other and with their environment.

3.1.b: describing the importance of plant and animal adaptations, including local examples;

3.1.c: creating and interpreting food chains and food webs;

3.1.e: describing how an environment's ability to provide food, water, space, and essential nutrients determines carrying capacity.

#### 3.2: Students know and understand interrelationships of matter and energy in living systems.

3.2.a: describing the basic processes of photosynthesis and respiration and their importance to life (for example, set up a terrarium or aquarium and make changes such as blocking out light);

3.2.b: comparing and contrasting food webs within and between different ecosystems (for example, grasslands, tundra, marine) and predicting the consequences of disrupting one of the organisms in a food web;

3.2.e: describing the role of organisms in the decomposition and recycling of dead organisms (for example, bacteria's role in the decomposition and recycling of matter from a dead animal).

#### 3.3: Students know and understand how the human body functions, factors that influence its structures and functions, and how these structures and functions compare with those of other organisms.

3.3.a: describing the observable components and functions of a cell (for example, cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts; movement of molecules into and out of cells);

3.3.b: comparing and contrasting the basic structures and functions of different types of cells (for example, single-celled organisms in pond water, Elodea, onion cell, human cheek cell);

3.3.e: describing and giving examples of noncommunicable diseases and communicable diseases (for example, heart disease and chicken pox).

#### 3.4: Students know and understand how organisms change over time in terms of biological evolution and genetics.

3.4.a: describing the purpose of body cell division and sex cell division;

3.4.b: describing the role of chromosomes and genes in heredity (for example, genes control traits, while chromosomes are made up of many genes);

3.4.c: describing evidence that reveals changes or constancy in groups of organisms over geologic time.

### 4: Students know and understand the processes and interactions of Earth's systems and the structure and dynamics of Earth and other objects in space.

#### 4.1: Students know and understand the composition of Earth, its history, and the natural processes that shape it.

4.1.b: explaining how fossils are formed and used as evidence to indicate that life has changed through time;

4.1.c: modeling natural processes that shape Earth's surface (for example, weathering, erosion, mountain building, volcanic activity);

#### 4.2: Students know and understand the general characteristics of the atmosphere and fundamental processes of weather.

4.2.b: observing, measuring, and recording changes in weather conditions (for example, humidity, temperature, air pressure, cloud types, wind, precipitation);

4.2.c: explaining how atmospheric circulation is driven by solar heating (for example, the transfer of energy by radiation, convection, conduction);

#### 4.4: Students know the structure of the solar system, composition and interactions of objects in the universe, and how space is explored.

4.4.a: describing the basic components, composition, size, and theories of origin of the solar system;

4.4.b: explaining the effects of relative motion and positions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon (for example, seasons, eclipses, moon phases, tides);

4.4.c: comparing Earth to other planets (for example, size, composition, relative distance from the Sun);

Correlation last revised: 12/1/2009

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this state's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.