### MF: Motion and Forces

#### MF.1: Newton's laws predict the motion of most objects. As a basis for understanding this concept:

MF.1.c: Students know how to apply the law F = ma to solve one-dimensional motion problems that involve constant forces (Newton's second law).

MF.1.d: Students know that when one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object always exerts a force of equal magnitude and in the opposite direction (Newton's third law).

MF.1.e: Students know the relationship between the universal law of gravitation and the effect of gravity on an object at the surface of Earth.

MF.1.f: Students know applying a force to an object perpendicular to the direction of its motion causes the object to change direction but not speed (e.g., Earth's gravitational force causes a satellite in a circular orbit to change direction but not speed).

MF.1.g: Students know circular motion requires the application of a constant force directed toward the center of the circle.

MF.1.i: Students know how to solve two-dimensional trajectory problems.

MF.1.j: Students know how to resolve two-dimensional vectors into their components and calculate the magnitude and direction of a vector from its components.

MF.1.l: Students know how to solve problems in circular motion by using the formula for centripetal acceleration in the following form: a = v²/r.

MF.1.m: Students know how to solve problems involving the forces between two electric charges at a distance (Coulomb's law) or the forces between two masses at a distance (universal gravitation).

### CE: Conservation of Energy and Momentum

#### CE.2: The laws of conservation of energy and momentum provide a way to predict and describe the movement of objects. As a basis for understanding this concept:

CE.2.a: Students know how to calculate kinetic energy by using the formula E = (1/2)mv².

CE.2.b: Students know how to calculate changes in gravitational potential energy near Earth by using the formula (change in potential energy) = mgh (h is the change in the elevation).

CE.2.c: Students know how to solve problems involving conservation of energy in simple systems, such as falling objects.

CE.2.d: Students know how to calculate momentum as the product mv.

CE.2.e: Students know momentum is a separately conserved quantity different from energy.

CE.2.g: Students know how to solve problems involving elastic and inelastic collisions in one dimension by using the principles of conservation of momentum and energy.

CE.2.h: Students know how to solve problems involving conservation of energy in simple systems with various sources of potential energy, such as capacitors and springs.

### H: Heat and Thermodynamics

#### H.3: Energy cannot be created or destroyed, although in many processes energy is transferred to the environment as heat. As a basis for understanding this concept:

H.3.a: Students know heat flow and work are two forms of energy transfer between systems.

H.3.c: Students know the internal energy of an object includes the energy of random motion of the object's atoms and molecules, often referred to as thermal energy. The greater the temperature of the object, the greater the energy of motion of the atoms and molecules that make up the object.

### W: Waves

#### W.4: Waves have characteristic properties that do not depend on the type of wave. As a basis for understanding this concept:

W.4.b: Students know how to identify transverse and longitudinal waves in mechanical media, such as springs and ropes, and on the earth (seismic waves).

W.4.c: Students know how to solve problems involving wavelength, frequency, and wave speed.

W.4.d: Students know sound is a longitudinal wave whose speed depends on the properties of the medium in which it propagates.

W.4.e: Students know radio waves, light, and X-rays are different wavelength bands in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves whose speed in a vacuum is approximately 3 x 10 to the 8th power m/s (186,000 miles/second).

W.4.f: Students know how to identify the characteristic properties of waves: interference (beats), diffraction, refraction, Doppler effect, and polarization.

### EM: Electric and Magnetic Phenomena

#### EM.5: Electric and magnetic phenomena are related and have many practical applications. As a basis for understanding this concept:

EM.5.a: Students know how to predict the voltage or current in simple direct current (DC) electric circuits constructed from batteries, wires, resistors, and capacitors.

EM.5.b: Students know how to solve problems involving Ohm's law.

EM.5.f: Students know magnetic materials and electric currents (moving electric charges) are sources of magnetic fields and are subject to forces arising from the magnetic fields of other sources.

EM.5.g: Students know how to determine the direction of a magnetic field produced by a current flowing in a straight wire or in a coil.

EM.5.h: Students know changing magnetic fields produce electric fields, thereby inducing currents in nearby conductors.

EM.5.o: Students know how to apply the concepts of electrical and gravitational potential energy to solve problems involving conservation of energy.

### AM: Atomic and Molecular Structure

#### AM.1: The periodic table displays the elements in increasing atomic number and shows how periodicity of the physical and chemical properties of the elements relates to atomic structure. As a basis for understanding this concept:

AM.1.a: Students know how to relate the position of an element in the periodic table to its atomic number and atomic mass.

AM.1.c: Students know how to use the periodic table to identify alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and transition metals, trends in ionization energy, electronegativity, and the relative sizes of ions and atoms.

AM.1.e: Students know the nucleus of the atom is much smaller than the atom yet contains most of its mass.

AM.1.g: Students know how to relate the position of an element in the periodic table to its quantum electron configuration and to its reactivity with other elements in the table.

AM.1.h: Students know the experimental basis for Thomson's discovery of the electron, Rutherford's nuclear atom, Millikan's oil drop experiment, and Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect.

AM.1.i: Students know the experimental basis for the development of the quantum theory of atomic structure and the historical importance of the Bohr model of the atom.

AM.1.j: Students know that spectral lines are the result of transitions of electrons between energy levels and that these lines correspond to photons with a frequency related to the energy spacing between levels by using Planck's relationship (E = hv).

### CB: Chemical Bonds

#### CB.2: Biological, chemical, and physical properties of matter result from the ability of atoms to form bonds from electrostatic forces between electrons and protons and between atoms and molecules. As a basis for understanding this concept:

CB.2.a: Students know atoms combine to form molecules by sharing electrons to form covalent or metallic bonds or by exchanging electrons to form ionic bonds.

CB.2.b: Students know chemical bonds between atoms in molecules such as H2, CH4, NH3, H2CCH2, N2, Cl2, and many large biological molecules are covalent.

CB.2.c: Students know salt crystals, such as NaCl, are repeating patterns of positive and negative ions held together by electrostatic attraction.

CB.2.e: Students know how to draw Lewis dot structures.

### CM: Conservation of Matter and Stoichiometry

#### CM.3: The conservation of atoms in chemical reactions leads to the principle of conservation of matter and the ability to calculate the mass of products and reactants. As a basis for understanding this concept:

CM.3.a: Students know how to describe chemical reactions by writing balanced equations.

CM.3.c: Students know one mole equals 6.02 x 10 to the 23rd power particles (atoms or molecules).

CM.3.d: Students know how to determine the molar mass of a molecule from its chemical formula and a table of atomic masses and how to convert the mass of a molecular substance to moles, number of particles, or volume of gas at standard temperature and pressure.

CM.3.f: Students know how to calculate percent yield in a chemical reaction.

### G: Gases and Their Properties

#### G.4: The kinetic molecular theory describes the motion of atoms and molecules and explains the properties of gases. As a basis for understanding this concept:

G.4.a: Students know the random motion of molecules and their collisions with a surface create the observable pressure on that surface.

G.4.b: Students know the random motion of molecules explains the diffusion of gases.

G.4.c: Students know how to apply the gas laws to relations between the pressure, temperature, and volume of any amount of an ideal gas or any mixture of ideal gases.

G.4.f: Students know there is no temperature lower than 0 Kelvin.

G.4.g: Students know the kinetic theory of gases relates the absolute temperature of a gas to the average kinetic energy of its molecules or atoms.

G.4.i: Students know how to apply Dalton's law of partial pressures to describe the composition of gases and Graham's law to predict diffusion of gases.

### AB: Acids and Bases

#### AB.5: Acids, bases, and salts are three classes of compounds that form ions in water solutions. As a basis for understanding this concept:

AB.5.b: Students know acids are hydrogen-ion-donating and bases are hydrogen-ion-accepting substances.

AB.5.c: Students know strong acids and bases fully dissociate and weak acids and bases partially dissociate.

AB.5.d: Students know how to use the pH scale to characterize acid and base solutions.

AB.5.e: Students know the Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis acid-base definitions.

### S: Solutions

#### S.6: Solutions are homogenous mixtures of two or more substances. As a basis for understanding this concept:

S.6.e: Students know the relationship between the molality of a solute in a solution and the solution's depressed freezing point or elevated boiling point.

### CT: Chemical Thermodynamics

#### CT.7: Energy is exchanged or transformed in all chemical reactions and physical changes of matter. As a basis for understanding this concept:

CT.7.a: Students know how to describe temperature and heat flow in terms of the motion of molecules (or atoms).

CT.7.c: Students know energy is released when a material condenses or freezes and is absorbed when a material evaporates or melts.

CT.7.d: Students know how to solve problems involving heat flow and temperature changes, using known values of specific heat and latent heat of phase change.

### RR: Reaction Rates

#### RR.8: Chemical reaction rates depend on factors that influence the frequency of collision of reactant molecules. As a basis for understanding this concept:

RR.8.a: Students know the rate of reaction is the decrease in concentration of reactants or the increase in concentration of products with time.

RR.8.b: Students know how reaction rates depend on such factors as concentration, temperature, and pressure.

RR.8.c: Students know the role a catalyst plays in increasing the reaction rate.

### EQ: Chemical Equilibrium

#### EQ.9: Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic process at the molecular level. As a basis for understanding this concept:

EQ.9.a: Students know how to use LeChatelier's principle to predict the effect of changes in concentration, temperature, and pressure.

EQ.9.c: Students know how to write and calculate an equilibrium constant expression for a reaction.

### OC: Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry

#### OC.10: The bonding characteristics of carbon allow the formation of many different organic molecules of varied sizes, shapes, and chemical properties and provide the biochemical basis of life. As a basis for understanding this concept:

OC.10.a: Students know large molecules (polymers), such as proteins, nucleic acids, and starch, are formed by repetitive combinations of simple subunits.

OC.10.c: Students know amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.

### NP: Nuclear Processes

#### NP.11: Nuclear processes are those in which an atomic nucleus changes, including radioactive decay of naturally occurring and human-made isotopes, nuclear fission, and nuclear fusion. As a basis for understanding this concept:

NP.11.c: Students know some naturally occurring isotopes of elements are radioactive, as are isotopes formed in nuclear reactions.

NP.11.d: Students know the three most common forms of radioactive decay (alpha, beta, and gamma) and know how the nucleus changes in each type of decay.

NP.11.e: Students know alpha, beta, and gamma radiation produce different amounts and kinds of damage in matter and have different penetrations.

NP.11.f: Students know how to calculate the amount of a radioactive substance remaining after an integral number of half lives have passed.

### CBI: Cell Biology

#### CBI.1: The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism's cells. As a basis for understanding this concept:

CBI.1.a: Students know cells are enclosed within semipermeable membranes that regulate their interaction with their surroundings.

CBI.1.b: Students know enzymes are proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions without altering the reaction equilibrium and the activities of enzymes depend on the temperature, ionic conditions, and the pH of the surroundings.

CBI.1.d: Students know the central dogma of molecular biology outlines the flow of information from transcription of ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the nucleus to translation of proteins on ribosomes in the cytoplasm.

CBI.1.f: Students know usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide.

CBI.1.h: Students know most macromolecules (polysaccharides, nucleic acids, proteins, lipids) in cells and organisms are synthesized from a small collection of simple precursors.

CBI.1.j: Students know how eukaryotic cells are given shape and internal organization by a cytoskeleton or cell wall or both.

### GEN: Genetics

#### GEN.2: Mutation and sexual reproduction lead to genetic variation in a population. As a basis for understanding this concept:

GEN.2.e: Students know why approximately half of an individual's DNA sequence comes from each parent.

GEN.2.f: Students know the role of chromosomes in determining an individual's sex.

GEN.2.g: Students know how to predict possible combinations of alleles in a zygote from the genetic makeup of the parents.

#### GEN.3: A multicellular organism develops from a single zygote, and its phenotype depends on its genotype, which is established at fertilization. As a basis for understanding this concept:

GEN.3.a: Students know how to predict the probable outcome of phenotypes in a genetic cross from the genotypes of the parents and mode of inheritance (autosomal or X-linked, dominant or recessive).

#### GEN.4: Genes are a set of instructions encoded in the DNA sequence of each organism that specify the sequence of amino acids in proteins characteristic of that organism. As a basis for understanding this concept:

GEN.4.a: Students know the general pathway by which ribosomes synthesize proteins, using tRNAs to translate genetic information in mRNA.

GEN.4.b: Students know how to apply the genetic coding rules to predict the sequence of amino acids from a sequence of codons in RNA.

GEN.4.c: Students know how mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may or may not affect the expression of the gene or the sequence of amino acids in an encoded protein.

GEN.4.e: Students know proteins can differ from one another in the number and sequence of amino acids.

GEN.4.f: Students know why proteins having different amino acid sequences typically have different shapes and chemical properties.

#### GEN.5: The genetic composition of cells can be altered by incorporation of exogenous DNA into the cells. As a basis for understanding this concept:

GEN.5.a: Students know the general structures and functions of DNA, RNA, and protein.

GEN.5.b: Students know how to apply base-pairing rules to explain precise copying of DNA during semiconservative replication and transcription of information from DNA into mRNA.

### EC: Ecology

#### EC.6: Stability in an ecosystem is a balance between competing effects. As a basis for understanding this concept:

EC.6.a: Students know biodiversity is the sum total of different kinds of organisms and is affected by alterations of habitats.

EC.6.b: Students know how to analyze changes in an ecosystem resulting from changes in climate, human activity, introduction of nonnative species, or changes in population size.

EC.6.c: Students know how fluctuations in population size in an ecosystem are determined by the relative rates of birth, immigration, emigration, and death.

EC.6.d: Students know how water, carbon, and nitrogen cycle between abiotic resources and organic matter in the ecosystem and how oxygen cycles through photosynthesis and respiration.

EC.6.e: Students know a vital part of an ecosystem is the stability of its producers and decomposers.

### EV: Evolution

#### EV.7: The frequency of an allele in a gene pool of a population depends on many factors and may be stable or unstable over time. As a basis for understanding this concept:

EV.7.a: Students know why natural selection acts on the phenotype rather than the genotype of an organism.

EV.7.b: Students know why alleles that are lethal in a homozygous individual may be carried in a heterozygote and thus maintained in a gene pool.

EV.7.c: Students know new mutations are constantly being generated in a gene pool.

EV.7.e: Students know the conditions for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in a population and why these conditions are not likely to appear in nature.

EV.7.f: Students know how to solve the Hardy-Weinberg equation to predict the frequency of genotypes in a population, given the frequency of phenotypes.

#### EV.8: Evolution is the result of genetic changes that occur in constantly changing environments. As a basis for understanding this concept:

EV.8.a: Students know how natural selection determines the differential survival of groups of organisms.

EV.8.b: Students know a great diversity of species increases the chance that at least some organisms survive major changes in the environment.

EV.8.e: Students know how to analyze fossil evidence with regard to biological diversity, episodic speciation, and mass extinction.

### P: Physiology

#### P.9: As a result of the coordinated structures and functions of organ systems, the internal environment of the human body remains relatively stable (homeostatic) despite changes in the outside environment. As a basis for understanding this concept:

P.9.a: Students know how the complementary activity of major body systems provides cells with oxygen and nutrients and removes toxic waste products such as carbon dioxide.

P.9.c: Students know how feedback loops in the nervous and endocrine systems regulate conditions in the body.

P.9.f: Students know the individual functions and sites of secretion of digestive enzymes (amylases, proteases, nucleases, lipases), stomach acid, and bile salts.

#### P.10: Organisms have a variety of mechanisms to combat disease. As a basis for understanding the human immune response:

P.10.d: Students know there are important differences between bacteria and viruses with respect to their requirements for growth and replication, the body's primary defenses against bacterial and viral infections, and effective treatments of these infections.

### U: Earth's Place in the Universe

#### U.1: Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system's structure, scale, and change over time. As a basis for understanding this concept:

U.1.e: Students know the Sun is a typical star and is powered by nuclear reactions, primarily the fusion of hydrogen to form helium.

#### U.2: Earth-based and space-based astronomy reveal the structure, scale, and changes in stars, galaxies, and the universe over time. As a basis for understanding this concept:

U.2.d: Students know that stars differ in their life cycles and that visual, radio, and X-ray telescopes may be used to collect data that reveal those differences.

U.2.f: Students know the evidence indicating that the color, brightness, and evolution of a star are determined by a balance between gravitational collapse and nuclear fusion.

U.2.g: Students know how the red-shift from distant galaxies and the cosmic background radiation provide evidence for the "big bang" model that suggests that the universe has been expanding for 10 to 20 billion years.

### DP: Dynamic Earth Processes

#### DP.3: Plate tectonics operating over geologic time has changed the patterns of land, sea, and mountains on Earth's surface. As the basis for understanding this concept:

DP.3.b: Students know the principal structures that form at the three different kinds of plate boundaries.

DP.3.d: Students know why and how earthquakes occur and the scales used to measure their intensity and magnitude.

DP.3.e: Students know there are two kinds of volcanoes: one kind with violent eruptions producing steep slopes and the other kind with voluminous lava flows producing gentle slopes.

DP.3.f: Students know the explanation for the location and properties of volcanoes that are due to hot spots and the explanation for those that are due to subduction.

### E: Energy in the Earth System

#### E.4: Energy enters the Earth system primarily as solar radiation and eventually escapes as heat. As a basis for understanding this concept:

E.4.b: Students know the fate of incoming solar radiation in terms of reflection, absorption, and photosynthesis.

E.4.c: Students know the different atmospheric gases that absorb the Earth's thermal radiation and the mechanism and significance of the greenhouse effect.

E.4.d: Students know the differing greenhouse conditions on Earth, Mars, and Venus; the origins of those conditions; and the climatic consequences of each.

#### E.6: Climate is the long-term average of a region's weather and depends on many factors. As a basis for understanding this concept:

E.6.b: Students know the effects on climate of latitude, elevation, topography, and proximity to large bodies of water and cold or warm ocean currents.

E.6.d: Students know how computer models are used to predict the effects of the increase in greenhouse gases on climate for the planet as a whole and for specific regions.

### BG: Biogeochemical Cycles

#### BG.7: Each element on Earth moves among reservoirs, which exist in the solid earth, in oceans, in the atmosphere, and within and among organisms as part of biogeochemical cycles. As a basis for understanding this concept:

BG.7.a: Students know the carbon cycle of photosynthesis and respiration and the nitrogen cycle.

BG.7.b: Students know the global carbon cycle: the different physical and chemical forms of carbon in the atmosphere, oceans, biomass, fossil fuels, and the movement of carbon among these reservoirs.

BG.7.d: Students know the relative residence times and flow characteristics of carbon in and out of its different reservoirs.

Correlation last revised: 5/8/2018

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this state's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.