12.11.03: Identify the following basic animal types by their common characteristics: sponges, cnidarians, flatworms and roundworms, mollusks, arthropods, echinoderms, invertebrate chordates, and vertebrates.
12.11.04: Identify the similarities and differences between plant and animal cells (i.e., know the various fundamental organelles of plant and animal cells and be able to distinguish these organelles in diagrams).
12.11.07: Understand that chloroplasts in plant cells capture useable energy from sunlight and store it for future use by synthesizing sugar out of carbon dioxide and water.
12.11.11: Understand how prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells (whether of animals or plants and whether unicellular or multicellular), and viruses differ in complexity and structure. In particular:
126.96.36.199: Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have nuclei and membrane bound organelles.
12.11.13: Identify and be able to apply the following concepts: trait, alleles, dominant allele, recessive allele, gametes, genotype, homozygous, heterozygous, chromosome, meiosis, and mitosis.
12.11.17: Know why about half of an individual's DNA sequence comes from each parent. Understand that most of the cells in a human contain pairs of 22 different autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes.
12.11.18: Understand that in humans there is a pair of chromosomes that determines sex: a female usually contains two X chromosomes and a male usually contains one X and one Y chromosome.
12.11.22: Understand that a gene is a set of instructions in the DNA sequence of each organism that specifies the sequence of amino acids in polypeptides characteristic of that organism.
12.11.23: Understand the general steps by which ribosomes synthesize proteins, using information from mRNA and from amino acids delivered by tRNA.
12.11.25: Understand that natural selection acts on the phenotype, not the genotype, of an organism.
12.11.26: Understand that alleles that are lethal in a homozygous individual may be carried in a heterozygote and thus maintained in a gene pool.
12.11.29: Understand that the millions of different species of plants, animals, and microorganisms that live on Earth today are related to each other by descent from common ancestors and that biological classifications are based on how organisms are related.
12.11.30: Understand how to analyze fossil evidence with regard to mass extinction, episodic speciation, and biological diversity.
12.11.31: Understand the causes of ecosystem disruptions: changes in climate, human activity, introduction of a nonnative species, changes in population size, sudden natural disasters.
12.11.32: Know that fluctuations in population size are determined by the relative rates of birth, immigration, emigration, and death.
12.11.36: Understand the effects upon the population of a species caused by various ecological factors, particularly
12.11.36.b: the presence (or absence) of and number of predators,
12.11.36.c: the abundance or scarcity of food sources.
12.11.37: Identify the most familiar elements by name and some of their most familiar properties. Identify the chemical symbols for familiar elements.
12.11.38: Know that atoms are made of sub-atomic particles (protons, neutrons, electrons) which have positive, neutral, or negative charges. Understand that the periodic table displays the elements in increasing atomic number and shows how periodicity of the physical and chemical properties of the elements relates to atomic structure.
12.11.39: Understand how to relate the position of an element in the periodic table to its chemical properties.
12.11.41: Know that there is a kind of periodicity in the physical properties of chemical elements, that the periodic table arranges them accordingly, and that this way of ordering them corresponds to the order in their atomic structures. Understand that the major groups of chemical elements are:
188.8.131.52: nonmetals (boron family, carbon family, nitrogen family, oxygen family, halogen family, noble gases),
184.108.40.206: rare Earth elements.
12.11.42: Know that there are two major different kinds of bonds (ionic and covalent). Know the distinction between a compound and a mixture.
12.11.43: Understand how to use the periodic table to identify the trends in relative sizes of ions and atoms.
12.11.44: Understand how to use the periodic table to determine the number of electrons available for bonding.
12.11.47: Understand the different states of matter: solid, liquid, gas, plasma. Define freezing, melting, boiling, condensing, and sublimation.
12.11.48: Understand that the temperature of water (or any substance) is constant during phase changes, even when heat is being added or removed.
12.11.49: Understand that the kinetic molecular theory explains the properties of gases by the random motion of molecules in them. For example, the collisions of these particles with a surface create an observable pressure on that surface, and their motion explains the diffusion of gases.
12.11.50: Understand how to apply the gas laws to relations between pressure, temperature, and volume of any amount of an ideal gas. Understand Boyle's Law and Charles' Law and how to logically solve problems.
12.11.52: Understand how to convert between Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales. Understand that there is no temperature lower than 0 Kelvin, or absolute zero.
12.11.53: Understand that in chemical reactions, atoms combine into molecules by means of bonds (e.g., by sharing electrons to form covalent or metallic bonds or by exchanging electrons to form ionic bonds).
12.11.55: Understand that ionic solids like NaCl (sodium chloride, ordinary table salt) are formed from a three-dimensional repeating pattern of alternating positive and negative ions, held together by electrostatic forces (ionic bonds).
12.11.56: Understand that the conservation of atoms in a chemical reaction, as summarized in a balanced chemical equation, leads to the ability to calculate theoretical masses of reactants and products.
12.11.57: Understand how to read, interpret, and balance chemical equations.
12.11.59: Understand that energy is exchanged or transformed in all chemical reactions and physical changes of matter. Understand that chemical processes can either release (exothermic) or absorb (endothermic) thermal energy. Understand that energy is released when a material condenses or freezes and is absorbed when a material evaporates, melts, or sublimes.
12.11.62: Use the pH scale to characterize acidic and basic solutions. Understand the definition of pH as the negative logarithm of the hydronium ion concentration, and understand what the log scale means.
12.11.64: Understand that energy, defined somewhat circularly, is "the ability to change matter," or "the ability to do work." Understand that energy is defined by the way it is measured or quantified. Understand the difference between potential and kinetic energy.
12.11.65: Understand that a magnetic field is generated around an electrical current and that the motion of a conducting wire through a magnetic field generates a current through it. Understand that in some substances, such as metals, electrons flow easily, whereas in insulating materials such as glass they can hardly flow at all. Semiconducting materials have intermediate behavior. At very low temperatures, some materials offer no resistance to the flow of electrons and become superconductors.
12.11.67: Know the first two laws of thermodynamics:
220.127.116.11: Energy is conserved (neither created nor destroyed) and
18.104.22.168: Heat flows naturally from a hot object to a cold object; heat will not flow spontaneously from a cold object to a hot object. Understand that another statement of the Second Law is that no device is possible whose sole effect is to transform a given amount of heat completely into work.
12.11.70: Understand the reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, and frame of reference properties of waves.
12.11.71: Understand that sound causes molecules of a medium to vibrate back and forth. This series of compressions and rarefactions produces waves.
12.11.72: Understand how sound travels through different mediums.
12.11.73: Understand amplitude, frequency, wavelength, intensity, and quality. Know that intensity is measured in decibels.
12.11.74: Understand that the magnitude of a force F is defined as F = ma (Force equals Mass times Acceleration). Know how to perform such calculations. Understand that whenever one object exerts force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted on the first object. Understand that when two objects exert forces on each other, momentum is conserved.
12.11.75: Understand that objects change their velocity only when a net force is applied (the law of inertia). Students will be able to distinguish between inertial mass and gravitational mass.
12.11.76: Understand simple machines and how they provide mechanical advantage. For example, know that a lever is like a balance and that to balance it requires the weights (or forces) applied on each end to be in the inverse ratio to that of their distances from the fulcrum. Thus the mechanical advantage increases with greater distance from the fulcrum.
12.11.77: Understand the principles of air pressure and fluid dynamics. Understand Archimedes' Principle and Bernoulli's Principle. Understand that air pressure decreases as altitude increases. Understand that pressure in a liquid increases as the depth increases. Understand how a hydraulic lift (such as the kind used to raise a car for repairs) confers mechanical advantage.
12.11.78: Understand the universal law of gravitation: that gravitation is a force that every mass exerts on every other mass. The strength of the gravitational attractive force between two masses is proportional to the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them (inverse square law).
12.11.79: Understand the types of motion such as linear, circular, parabolic, and periodic. Explain and predict motions in inertial and accelerated frames of reference.
12.11.80: Understand that the electrical force is a universal force that exists between any two charged objects. Opposite charges attract, like charges repel. The strength of the force is proportional to the charges, and, like gravity, it is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the charged bodies.
12.11.81: Understand that between any two charged particles, the electrical force is vastly greater than the gravitational force. Most observable forces such as those exerted by a coiled spring or friction may be traced to electrical forces acting between atoms and molecules.
12.11.89: Differentiate between the two main kinds of volcanoes: one kind with violent eruptions producing steep slopes and another kind with voluminous lava flows producing gentle slopes.
12.11.90: Understand that energy enters the systems of Earth chiefly as solar radiation and eventually escapes again as heat.
12.11.91: Understand that incoming solar radiation is either reflected or absorbed.
12.11.98: Understand that carbon dioxide increases the greenhouse effect in our atmosphere and that it is produced whenever carbon-containing fuels are burned (e.g., wood, coal, charcoal, oil, natural gas). Understand that removing forests removes trees which absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen.
12.11.103: Analyze the life cycles of stars, and compare stars of different masses.
12.11.105: Understand the Doppler effect with respect to light (red and blue shifts) and sound (e.g., the sound of an approaching train's whistle vs. the sound of the whistle moving away). Understand that astronomers use the Doppler shift to estimate the distance of objects millions and billions of light-years away.
12.11.106: Understand the effects of gravity within the solar system. Understand that the tides are caused by the gravitational interaction among the earth, moon, and sun.
Correlation last revised: 4/4/2018