Program of Studies
1.1.7: appreciate that our understanding of matter has been enhanced by the evidence obtained from the application of technology, particularly instruments for making measurements and managing data.
1.1.1: develop a questioning attitude and a desire to understand more about matter
1.1.1.A: the composition of solutions can be accurately described, by extending from Science 8, Unit 1, and Science 10, Unit 1 and Unit 3, the meaning of solute, solvent, dissolving, solution, solubility and the properties of water, and by:
1.1.1.A.3: defining concentration in terms of molarity (moles per litre of solution)
1.1.1.A.6: describing an equilibrium system in a saturated solution in terms of equal rates of dissolving and crystallization.
1.1.2: appreciate that scientific evidence is the foundation for generalizations and explanations about matter
1.1.2.B: using a balance and volumetric glassware to prepare solutions of specified concentration
1.2.2.A: using indicators, pH and conductivity to perform experiments to differentiate among acidic, basic and neutral solutions
1.2.3: STS Connections
1.2.3.A: understanding that acids and bases affect the chemistry of aqueous systems by defining acids and bases, by differentiating among acidic, basic and neutral solutions, using simple tests, writing ionization equations, and calculating the concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions in solution and pH, within the context of:
1.2.3.A.5: any other relevant context.
1.3.1.A: The behaviour of gases has been extensively described, and relationships quantified, by extending from science 7, unit 4, the concept of temperature and from science 10, unit 4, the kinetic molecular theory and how it accounts for the properties of solids, liquids and gases, and by:
1.3.1.A.1: performing calculations, using Boyle's and Charles' laws, and illustrating how they are related to the combined gas law
1.3.1.A.2: relating Boyle's, Charles' and Avogadro's laws to the ideal gas law
1.3.1.A.5: describing the behaviour of real and ideal gases, in terms of the kinetic molecular theory.
1.3.2.A: drawing and interpreting graphs of experimental data that relate pressure and temperature to gas volume
1.3.2.B: designing and performing an experiment to illustrate the gas laws, which identify and control variables
1.3.3: STS Connections
1.3.3.A: understanding the behaviour of gases by relating the gas laws proposed by Boyle, Charles and Avogadro to the ideal gas law, describing the behaviour of real and ideal gases in terms of the kinetic molecular theory; and by drawing and interpreting graphs that relate pressure and temperature to gas volume; designing, performing and evaluating experiments to illustrate the gas laws, and carrying out calculations based on the gas laws, within the context of:
1.3.3.A.1: providing examples of processes and products from daily life that illustrate the application of the properties of gases; e.g., breathing, olfaction, weather, scuba diving, ammonia fertilizer, internal combustion engine, steam turbine, hot air balloon, automobile air bag
1.3.3.A.4: any other relevant context.
2.1.2: appreciate the importance of careful laboratory techniques and precise calculations for obtaining accurate results
2.1.3: develop confidence in their ability to reason mathematically
2.1.4: value the role of technology, such as calculators and balances, in problem solving
2.1.1: develop a positive attitude toward mathematical and scientific process skills
2.1.1.A: the mole ratios in balanced chemical reaction equations provide quantitative information about the substances involved, by extending from Science 10, Unit 3, the balancing of equations and the meaning of molar mass, and from Chemistry 20, Unit 1, the properties of solutions and gases, and by:
2.1.1.A.2: analyzing chemical equations in terms of atoms, molecules, ionic species and moles
2.1.1.A.4: using gravimetric, solutions and gas stoichiometry to predict quantities of reactants/products involved in chemical reactions
2.1.1.A.5: using estimation and unit analysis in stoichiometric calculations
2.1.1.A.6: explaining stoichiometric calculations, using chemical principles.
2.1.2.B: performing experiments to test the validity of assumptions contained in stoichiometric methods, by, for example, predicting reaction results, then measuring the amount of product obtained from a reaction, and calculating the per cent yield.
2.1.3.A: understanding that balanced chemical equations indicate quantitative relationships between reactants and products by analyzing chemical equations, performing and explaining stoichiometric predictions; and by performing experiments to test the assumptions contained in stoichiometric methods, within the context of:
2.1.3.A.1: analyzing, using stoichiometric and chemical principles, the chemical reactions involved in various industrial and commercial processes and products; e.g., fertilizers, production of sodium and chlorine in the Downs cell, Haber-Bosch production of ammonia, combustion of fuels, water treatment, inflation of automobile air bags
2.1.3.A.3: any other relevant context.
2.2.1.A: stoichiometric methods are important in quantitative analysis, by extending from Chemistry 20, Unit 1, solution concentrations, and by:
2.2.1.A.4: identifying limiting species in chemical reactions, and calculating predicted and experimental yields
2.2.3: STS Connections
2.2.3.A: understanding the relationships among amounts of reactants and products in chemical changes, limiting species, predicted and experimental yields; and by designing, performing and evaluating experiments and carrying out calculations, based on quantitative analysis, to determine the concentration of a solution, within the context of:
2.2.3.A.3: evaluating the significance of specific by-products from industrial, commercial and household applications of chemical reactions in terms of using technology to improve per cent yield, decrease waste and reduce environmental impact; e.g., recovering SO2(g) from smokestacks, installing catalytic afterburners on cars, finding alternatives to chlorine for disinfecting and bleaching
2.2.3.A.4: any other relevant context.
3.1.1: develop curiosity about the nature of chemical bonding
3.1.2: appreciate the usefulness of models and theories in helping to explain the structure and behaviour of matter
3.1.1.A: theories about bonding propose that chemical bonds involve electron transfer or sharing, by extending from Science 10, Unit 3, the simple model of the atom, the organization of the periodic table and the differences in properties of ionic and covalent compounds, and by:
3.1.1.A.1: defining a chemical bond as resulting from the simultaneous attraction of electrons by two atomic nuclei
3.1.1.A.3: defining valence electron, electronegativity, electron pairing, ionic bond and covalent bond
3.1.1.A.10: relating the terms oxidation and reduction to bonds forming between metals and nonmetals; e.g., corrosion.
3.1.2.B: using the periodic table as a tool for predicting the formation of ionic and molecular compounds
3.1.2.C: writing half-reactions for the formation of simple ionic compounds, showing oxidation of metals and reduction of nonmetals; then balancing for charge and combining into a single equation;
3.1.2.E: using data contained in the periodic table and the activity series to predict bonding and electron transfer between elements
3.1.2.F: drawing electron dot diagrams of atoms and molecules, writing structural formulas for compounds, and using Lewis structures to predict bonding in simple molecules.
3.1.3: value the need for safe handling, storing and disposing of chemicals and materials
3.1.3.A: understanding that chemical bonds involve electron transfer or sharing, by comparing and contrasting intermolecular and intramolecular bonding; building models of compounds, using the periodic table and activity series to predict bonding; designing and performing an experiment to investigate the activity series of metals, and drawing electron dot diagrams and Lewis structures, within the context of:
3.1.3.A.2: relating the chemical principles embedded in bonding theories, oxidation and reduction, and the activity series to terms such as "precious" metal, rusting, stability and reactivity
3.1.3.A.4: describing the central role of experimental evidence in the accumulation of knowledge, by relating the properties; e.g., melting and boiling points, solubility, density and viscosity, of common substances to their predicted intermolecular and intramolecular bonding
3.1.3.A.6: any other relevant context.
4.1.4: develop an awareness that, as a result of chemistry, synthetic compounds of great benefit to society have been produced
4.1.1: develop an appreciation of the diversity of organic compounds and their significance to daily life
4.1.1.A: organic compounds have distinguishing characteristics, by extending from Chemistry 20, Unit 3, ionic covalent bonding, and by:
4.1.1.A.1: comparing organic and inorganic compounds in terms of the presence of carbon, bonding and related properties, and natural sources
4.1.1.A.2: describing the composition and structural formulas for aliphatic (including cyclic) and aromatic hydrocarbons
4.1.1.A.3: providing names and formulas for examples of the organic compounds described above
4.1.2: appreciate that science and technology provide many useful products
4.1.2.A: using safe substances and procedures to perform an experiment to investigate the physical and chemical properties of representative examples of organic compounds
4.1.2.C: building molecular models depicting the structures of simple organic compounds.
4.1.3: value the need for safe handling, storing and disposing of chemicals and materials
4.1.3.A: understanding that organic compounds have distinguishing characteristics by comparing them with inorganic compounds; describing the composition of and providing names and structural formulas for various hydrocarbons and their derivatives; and by investigating the physical and chemical properties of representative examples of organic compounds and building models depicting the structures of simple examples, within the context of:
4.1.3.A.1: comparing examples of organic and inorganic compounds, where they are found and how they are used in processes and products common to everyday life
4.1.3.A.3: any other relevant context.
4.2.1.A: organic compounds undergo a variety of chemical reactions, by extending from Science 9, Unit 5 and Science 10, Unit 3, chemical change, and by:
4.2.1.A.2: writing and balancing chemical equations for the reactions described above
4.2.2.B: synthesizing an organic compound; e.g., an alcohol, an ester, a polymer, a soap.
4.2.3: STS Connections
4.2.3.A: understanding that organic compounds undergo a variety of chemical changes by defining, giving examples of and writing chemical equations for various reactions; and by synthesizing an organic compound in the laboratory and building models to depict polymerization, within the context of:
4.2.3.A.3: assessing the positive and negative effects of synthetically produced organic compounds, recognizing that the development of these products has played a major role in quality of life and standard of living but that a practical solution to related social and environmental problems often requires a compromise between competing priorities
4.2.3.A.4: any other relevant context.
Correlation last revised: 2/26/2010