2A: The student will develop an understanding of the structure of atoms, compounds, chemical reactions, and the interactions of energy and matter.

2A.1: The student will understand the structure of the atom.

2A.1.1: understands atoms, the fundamental organizational unit of matter, are composed of subatomic particles. Chemists are primarily interested in the protons, electrons, and neutrons found in the atom.

 Element Builder

2A.1.2: understands isotopes are atoms with the same atomic number (same number of protons) but different numbers of neutrons. The nuclei of some atoms are radioactive isotopes that spontaneously decay, releasing radioactive energy.

 Element Builder
 Nuclear Decay

2A.2: The students will understand the states and properties of matter.

2A.2.2: understands the periodic table lists elements according to increasing atomic number. This table organizes physical and chemical trends by groups, periods, and sub-categories.

 Electron Configuration
 Element Builder
 Ionic Bonds

2A.2.3: understands chemical bonds result when valence electrons are transferred or shared between atoms. Breaking a chemical bond requires energy. Formation of a chemical bond releases energy. Ionic compounds result from atoms transferring electrons. Molecular compounds result from atoms sharing electrons. For example, carbon atoms can bond to each other in chains, rings, and branching networks. Branched network and metallic solids also result from bonding.

 Covalent Bonds
 Electron Configuration
 Ionic Bonds

2A.3: The student will gain a basic concept of chemical reactions.

2A.3.1: understands a chemical reaction occurs when one or more substances (reactants) react to form a different chemical substance(s) (products). There are different types of chemical reactions all of which demonstrate the Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy.

 Balancing Chemical Equations
 Chemical Changes
 Chemical Equations
 Equilibrium and Concentration

2A.3.2: understands how to perform mathematical calculations regarding the Law of Conservation of Matter, i.e., through stoichiometric relationships.

 Chemical Equations

2A.3.3: understands the differences and reactions between acids, bases, and salts. Perform calculations to determine the concentration of ions in solutions.


2B: The student will develop an understanding of the structure of atoms, compounds, chemical reactions, and the interactions of energy and matter.

2B.1: The student will understand the relationships between force and motion.

2B.1.1: understands Newton?s Laws and the variables of time, position, velocity, and acceleration can be used to describe the position and motion of particles.

 Atwood Machine
 Distance-Time Graphs
 Fan Cart Physics
 Free Fall Tower
 Free-Fall Laboratory
 Golf Range
 Shoot the Monkey

2B.1.2: understands physicists use conservation laws to analyze the motion of objects.

 2D Collisions
 Air Track
 Energy Conversion in a System
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Roller Coaster Physics

2B.2: The student will understand the conservation of mass and energy, and the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics.

2B.2.1: understands matter has energy. Mass and energy can be interchanged. The total energy in the universe is constant, but the type of energy may vary.

 Energy Conversion in a System
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Roller Coaster Physics

2B.2.2: understands the first law of thermodynamics states the total internal energy of a substance (the sum of all the kinetic and potential energies of its constituent molecules) will change only if heat is exchanged with the environment or work is done on or by the substance. In any physical interaction, the total energy in the universe is conserved.

 Energy Conversion in a System

2B.3: The student will understand the nature of the fundamental interactions of matter and energy.

2B.3.1: There are four fundamental forces in nature: strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force, electromagnetic force, and gravitational force.

 Free Fall Tower
 Free-Fall Laboratory
 Gravitational Force
 Pith Ball Lab

2B.3.2: understands waves have energy and can transfer energy when they interact with matter.

 Heat Absorption

2B.3.3: The student understand interference ? how waves interact with other waves.

 Sound Beats and Sine Waves

2B.3.4: The student will understand the principles of reflection and refraction.

 Ray Tracing (Lenses)
 Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

2B.3.6: The student understands basic electrostatics and circuits.

 Charge Launcher

3: The student will develop an understanding of the cell, molecular basis of heredity, biological evolution, interdependence of organisms, matter, energy, and organization in living systems, and the behavior of organisms.

3.1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function of the cell.

3.1.1: understands cells are composed of a variety of specialized structures that carry out specific functions.

 Cell Structure
 Paramecium Homeostasis
 RNA and Protein Synthesis

3.1.3: understands cells function and replicate as a result of information stored in DNA and RNA molecules.

 Cell Division
 RNA and Protein Synthesis

3.1.4: understands some plant cells contain chloroplasts, which are the sites of photosynthesis.

 Cell Energy Cycle
 Cell Structure

3.2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of chromosomes, genes, and the molecular basis of heredity.

3.2.1: understands living organisms contain DNA or RNA as their genetic material, which provides the instructions that specify the characteristics of organisms.

 RNA and Protein Synthesis

3.2.2: understands organisms usually have a characteristic number of chromosomes; one pair of these may determine the sex of individuals.

 Human Karyotyping

3.2.3: understands hereditary information is contained in genes, located in the chromosomes of each cell.

 Human Karyotyping

3.2.5: understands expressed mutations occur in DNA at very low rates.

 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection

3.3: The student will understand biological evolution.

3.3.2: understands populations of organisms adapt to environmental challenges and changes as a result of natural selection, genetic drift, and various mechanisms of genetic change.

 Rainfall and Bird Beaks

3.3.3: understands biological evolution is used to explain the earth?s present day biodiversity: the number, variety and variability of organisms.

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection

3.3.4: understands organisms vary widely within and between populations. Variation allows for natural selection to occur.

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection
 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection
 Rainfall and Bird Beaks

3.3.5: understands the primary mechanism acting on variation is natural selection.

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection
 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection
 Natural Selection
 Rainfall and Bird Beaks

3.4: The student will understand the interdependence of organisms and their interaction with the physical environment.

3.4.1: understands atoms and molecules on the earth cycle among the living and nonliving components of the biosphere.

 Carbon Cycle
 Cell Energy Cycle

3.4.2: understands energy is received, transformed and expended in ecosystems.

 Food Chain

3.4.3: understands the distribution and abundance of organisms and populations in ecosystems are limited by the carrying capacity.

 Food Chain
 Prairie Ecosystem
 Rabbit Population by Season

3.4.4: understands organisms cooperate and compete in complex, interdependent relationships

 Food Chain

3.4.5: understands human beings live within and impact ecosystems.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Coral Reefs 2 - Biotic Factors
 Pond Ecosystem

3.5: The student will develop an understanding of matter, energy, and organization in living systems.

3.5.2: understands the sun is the primary source of energy for life through the process of photosynthesis.

 Cell Energy Cycle
 Photosynthesis Lab
 Pond Ecosystem

3.5.3: understands food molecules contain biochemical energy, which is then available for cellular respiration.

 Cell Energy Cycle

3.6: The student will understand the behavior of animals.

3.6.1: understands animals have behavioral responses to internal changes and to external stimuli.

 Human Homeostasis

3.7: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the diversity of structure and function in organisms.

3.7.1: understands differences in structure and function among organisms and can identify the characteristics of relevant life forms.

 Dichotomous Keys
 Pollination: Flower to Fruit

3.7.4: understands that in complex organisms there is a division of labor into specific body systems i.e., respiration, digestion, nervous, endocrine, excretion, circulatory, reproductive, immune, skeletal and muscle.

 Circulatory System

4: The student will develop an understanding of energy in the earth system, geochemical cycles, the formation and organization of the earth system, the dynamics of the earth/moon/sun system, and the organization and development of the universe.

4.1: The student will develop an understanding of the sources of energy that power the subsystems and cycles of the dynamic earth: the geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.

4.1.3: The ultimate source of atmospheric and oceanic energy comes from the sun. Energy flow drives global climate and weather. Climate and weather are influenced by geographic features, cloud cover, and the earth?s rotation.

 Coastal Winds and Clouds

4.1.4: Understands the processes of water cycling through surface water (oceans, lakes, streams, glaciers), ground water (aquifers), and the atmosphere. (hydrological cycle)

 Water Cycle

4.3: The student will develop an understanding of dynamics of our solar system.

4.3.1: understands gravitational attraction of objects in the solar system keeps solar system objects in orbit.

 Gravity Pitch
 Orbital Motion - Kepler's Laws

4.3.2: understands the relationship between the earth, moon, and sun explains the seasons, tides and moon phases.

 Moonrise, Moonset, and Phases
 Phases of the Moon
 Seasons Around the World
 Seasons in 3D
 Seasons: Why do we have them?

4.3.3: understands the relative sizes and distances of objects in the solar system.

 Solar System Explorer

Correlation last revised: 1/20/2017

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this state's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.