Program of Studies
1.1.1: foster curiosity about the structure and function of the human organism's endocrine and neural control systems and their role in maintaining homeostasis
1.1.3: develop a commitment to learning about the functioning of the neural and endocrine systems and the importance of maintaining personal health
1.1.3.A: understanding how human physiological processes are regulated by electrochemical control systems, describing the structure and function of neurons, the central and peripheral nervous systems, and sensory input transducers; and/or by observing the principal features of a neuron, mammalian brain and eye; and designing and performing experiments to investigate reflex arcs and sensory input, within the context of:
1.1.3.A.6: evaluating the impact of photoperiod, light wavelength and duration on the human organism
1.2.1.A: endocrine systems coordinate other organ systems through feedback to maintain internal homeostasis as well as the organism's equilibrium with the environment, by extending from Biology 20, Unit 4, the maintenance of metabolic equilibrium, and by:
1.2.1.A.3: explaining the metabolic roles hormones play in homeostasis; i.e., thyroxine to metabolism, insulin to blood sugar regulation, HGH to growth, ADH to water regulation
1.2.2.B: inferring the role of ADH and aldosterone in the maintenance of homeostasis of water and ions, by the analysis and interpretation of data on blood and urine composition
2.1.1: appreciate that there are biological and societal aspects to the study of reproduction
2.1.1.A: human organisms have evolved a specialized series of ducts and tubes to facilitate the union of an egg and sperm, by:
2.1.1.A.1: describing hormonal and chromosomal factors and explaining the physiological events resulting in the formation of the primary (gonads) and secondary (associated structures) reproductive organs in the female and male fetus
2.2.1.A: the development of sexual anatomy and sexual functioning is influenced by hormones, by:
2.2.1.A.4: comparing the cyclical patterns of reproduction in humans with that of nonprimate mammals.
2.2.3: STS Connections
2.2.3.A: understanding that human reproductive success, development of secondary sexual characteristics, formation of gametes and reproductive system maintenance are regulated by hormones; and by analyzing and inferring from data and physiological events the roles of sex hormones, within the context of:
2.2.3.A.2: explaining how reproductive hormone homeostasis is disrupted by the natural aging process
3.1.4: appreciate the usefulness of computational competence and the problem-solving skills required by classical genetics
3.1.7: appreciate, and be critical about, current research and theories concerning genetic information.
3.1.1: be open-minded toward new evidence, and be aware of the changes it may promote
3.1.1.A: chromosomes are duplicated before cells divide; that daughter cells get one complete set of chromosomes; that chromosome number must be reduced before fertilization; and that variations in the combination of genes on a chromosome can occur during that reduction, by recalling from Science 10, Unit 2, that growth may involve increasing cell number, and by:
3.1.1.A.1: explaining, in general, the events of the cell cycle, including cytokinesis, and chromosomal behaviour in mitosis and meiosis
3.1.1.A.4: comparing the processes of mitosis and meiosis
3.1.1.A.6: describing the diversity of reproductive strategies by comparing the alternation of generations in a range of plants and animals; i.e., pine, bee, mammal.
3.1.2: appreciate that extension of learning requires new knowledge, skills, attitudes and risk taking
3.1.2.A: identifying the stages of the cell cycle; and calculating the duration of each stage from observations of prepared slides of onion root tip cells
3.1.2.D: researching a range of reproductive strategies in seed plants and animals; and presenting this information in the form of charts, tables or diagrams; e.g., budding, spore production, binary fission
3.1.2.E: preparing and interpreting models of human karyotypes.
3.1.3: value the development of information, science and technology, while continuing to cultivate human values
3.1.3.A: understanding that mitosis results in cell division and genetic continuity, and meiosis results in gamete formation and genetic variation; and by observing actively dividing cells, performing meiosis simulations and researching reproductive strategies in plants and animals, within the context of:
3.1.3.A.2: evaluating how a knowledge of cell division might be applied to the limitation of cancerous growth in plants or animals
3.1.3.A.4: evaluating the impact of research in plant and animal reproduction on our understanding of mitosis and meiosis in humans
3.1.3.A.5: any other relevant context.
3.2.1.A: chromosomes consist of a sequence of genes and their alleles, and that during meiosis and fertilization these genes become combined in new sequences, by extending from Biology 30, Unit 2, fertilization and development in the human organism, and by:
3.2.1.A.1: describing the evidence for the segregation of genes and the independent assortment of genes on different chromosomes, as investigated by Mendel
3.2.1.A.3: explaining the significance of sex chromosomes compared to autosomes, as investigated by Morgan.
3.2.2.A: performing experiments to investigate the relationships between chance and genetic inheritance
3.2.2.B: performing simulations to investigate monohybrid and dihybrid genetic crosses, by using Punnett squares
3.2.2.D: drawing and interpreting pedigree charts from data on human single allele and multiple allele inheritance patterns; e.g., blood types
3.2.2.F: designing and performing an experiment to demonstrate the inheritance pattern of a trait controlled by a single pair of genes.
3.2.3: STS Connections
3.2.3.A: understanding how genetic characters are handed down by simple rules; and describing evidence for gene segregation and explaining the significance of crossing over and sex chromosomes; and by drawing and interpreting pedigree charts; and performing simulations or experiments to predict inheritance patterns, within the context of:
3.2.3.A.1: evaluating, from a variety of perspectives, the needs and interests of society and the role of genetic counselling in the identification and treatment of potentially disabling genetic disorders; e.g., phenylketonuria
3.2.3.A.3: discussing biotechnology and gene replacement therapy in the treatment of human genetic disorders
3.2.3.A.4: any other relevant context.
3.3.1.A: genetic information in chromosomes is translated into protein structure; that the information may be manipulated; and that the manipulated information may be used to transform cells, by:
3.3.1.A.1: summarizing the historical events that led to the discovery of the structure of the DNA molecule, as described by Watson and Crick
3.3.1.A.2: describing, in general, how genetic information is contained in the sequence of bases in DNA molecules in chromosomes; how the DNA molecules replicate themselves; how the information is transcribed into sequences of bases in RNA molecules and is finally translated into sequences of amino acids in proteins
3.3.1.A.3: explaining, in general, how restriction enzymes and ligases may cut DNA molecules into smaller fragments and reassemble them with new sequences of bases
3.3.1.A.5: explaining how a random change (mutation) in the sequence of bases provides a source of genetic variability
3.3.1.A.6: explaining how information in nucleic acids contained in the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts gives evidence for the relationships among organisms of different species.
3.3.2.A: predicting the general arrangement of genes in a chromosome, from analysis of data on crossing over between genes in a single pair of chromosomes
3.3.2.B: designing and constructing models of DNA to demonstrate the general structure and base arrangement
3.3.2.C: performing simulations to demonstrate the replication of DNA and the transcription and translation of its information
3.3.3: STS Connections
3.3.3.A: understanding how DNA structure and function can explain classical genetics; and explaining DNA manipulation, mutations and DNA evidence for organism relationships; and by predicting gene sequences; designing and constructing DNA models; performing experiments to demonstrate DNA expression; and analyzing and inferring the relationship between human activities and mutations, within the context of:
3.3.3.A.3: discussing the Human Genome Project in terms of the needs, interests and financial support of society
3.3.3.A.6: any other relevant context.
4.1.2: appreciate the usefulness of computational competence and problem-solving skills required by population genetics
4.1.5: appreciate that change occurs in populations and communities over very long and short time scales
4.1.6: value the knowledge that all organisms have an important role in maintaining the life of the planet
4.1.1: be open-minded toward new evidence and be aware of the changes it may promote
4.1.1.A: populations can be defined in terms of their gene pools, by extending from Biology 20, Unit 3, the nature of variation and adaptation in populations, and by:
4.1.1.A.1: describing the Hardy-Weinberg principle and explaining its importance to population gene pool stability and the significance of nonequilibrium values; e.g., evolution of a population
4.1.1.A.2: describing the conditions that cause the gene pool diversity to change; e.g., random genetic drift, gene migration, differential reproduction
4.1.1.A.3: applying, quantitatively, the Hardy-Weinberg principle to observed and published data
4.1.1.A.4: describing the molecular basis and significance of gene pool change over time; i.e., mutations.
4.1.2.A: calculating and interpreting problem-solving exercises involving the Hardy-Weinberg principle expressed as p² + 2pq + q² = 1
4.1.2.B: performing experiments and/or computer simulations to demonstrate population growth and gene pool change.
4.1.2.C: calculating and interpreting problem-solving exercises involving the Hardy-Weinberg principle expressed as p² + 2pq + q² = 1
4.1.2.D: performing experiments and/or computer simulations to demonstrate population growth and gene pool change.
4.1.3: develop a positive attitude toward mathematical and scientific process skills
4.1.3.A: understanding that communities consist of population-specific gene pools; and explaining the significance of the Hardy-Weinberg principle and the molecular basis of gene pool change over time; and by applying and interpreting the Hardy-Weinberg principle, and performing experiments to demonstrate population growth, within the context of:
4.1.3.A.3: assessing the role and importance of models in science to explain observable phenomena; e.g., the Hardy-Weinberg principle
4.1.3.A.4: any other relevant context.
4.2.1.A: interactions occur among members of the same population of a species as well as among members of populations of different species, by:
4.2.1.A.2: describing the relationships between predator and prey species and their influence on population changes; and explaining the role of defence mechanisms in predation; e.g., mimicry, protective colouration
4.2.1.A.3: explaining how mixtures of populations that define communities may change over time or remain as a climax community; e.g., primary succession, secondary succession.
4.2.2.C: performing simulations to investigate the relationships between predators and their prey
4.2.3: STS Connections
4.2.3.A: understanding that individuals interact with each other and other populations, and that communities and their populations change over time; and by summarizing and evaluating relationships; and by performing predatory- prey simulations; and designing and performing experiments demonstrating biotic interactions, within the context of:
4.2.3.A.1: discussing the implications of the predator- prey relationship for wildlife management in national and provincial parks
4.2.3.A.4: any other relevant context.
4.3.1.A: populations grow in characteristic ways, and that the changes in population growth can be quantified, by extending from Biology 20, Unit 3, variations within populations, and by:
4.3.1.A.2: describing the growth of populations in terms of the mathematical relationship among carrying capacity, biotic potential and the number of individuals in the population
4.3.1.A.3: explaining, quantitatively, the behaviour of populations, using different growth patterns; i.e., r- and K-strategies, J and S curves
4.3.2.A: graphing and interpreting population growth data on a variety of organisms
Correlation last revised: 2/26/2010