ES.I.1: Describe the big bang theory and evidence supporting it.
ES.I.1.a: Determine the motion of a star relative to Earth based on a red or blue shift in the wavelength of light from the star.
ES.I.2: Relate the structure and composition of the solar system to the processes that exist in the universe.
ES.I.2.b: Relate the life cycle of stars of various masses to the relative mass of elements produced.
ES.I.2.c: Explain the origin of the heavy elements on Earth (i.e., heavy elements were formed by fusion in ancient stars).
ES.I.2.d: Present evidence that the process that formed Earth’s heavy elements continues in stars today.
ES.I.2.e: Compare the life cycle of the sun to the life cycle of other stars.
ES.I.2.f: Relate the structure of the solar system to the forces acting upon it.
ES.II.1: Describe the unique physical features of Earth's environment that make life on Earth possible.
ES.II.1.b: Compare the conditions that currently support life on Earth to the conditions that exist on other planets in the solar system.
ES.II.2: Analyze how ecosystems differ from each other due to abiotic and biotic factors.
ES.II.2.d: Explain that energy enters the vast majority of Earth's ecosystems through photosynthesis, and compare the path of energy through two different ecosystems.
ES.II.2.e: Analyze interactions within an ecosystem (e.g., water temperature and fish species, weathering and water pH).
ES.III.1: Explain the evidence that supports the theory of plate tectonics.
ES.III.1.a: Define and describe the location of the major plates and plate boundaries.
ES.III.1.c: Relate the location of earthquakes and volcanoes to plate boundaries.
ES.III.1.e: Evaluate the evidence for the current theory of plate tectonics.
ES.III.2: Describe the processes within Earth that result in plate motion and relate it to changes in other Earth systems.
ES.III.2.a: Identify the energy sources that cause material to move within Earth.
ES.III.2.c: Model the movement and interaction of plates.
ES.III.2.d: Relate the movement and interaction of plates to volcanic eruptions, mountain building, and climate changes.
ES.III.2.e: Predict the effects of plate movement on other Earth systems (e.g., volcanic eruptions affect weather, mountain building diverts waterways, uplift changes elevation that alters plant and animal diversity, upwelling from ocean vents results in changes in biomass).
ES.IV.1: Explain the water cycle in terms of its reservoirs, the movement between reservoirs, and the energy to move water. Evaluate the importance of freshwater to the biosphere.
ES.IV.1.a: Identify the reservoirs of Earth’s water cycle (e.g., ocean, ice caps/glaciers, atmosphere, lakes, rivers, biosphere, groundwater) locally and globally, and graph or chart relative amounts in global reservoirs.
ES.IV.1.b: Illustrate the movement of water on Earth and describe how the processes that move water (e.g., evaporation of water, melting of ice/snow, ocean currents, movement of water vapor by wind) use energy from the sun.
ES.IV.1.c: Relate the physical and chemical properties of water to a water pollution issue.
ES.IV.1.d: Make inferences about the quality and/or quantity of freshwater, using data collected from local water systems.
ES.IV.1.e: Analyze how communities deal with water shortages, distribution, and quality in designing a long-term water use plan.
ES.IV.2: Analyze the physical and biological dynamics of the oceans.
ES.IV.2.a: Describe the physical dynamics of the oceans (e.g., wave action, ocean currents, El Nino, tides).
ES.IV.2.b: Determine how physical properties of oceans affect organisms (e.g., salinity, depth, tides, temperature).
ES.IV.2.d: Research and report on changing ocean levels over geologic time, and relate changes in ocean level to changes in the water cycle.
ES.V.1: Describe how matter in the atmosphere cycles through other Earth systems.
ES.V.1.a: Trace movement of a carbon atom from the atmosphere through a plant, animal, and decomposer, and back into the atmosphere.
ES.V.1.d: Research ways the biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere interact with the atmosphere (e.g., volcanic eruptions putting ash and gases into the atmosphere, hurricanes, changes in vegetation).
ES.V.2: Trace ways in which the atmosphere has been altered by living systems and has itself strongly affected living systems over the course of Earth's history.
ES.V.2.c: Compare the rate at which CO2 is put into the atmosphere to the rate at which it is removed through the carbon cycle.
ES.V.2.d: Analyze data relating to the concentration of atmospheric CO2 over the past 100 years.
ES.VI.1: Describe the transformation of solar energy into heat and chemical energy on Earth and eventually the radiation of energy to space.
ES.VI.1.a: Illustrate the distribution of energy coming from the sun that is reflected, changed into heat, or stored by plants.
ES.VI.1.b: Describe the pathways for converting and storing light energy as chemical energy (e.g., light energy converted to chemical energy stored in plants, plants become fossil fuel).
ES.VI.1.c: Investigate the conversion of light energy from the sun into heat energy by various Earth materials.
ES.VI.1.d: Demonstrate how absorbed solar energy eventually leaves the Earth system as heat radiating to space.
ES.VI.1.e: Construct a model that demonstrates the reduction of heat loss due to a greenhouse effect.
ES.VI.1.f: Research global changes and relate them to Earth systems (e.g., global warming, solar fluctuations).
ES.VI.2: Relate energy sources and transformation to the effects on Earth systems.
ES.VI.2.a: Describe the difference between climate and weather, and how technology is used to monitor changes in each.
ES.VI.2.b: Describe the effect of solar energy on the determination of climate and weather (e.g., El Nino, solar intensity).
ES.VI.2.d: Describe the Coriolis effect and its role in global wind and ocean current patterns.
ES.VI.2.e: Relate how weather patterns are the result of interactions among ocean currents, air currents, and topography.
BI.I.1: Summarize how energy flows through an ecosystem.
BI.I.1.a: Arrange components of a food chain according to energy flow.
BI.I.1.b: Compare the quantity of energy in the steps of an energy pyramid.
BI.I.1.c: Describe strategies used by organisms to balance the energy expended to obtain food to the energy gained from the food (e.g., migration to areas of seasonal abundance, switching type of prey based upon availability, hibernation or dormancy).
BI.I.1.d: Compare the relative energy output expended by an organism in obtaining food to the energy gained from the food (e.g., hummingbird - energy expended hovering at a flower compared to the amount of energy gained from the nectar, coyote - chasing mice to the energy gained from catching one, energy expended in migration of birds to a location with seasonal abundance compared to energy gained by staying in a cold climate with limited food).
BI.I.2: Explain relationships between matter cycles and organisms.
BI.I.2.a: Use diagrams to trace the movement of matter through a cycle (i.e., carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, water) in a variety of biological communities and ecosystems.
BI.I.2.b: Explain how water is a limiting factor in various ecosystems.
BI.I.2.c: Distinguish between inference and evidence in a newspaper, magazine, journal, or Internet article that addresses an issue related to human impact on cycles of matter in an ecosystem and determine the bias in the article.
BI.I.2.d: Evaluate the impact of personal choices in relation to the cycling of matter within an ecosystem (e.g., impact of automobiles on the carbon cycle, impact on landfills of processed and packaged foods).
BI.I.3: Describe how interactions among organisms and their environment help shape ecosystems.
BI.I.3.c: Use data to interpret interactions among biotic and abiotic factors (e.g., pH, temperature, precipitation, populations, diversity) within an ecosystem.
BI.II.1: Describe the fundamental chemistry of living cells.
BI.II.1.a: List the major chemical elements in cells (i.e., carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, sulfur, trace elements).
BI.II.1.c: Explain how the properties of water (e.g., cohesion, adhesion, heat capacity, solvent properties) contribute to maintenance of cells and living organisms.
BI.II.2: Describe the flow of energy and matter in cellular function.
BI.II.2.b: Illustrate the cycling of matter and the flow of energy through photosynthesis (e.g., by using light energy to combine CO2 and H2O to produce oxygen and sugars) and respiration (e.g., by releasing energy from sugar and O2 to produce CO2 and H2O).
BI.II.2.c: Measure the production of one or more of the products of either photosynthesis or respiration.
BI.II.3: Investigate the structure and function of cells and cell parts.
BI.II.3.a: Explain how cells divide from existing cells.
BI.II.3.c: Describe how the transport of materials in and out of cells enables cells to maintain homeostasis (i.e., osmosis, diffusion, active transport).
BI.II.3.d: Describe the relationship between the organelles in a cell and the functions of that cell.
BI.III.2: Describe the relationship between structure and function of organ systems in plants and animals.
BI.III.2.b: Describe the structure and function of various organ systems (i.e., digestion, respiration, circulation, protection and support, nervous) and how these systems contribute to homeostasis of the organism.
BI.IV.1: Compare sexual and asexual reproduction.
BI.IV.1.a: Explain the significance of meiosis and fertilization in genetic variation.
BI.IV.1.b: Compare the advantages/disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction to survival of species.
BI.IV.1.c: Formulate, defend, and support a perspective of a bioethical issue related to intentional or unintentional chromosomal mutations.
BI.IV.2: Predict and interpret patterns of inheritance in sexually reproducing organisms.
BI.IV.2.a: Explain Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment and their role in genetic inheritance.
BI.IV.2.b: Demonstrate possible results of recombination in sexually reproducing organisms using one or two pairs of contrasting traits in the following crosses: dominance/recessive, incomplete dominance, codominance, and sex-linked traits.
BI.IV.2.c: Relate Mendelian principles to modern-day practice of plant and animal breeding.
BI.IV.3: Explain how the structure and replication of DNA are essential to heredity and protein synthesis.
BI.IV.3.b: Explain the importance of DNA replication in cell reproduction.
BI.IV.3.d: Describe how mutations may affect genetic expression and cite examples of mutagens.
BI.IV.3.f: Research, report, and debate genetic technologies that may improve the quality of life (e.g., genetic engineering, cloning, gene splicing).
BI.V.1: Relate principles of evolution to biological diversity.
BI.V.1.a: Describe the effects of environmental factors on natural selection.
BI.V.1.b: Relate genetic variability to a species’ potential for adaptation to a changing environment.
BI.V.1.d: Compare selective breeding to natural selection and relate the differences to agricultural practices.
BI.V.2: Cite evidence for changes in populations over time and use concepts of evolution to explain these changes.
BI.V.2.a: Cite evidence that supports biological evolution over time (e.g., geologic and fossil records, chemical mechanisms, DNA structural similarities, homologous and vestigial structures).
BI.V.2.b: Identify the role of mutation and recombination in evolution.
BI.V.2.c: Relate the nature of science to the historical development of the theory of evolution.
BI.V.2.d: Distinguish between observations and inferences in making interpretations related to evolution (e.g., observed similarities and differences in the beaks of Galapagos finches leads to the inference that they evolved from a common ancestor; observed similarities and differences in the structures of birds and reptiles leads to the inference that birds evolved from reptiles).
BI.V.3: Classify organisms into a hierarchy of groups based on similarities that reflect their evolutionary relationships.
BI.V.3.a: Classify organisms using a classification tool such as a key or field guide.
BI.V.3.b: Generalize criteria used for classification of organisms (e.g., dichotomy, structure, broad to specific).
BI.V.3.c: Explain how evolutionary relationships are related to classification systems.
BI.V.3.d: Justify the ongoing changes to classification schemes used in biology.
CH.I.1: Recognize the origin and distribution of elements in the universe.
CH.I.1.b: Recognize that all matter in the universe and on earth is composed of the same elements.
CH.I.1.c: Identify the distribution of elements in the universe.
CH.I.1.d: Compare the occurrence of heavier elements on earth and the universe.
CH.I.2: Relate the structure, behavior, and scale of an atom to the particles that compose it.
CH.I.2.b: Evaluate the limitations of using models to describe atoms.
CH.I.2.c: Discriminate between the relative size, charge, and position of protons, neutrons, and electrons in the atom.
CH.I.2.d: Generalize the relationship of proton number to the element’s identity.
CH.I.2.e: Relate the mass and number of atoms to the gram-sized quantities of matter in a mole.
CH.I.3: Correlate atomic structure and the physical and chemical properties of an element to the position of the element on the periodic table.
CH.I.3.a: Use the periodic table to correlate the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom.
CH.I.3.b: Compare the number of protons and neutrons in isotopes of the same element.
CH.I.3.c: Identify similarities in chemical behavior of elements within a group.
CH.I.3.e: Compare the properties of elements (e.g., metal, nonmetallic, metalloid) based on their position in the periodic table.
CH.II.1: Evaluate quantum energy changes in the atom in terms of the energy contained in light emissions.
CH.II.1.a: Identify the relationship between wavelength and light energy.
CH.II.1.b: Examine evidence from the lab indicating that energy is absorbed or released in discrete units when electrons move from one energy level to another.
CH.II.1.c: Correlate the energy in a photon to the color of light emitted.
CH.II.1.d: After observing spectral emissions in the lab (e.g., flame test, spectrum tubes), identify unknown elements by comparison to known emission spectra.
CH.II.2: Evaluate how changes in the nucleus of an atom result in emission of radioactivity.
CH.II.2.a: Recognize that radioactive particles and wavelike radiations are products of the decay of an unstable nucleus.
CH.II.2.b: Interpret graphical data relating half-life and age of a radioactive substance.
CH.II.2.c: Compare the mass, energy, and penetrating power of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation.
CH.II.2.d: Compare the strong nuclear force to the amount of energy released in a nuclear reaction and contrast it to the amount of energy released in a chemical reaction.
CH.III.1: Analyze the relationship between the valence (outermost) electrons of an atom and the type of bond formed between atoms.
CH.III.1.a: Determine the number of valence electrons in atoms using the periodic table.
CH.III.1.b: Predict the charge an atom will acquire when it forms an ion by gaining or losing electrons.
CH.III.1.c: Predict bond types based on the behavior of valence (outermost) electrons.
CH.III.1.d: Compare covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds with respect to electron behavior and relative bond strengths.
CH.III.2: Explain that the properties of a compound may be different from those of the elements or compounds from which it is formed.
CH.III.2.a: Use a chemical formula to represent the names of elements and numbers of atoms in a compound and recognize that the formula is unique to the specific compound.
CH.IV.1: Identify evidence of chemical reactions and demonstrate how chemical equations are used to describe them.
CH.IV.1.b: Compare the properties of reactants to the properties of products in a chemical reaction.
CH.IV.1.c: Use a chemical equation to describe a simple chemical reaction.
CH.IV.1.d: Recognize that the number of atoms in a chemical reaction does not change.
CH.IV.1.e: Determine the molar proportions of the reactants and products in a balanced chemical reaction.
CH.IV.2: Analyze evidence for the laws of conservation of mass and conservation of energy in chemical reactions.
CH.IV.2.a: Using data from quantitative analysis, identify evidence that supports the conservation of mass in a chemical reaction.
CH.IV.2.e: Using either a constructed or a diagrammed electrochemical cell, describe how electrical energy can be produced in a chemical reaction (e.g., half reaction, electron transfer).
CH.V.1: Evaluate factors specific to collisions (e.g., temperature, particle size, concentration, and catalysts) that affect the rate of chemical reaction.
CH.V.1.a: Design and conduct an investigation of the factors affecting reaction rate and use the findings to generalize the results to other reactions.
CH.V.1.b: Use information from graphs to draw warranted conclusions about reaction rates.
CH.V.1.c: Correlate frequency and energy of collisions to reaction rate.
CH.V.1.d: Identify that catalysts are effective in increasing reaction rates.
CH.VI.1: Describe factors affecting the process of dissolving and evaluate the effects that changes in concentration have on solutions.
CH.VI.1.c: Describe the relative amount of solute particles in concentrated and dilute solutions and express concentration in terms of molarity and molality.
CH.VI.1.e: Relate the concept of parts per million (PPM) to relevant environmental issues found through research.
CH.VI.2: Summarize the quantitative and qualitative effects of colligative properties on a solution when a solute is added.
CH.VI.2.a: Identify the colligative properties of a solution.
CH.VI.2.b: Measure change in boiling and/or freezing point of a solvent when a solute is added.
CH.VI.2.c: Describe how colligative properties affect the behavior of solutions in everyday applications (e.g., road salt, cold packs, antifreeze).
CH.VI.3: Differentiate between acids and bases in terms of hydrogen ion concentration.
CH.VI.3.a: Relate hydrogen ion concentration to pH values and to the terms acidic, basic or neutral.
CH.VI.3.b: Using an indicator, measure the pH of common household solutions and standard laboratory solutions, and identify them as acids or bases.
CH.VI.3.d: Research and report on the uses of acids and bases in industry, agriculture, medicine, mining, manufacturing, or construction.
CH.VI.3.e: Evaluate mechanisms by which pollutants modify the pH of various environments (e.g., aquatic, atmospheric, soil).
PH.I.1: Describe the motion of an object in terms of position, time, and velocity.
PH.I.1.c: Distinguish between speed and velocity.
PH.I.1.e: Collect, graph, and interpret data for position vs. time to describe the motion of an object and compare this motion to the motion of another object.
PH.I.2: Analyze the motion of an object in terms of velocity, time, and acceleration.
PH.I.2.a: Determine the average acceleration of an object from data showing velocity at given times.
PH.I.2.b: Describe the velocity of an object when its acceleration is zero.
PH.I.2.c: Collect, graph, and interpret data for velocity vs. time to describe the motion of an object.
PH.I.2.d: Describe the acceleration of an object moving in a circular path at constant speed (i.e., constant speed, but changing direction).
PH.I.2.e: Analyze the velocity and acceleration of an object over time.
PH.I.4: Use Newton's first law to explain the motion of an object.
PH.I.4.a: Describe the motion of a moving object on which balanced forces are acting.
PH.I.4.b: Describe the motion of a stationary object on which balanced forces are acting.
PH.I.4.c: Describe the balanced forces acting on a moving object commonly encountered (e.g., forces acting on an automobile moving at constant velocity, forces that maintain a body in an upright position while walking).
PH.II.1: Analyze forces acting on an object.
PH.II.1.a: Observe and describe forces encountered in everyday life (e.g., braking of an automobile - friction, falling rain drops - gravity, directional compass - magnetic, bathroom scale - elastic or spring).
PH.II.1.b: Use vector diagrams to represent the forces acting on an object.
PH.II.1.d: Calculate the net force acting on an object.
PH.II.2: Using Newton's second law, relate the force, mass, and acceleration of an object.
PH.II.2.a: Determine the relationship between the net force on an object and the object’s acceleration.
PH.II.2.b: Relate the effect of an object’s mass to its acceleration when an unbalanced force is applied.
PH.II.2.c: Determine the relationship between force, mass, and acceleration from experimental data and compare the results to Newton’s second law.
PH.II.2.d: Predict the combined effect of multiple forces (e.g., friction, gravity, and normal forces) on an object’s motion.
PH.II.3: Explain that forces act in pairs as described by Newton's third law.
PH.II.3.a: Identify pairs of forces (e.g., action-reaction, equal and opposite) acting between two objects (e.g., two electric charges, a book and the table it rests upon, a person and a rope being pulled).
PH.II.3.b: Determine the magnitude and direction of the acting force when magnitude and direction of the reacting force is known.
PH.II.3.c: Provide examples of practical applications of Newton’s third law (e.g., forces on a retaining wall, rockets, walking).
PH.II.3.d: Relate the historical development of Newton’s laws of motion to our current understanding of the nature of science (e.g., based upon previous knowledge, empirical evidence, replicable observations, development of scientific law).
PH.III.1: Relate the strength of the gravitational force to the distance between two objects and the mass of the objects (i.e., Newton's law of universal gravitation).
PH.III.1.a: Investigate how mass affects the gravitational force (e.g., spring scale, balance, or other method of finding a relationship between mass and the gravitational force).
PH.III.1.b: Distinguish between mass and weight.
PH.III.1.c: Describe how distance between objects affects the gravitational force (e.g., effect of gravitational forces of the moon and sun on objects on Earth).
PH.III.1.e: Research the importance of gravitational forces in the space program.
PH.III.2: Describe the factors that affect the electric force (i.e., Coulomb's law).
PH.III.2.a: Relate the types of charge to their effect on electric force (i.e., like charges repel, unlike charges attract).
PH.III.2.b: Describe how the amount of charge affects the electric force.
PH.III.2.c: Investigate the relationship of distance between charged objects and the strength of the electric force.
PH.III.2.d: Research and report on electric forces in everyday applications found in both nature and technology (e.g., lightning, living organisms, batteries, copy machine, electrostatic precipitators).
PH.IV.1: Determine kinetic and potential energy in a system.
PH.IV.1.a: Identify various types of potential energy (i.e., gravitational, elastic, chemical, electrostatic, nuclear).
PH.IV.1.b: Calculate the kinetic energy of an object given the velocity and mass of the object.
PH.IV.2: Describe conservation of energy in terms of systems.
PH.IV.2.b: Relate the transformations between kinetic and potential energy in a system (e.g., moving magnet induces electricity in a coil of wire, roller coaster, internal combustion engine).
PH.IV.2.c: Gather data and calculate the gravitational potential energy and the kinetic energy of an object (e.g., pendulum, water flowing downhill, ball dropped from a height) and relate this to the conservation of energy of a system.
PH.IV.2.d: Evaluate social, economic, and environmental issues related to the production and transmission of electrical energy.
PH.IV.3: Describe common energy transformations and the effect on availability of energy.
PH.IV.3.a: Describe the loss of useful energy in energy transformations.
PH.IV.3.b: Investigate the transfer of heat energy by conduction, convection, and radiation.
PH.IV.3.c: Describe the transformation of mechanical energy into electrical energy and the transmission of electrical energy.
PH.IV.3.d: Research and report on the transformation of energy in electrical generation plants (e.g., chemical to heat to electricity, nuclear to heat to mechanical to electrical, gravitational to kinetic to mechanical to electrical), and include energy losses during each transformation.
PH.V.1: Demonstrate an understanding of mechanical waves in terms of general wave properties.
PH.V.1.a: Differentiate between period, frequency, wavelength, and amplitude of waves.
PH.V.1.b: Investigate and compare reflection, refraction, and diffraction of waves.
PH.V.1.d: Identify the relationship between the speed, wavelength, and frequency of a wave.
PH.V.1.e: Explain the observed change in frequency of a mechanical wave coming from a moving object as it approaches and moves away (i.e., Doppler effect).
PH.V.2: Describe the nature of electromagnetic radiation and visible light.
PH.V.2.a: Describe the relationship of energy to wavelength or frequency for electromagnetic radiation.
PH.V.2.d: Explain the observed change in frequency of an electromagnetic wave coming from a moving object as it approaches and moves away (i.e., Doppler effect, red/blue shift).
Correlation last revised: 3/29/2010