Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)
112.42.4: The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life.
112.42.4.A: calculate speed, momentum, acceleration, work, and power in systems such as in the human body, moving toys, and machines;
112.42.4.B: investigate and describe applications of Newton's laws such as in vehicle restraints, sports activities, geological processes, and satellite orbits;
112.42.4.C: analyze the effects caused by changing force or distance in simple machines as demonstrated in household devices, the human body, and vehicles;
112.42.4.D: investigate and demonstrate mechanical advantage and efficiency of various machines such as levers, motors, wheels and axles, pulleys, and ramps.
112.42.5: The student knows the effects of waves on everyday life.
112.42.5.A: demonstrate wave types and their characteristics through a variety of activities such as modeling with ropes and coils, activating tuning forks, and interpreting data on seismic waves;
112.42.5.B: demonstrate wave interactions including interference, polarization, reflection, refraction, and resonance within various materials;
112.42.5.D: demonstrate the application of acoustic principles such as in echolocation, musical instruments, noise pollution, and sonograms.
112.42.6: The student knows the impact of energy transformations in everyday life.
112.42.6.A: describe the law of conservation of energy;
112.42.6.B: investigate and demonstrate the movement of heat through solids, liquids, and gases by convection, conduction, and radiation;
112.42.6.F: investigate and compare series and parallel circuits;
112.42.6.H: analyze the effects of heating and cooling processes in systems such as weather, living, and mechanical.
112.42.7: The student knows relationships exist between properties of matter and its components.
112.42.7.A: investigate and identify properties of fluids including density, viscosity, and buoyancy;
112.42.7.B: research and describe the historical development of the atomic theory;
112.42.7.C: identify constituents of various materials or objects such as metal salts, light sources, fireworks displays, and stars using spectral-analysis techniques;
112.42.7.D: relate the chemical behavior of an element including bonding, to its placement on the periodic table;
112.42.8: The student knows that changes in matter affect everyday life.
112.42.8.A: distinguish between physical and chemical changes in matter such as oxidation, digestion, changes in states, and stages in the rock cycle;
112.42.8.C: investigate and identify the law of conservation of mass;
112.42.8.D: describe types of nuclear reactions such as fission and fusion and their roles in applications such as medicine and energy production;
112.42.9: The student knows how solution chemistry is a part of everyday life.
112.42.9.B: relate the concentration of ions in a solution to physical and chemical properties such as pH, electrolytic behavior, and reactivity;
112.42.9.D: demonstrate how various factors influence solubility including temperature, pressure, and nature of the solute and solvent;
112.43.4: The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things and have specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells and have different properties and functions.
112.43.4.A: identify the parts of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells;
112.43.4.B: investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules;
112.43.4.C: compare the structures and functions of viruses to cells and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases and conditions such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome, common colds, smallpox, influenza, and warts;
112.43.6: The student knows the structures and functions of nucleic acids in the mechanisms of genetics.
112.43.6.A: describe components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and illustrate how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA;
112.43.6.B: explain replication, transcription, and translation using models of DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA);
112.43.6.C: identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations and evaluate the significance of these changes;
112.43.6.D: compare genetic variations observed in plants and animals;
112.43.6.E: compare the processes of mitosis and meiosis and their significance to sexual and asexual reproduction;
112.43.6.F: identify and analyze karyotypes.
112.43.7: The student knows the theory of biological evolution.
112.43.7.A: identify evidence of change in species using fossils, DNA sequences, anatomical similarities, physiological similarities, and embryology;
112.43.7.B: illustrate the results of natural selection in speciation, diversity, phylogeny, adaptation, behavior, and extinction.
112.43.8: The student knows applications of taxonomy and can identify its limitations.
112.43.8.A: collect and classify organisms at several taxonomic levels such as species, phylum, and kingdom using dichotomous keys;
112.43.9: The student knows metabolic processes and energy transfers that occur in living organisms.
112.43.9.A: compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids;
112.43.9.B: compare the energy flow in photosynthesis to the energy flow in cellular respiration;
112.43.9.D: analyze the flow of matter and energy through different trophic levels and between organisms and the physical environment.
112.43.11: The student knows that organisms maintain homeostasis.
112.43.11.A: identify and describe the relationships between internal feedback mechanisms in the maintenance of homeostasis;
112.43.11.B: investigate and identify how organisms, including humans, respond to external stimuli;
112.43.11.C: analyze the importance of nutrition, environmental conditions, and physical exercise on health;
112.43.12: The student knows that interdependence and interactions occur within an ecosystem.
112.43.12.A: analyze the flow of energy through various cycles including the carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and water cycles;
112.43.12.B: interpret interactions among organisms exhibiting predation, parasitism, commensalism, and mutualism;
112.43.12.C: compare variations, tolerances, and adaptations of plants and animals in different biomes;
112.43.12.D: identify and illustrate that long-term survival of species is dependent on a resource base that may be limited;
112.43.12.E: investigate and explain the interactions in an ecosystem including food chains, food webs, and food pyramids.
112.43.13: The student knows the significance of plants in the environment.
112.43.13.A: evaluate the significance of structural and physiological adaptations of plants to their environments;
112.43.13.B: survey and identify methods of reproduction, growth, and development of various types of plants.
112.44.4: The student knows the relationships of biotic and abiotic factors within habitats, ecosystems, and biomes.
112.44.4.C: evaluate the impact of human activity such as methods of pest control, hydroponics, organic gardening, or farming on ecosystems;
112.44.4.D: predict how the introduction, removal, or reintroduction of an organism may alter the food chain and affect existing populations;
112.44.4.E: predict changes that may occur in an ecosystem if biodiversity is increased or reduced.
112.44.5: The student knows the interrelationships among the resources within the local environmental system.
112.44.5.B: identify source, use, quality, and conservation of water;
112.44.5.C: document the use and conservation of both renewable and non-renewable resources;
112.44.5.E: analyze and evaluate the economic significance and interdependence of components of the environmental system;
112.44.5.F: evaluate the impact of human activity and technology on land fertility and aquatic viability.
112.44.6: The student knows the sources and flow of energy through an environmental system.
112.44.6.A: summarize forms and sources of energy;
112.44.6.B: explain the flow of energy in an ecosystem;
112.44.6.C: investigate and explain the effects of energy transformations within an ecosystem;
112.44.6.D: investigate and identify energy interactions in an ecosystem.
112.44.7: The student knows the relationship between carrying capacity and changes in populations and ecosystems.
112.44.7.A: relate carrying capacity to population dynamics;
112.44.7.B: calculate exponential growth of populations;
112.44.8: The student knows that environments change.
112.44.8.A: analyze and describe the effects on environments of events such as fires, hurricanes, deforestation, mining, population growth, and municipal development;
112.45.4: The student knows the characteristics of matter.
112.45.4.A: differentiate between physical and chemical properties of matter;
112.45.4.B: analyze examples of solids, liquids, and gases to determine their compressibility, structure, motion of particles, shape, and volume;
112.45.4.D: describe the physical and chemical characteristics of an element using the periodic table and make inferences about its chemical behavior.
112.45.5: The student knows that energy transformations occur during physical or chemical changes in matter.
112.45.5.C: measure the effects of the gain or loss of heat energy on the properties of solids, liquids, and gases.
112.45.6: The student knows that atomic structure is determined by nuclear composition, allowable electron cloud, and subatomic particles.
112.45.6.A: describe the existence and properties of subatomic particles;
112.45.6.B: analyze stable and unstable isotopes of an element to determine the relationship between the isotope's stability and its application;
112.45.6.C: summarize the historical development of the periodic table to understand the concept of periodicity.
112.45.7: The student knows the variables that influence the behavior of gases.
112.45.7.A: describe interrelationships among temperature, particle number, pressure, and volume of gases contained within a closed system;
112.45.8: The student knows how atoms form bonds to acquire a stable arrangement of electrons.
112.45.8.A: identify characteristics of atoms involved in chemical bonding;
112.45.8.C: compare the arrangement of atoms in molecules, ionic crystals, polymers, and metallic substances;
112.45.9: The student knows the processes, effects, and significance of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion.
112.45.9.B: investigate radioactive elements to determine half-life;
112.45.9.C: evaluate the commercial use of nuclear energy and medical uses of radioisotopes;
112.45.11: The student knows that balanced chemical equations are used to interpret and describe the interactions of matter.
112.45.11.B: demonstrate the use of symbols, formulas, and equations in describing interactions of matter such as chemical and nuclear reactions;
112.45.11.C: explain and balance chemical and nuclear equations using number of atoms, masses, and charge.
112.45.12: The student knows the factors that influence the solubility of solutes in a solvent.
112.45.12.A: demonstrate and explain effects of temperature and the nature of solid solutes on the solubility of solids;
112.45.12.B: develop general rules for solubility through investigations with aqueous solutions;
112.45.13: The student knows relationships among the concentration, electrical conductivity, and colligative properties of a solution.
112.45.13.B: interpret relationships among ionic and covalent compounds, electrical conductivity, and colligative properties of water;
112.45.13.C: measure and compare the rates of reaction of a solid reactant in solutions of varying concentration.
112.45.14: The student knows the properties and behavior of acids and bases.
112.45.14.A: analyze and measure common household products using a variety of indicators to classify the products as acids or bases;
112.45.15: The student knows factors involved in chemical reactions.
112.45.15.B: relate the rate of a chemical reaction to temperature, concentration, surface area, and presence of a catalyst.
112.46.4: The student knows the components of aquatic ecosystems.
112.46.4.A: differentiate among freshwater, brackish, and saltwater ecosystems;
112.46.4.C: collect and analyze baseline quantitative data such as pH, salinity, temperature, mineral content, nitrogen compounds, and turbidity from an aquatic environment.
112.46.5: The student knows the relationships within and among the aquatic habitats and ecosystems in an aquatic environment.
112.46.5.B: observe and evaluate patterns and interrelationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in an aquatic ecosystem;
112.46.5.C: identify the interdependence of organisms in an aquatic environment such as a pond, river, lake, ocean, or aquifer, and the biosphere;
112.46.6: The student knows the roles of cycles in an aquatic environment.
112.46.6.A: identify the role of various cycles such as carbon, nitrogen, water, and nutrients in an aquatic environment;
112.46.6.B: interpret the role of aquatic systems in climate and weather;
112.46.7: The student knows environmental adaptations of aquatic organisms.
112.46.7.A: classify different aquatic organisms using dichotomous keys;
112.46.7.B: compare and describe how adaptations allow an organism to exist within an aquatic environment;
112.46.7.C: predict adaptations of an organism prompted by environmental changes;
112.46.7.D: compare differences in adaptations of aquatic organisms to fresh water and marine environments.
112.46.8: The student knows that aquatic environments change.
112.46.8.B: analyze the cumulative impact of natural and human influence on an aquatic system;
112.46.8.C: identify and describe a local or global issue affecting an aquatic system;
112.46.8.D: analyze and discuss human influences on an aquatic environment including fishing, transportation, and recreation.
112.46.9: The student knows that geological phenomena and fluid dynamics affect aquatic systems.
112.46.9.A: demonstrate the principles of fluid dynamics including Archimedes' and Bernoulli's Principles and hydrostatic pressure;
112.46.9.B: identify interrelationships of plate tectonics, ocean currents, climates, and biomes;
112.46.10: The student knows the origin and use of water in a watershed.
112.46.10.A: identify sources and determine the amounts of water in a watershed including groundwater and surface water;
112.46.10.B: research and identify the types of uses and volumes of water used in a watershed;
112.46.10.C: identify water quantity and quality in a local watershed.
112.47.4: The student knows the laws governing motion.
112.47.4.A: generate and interpret graphs describing motion including the use of real-time technology;
112.47.4.B: analyze examples of uniform and accelerated motion including linear, projectile, and circular;
112.47.4.C: demonstrate the effects of forces on the motion of objects;
112.47.4.D: develop and interpret a free-body diagram for force analysis;
112.47.5: The student knows that changes occur within a physical system and recognizes that energy and momentum are conserved.
112.47.5.A: interpret evidence for the work-energy theorem;
112.47.5.B: observe and describe examples of kinetic and potential energy and their transformations;
112.47.5.C: calculate the mechanical energy and momentum in a physical system such as billiards, cars, and trains;
112.47.5.D: demonstrate the conservation of energy and momentum.
112.47.6: The student knows forces in nature.
112.47.6.A: identify the influence of mass and distance on gravitational forces;
112.47.6.B: research and describe the historical development of the concepts of gravitational, electrical, and magnetic force;
112.47.6.C: identify and analyze the influences of charge and distance on electric forces;
112.47.6.E: design and analyze electric circuits;
112.47.6.F: identify examples of electrical and magnetic forces in everyday life.
112.47.7: The student knows the laws of thermodynamics.
112.47.7.B: evaluate different methods of heat energy transfer that result in an increasing amount of disorder.
112.47.8: The student knows the characteristics and behavior of waves.
112.47.8.A: examine and describe a variety of waves propagated in various types of media and describe wave characteristics such as velocity, frequency, amplitude, and behaviors such as reflection, refraction, and interference;
112.47.8.B: identify the characteristics and behaviors of sound and electromagnetic waves;
112.47.8.C: interpret the role of wave characteristics and behaviors found in medicinal and industrial applications.
112.47.9: The student knows simple examples of quantum physics.
112.47.9.A: describe the photoelectric effect;
112.47.9.B: explain the line spectra from different gas-discharge tubes.
112.48.4: The student knows scientific information about the universe.
112.48.4.A: observe and record data about lunar phases and uses that information to model the earth, moon, and sun system;
112.48.6: The student knows the characteristics and the life cycle of stars.
112.48.6.B: identify the characteristics of stars such as temperature, age, relative size, composition, and radial velocity using spectral analysis;
112.48.6.C: identify the stages in the life cycle of stars by examining the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.
112.48.7: The student knows how mathematical models, computer simulations, and exploration can be used to study the universe.
112.48.7.B: research and describe the historical development of the laws of universal gravitation and planetary motion and the theory of special relativity;
112.48.7.C: analyze a model that simulates planetary motion and universal gravitation;
112.48.8: The student knows the role of the Sun in our solar system.
112.48.8.B: identify the source of energy within the Sun and explain that the Sun is the major source of energy for the Earth;
112.48.8.C: describe the Sun's effects on the Earth.
112.48.9: The student knows that planets of different size, composition, and surface features orbit around the Sun.
112.48.9.A: observe the night-time sky to determine movement of the planets relative to stars;
112.48.9.B: compare the planets in terms of orbit, size, composition, rotation, atmosphere, moons, and geologic activity;
112.48.9.C: identify objects, other than planets, that orbit the Sun;
112.48.9.D: relate the role of gravitation to the motion of the planets around the Sun and to the motion of moons and satellites around the planets.
112.48.10: The student knows how life on Earth is affected by its unique placement and orientation in our solar system.
112.48.10.A: compare the factors essential to life on Earth such as temperature, water, mass, and gases to conditions on other planets;
112.48.10.B: determine the effects of the Earth's rotation, revolution, and tilt on its environment;
112.48.10.C: identify the effects of the moon on tides.
112.49.4: The student knows the Earth's unique characteristics and conditions.
112.49.4.B: analyze conditions on Earth that enable organisms to survive.
112.49.6: The student knows the processes of plate tectonics.
112.49.6.A: research and describe the historical development of the theories of plate tectonics including continental drift and sea-floor spreading;
112.49.6.B: analyze the processes that power the movement of the Earth's continental and oceanic plates and identify the effects of this movement including faulting, folding, earthquakes, and volcanic activity;
112.49.6.C: analyze methods of tracking continental and oceanic plate movement.
112.49.7: The student knows the origin and composition of minerals and rocks and the significance of the rock cycle.
112.49.7.A: demonstrate the density, hardness, streak, and cleavage of particular minerals;
112.49.7.B: identify common minerals and describe their economic significance;
112.49.7.C: classify rocks according to how they are formed during a rock cycle;
112.49.7.D: examine and describe conditions such as depth of formation, rate of cooling, and mineral composition that are factors in the formation of rock types.
112.49.10: The student knows the interactions that occur in a watershed.
112.49.10.A: identify the characteristics of a local watershed such as average annual rainfall, run-off patterns, aquifers, locations of river basins, and surface water reservoirs;
112.49.10.B: analyze the impact of floods, droughts, irrigation, and industrialization on a watershed;
112.49.10.C: describe the importance and sources of surface and subsurface water.
112.49.11: The student knows characteristics of oceans.
112.49.11.A: identify physical characteristics of ocean water including salinity, solubility, heat capacity, colligative properties, and density;
112.49.11.B: evaluate the effects of tides, tidal bores, and tsunamis;
112.49.11.C: compare the topography of the ocean floor to the topography of the continents.
112.49.13: The student knows the role of energy in governing weather and climate.
112.49.13.A: describe the transfer of heat energy at the boundaries between the atmosphere, land masses, and oceans resulting in layers of different temperatures and densities in both the ocean and atmosphere;
Correlation last revised: 10/30/2009