ESS.1: Matter and Energy in Space
ESS.1.1: Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the life span of the Sun and the role of nuclear fusion releasing energy in the Sun’s core. Emphasize energy transfer mechanisms that allow energy from nuclear fusion to reach Earth. Examples of evidence for the model could include observations of the masses and lifetimes of other stars, or non-cyclic variations over centuries.
ESS.1.2: Construct an explanation of the Big Bang theory based on astronomical evidence of electromagnetic radiation, motion of distant galaxies, and composition of matter in the universe. Emphasize redshift of electromagnetic radiation, cosmic microwave background radiation, and the observed composition and distribution of matter in the universe.
Big Bang Theory - Hubble's Law
ESS.1.3: Develop a model to illustrate the changes in matter occurring in a star’s life cycle. Emphasize that the way different elements are created varies as a function of the mass of a star and the stage of its lifetime.
ESS.2: Patterns in Earth's History and Processes
2.1: Although active geologic processes have destroyed or altered most of Earth’s early rock re-cord, evidence from within Earth and from other objects in the solar system are used to infer Earth’s geologic history. Motions of the mantle and its plates occur primarily through thermal convection, which involves the cycling of matter due to the outward flow of energy from Earth’s interior and gravitational movement of denser materials toward the interior. The radio-active decay of unstable isotopes continually generates new energy within Earth’s crust and mantle, providing the primary source of the heat that drives mantle convection. Plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains the past and current movements of the rocks at Earth’s surface and provides a framework for understanding its geologic history and co-evolution of life.
Conduction and Convection
ESS.2.2: Develop and use a model based on evidence of Earth’s interior and describe the cycling of matter by thermal convection. Emphasize the density of Earth’s layers and mantle convection driven by radioactive decay and heat from Earth’s early formation. Examples of evidence could include maps of Earth’s three-dimensional structure obtained from seismic waves or records of the rate of change of Earth’s magnetic field.
Conduction and Convection
ESS.2.4: Develop and use a model to illustrate how Earth’s internal and surface processes operate at different spatial and temporal scales. Emphasize how the appearance of land and seafloor features are a result of both constructive forces and destructive mechanisms. Examples of constructive forces could include tectonic uplift or mountain building. Examples of destructive mechanisms could include weathering or mass wasting.
ESS.3: System Interactions: Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, and Geosphere
ESS.3.1: Plan and carry out an investigation of the properties of water and its effects on Earth materials and surface processes. Examples of properties could include water’s capacity to expand upon freezing, dissolve and transport material, or absorb, store, and release energy.
ESS.3.3: Construct an explanation for how energy from the Sun drives atmospheric processes and how atmospheric currents transport matter and transfer energy. Emphasize how energy from the Sun is reflected, absorbed, or scattered; how the greenhouse effect contributes to atmospheric energy; and how uneven heating of Earth’s atmosphere combined with the Coriolis effect creates an atmospheric circulation system.
Greenhouse Effect - Metric
Seasons Around the World
Seasons in 3D
ESS.3.5: Develop and use a quantitative model to describe the cycling of carbon among Earth’s systems. Emphasize each of Earth’s systems (hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere) and how the movement of carbon from one system to another can result in changes to the system(s). Examples could include more carbon absorbed in the oceans leading to ocean acidification or more carbon present in the atmosphere leading to a stronger greenhouse effect.
ESS.3.6: Analyze and interpret data from global climate records to illustrate changes to Earth’s systems throughout geologic time and make predictions about future variations using modern trends. Examples of data could include average sea surface temperature, average air temperature, composition of gasses in ice cores, or tree rings.
Greenhouse Effect - Metric
ESS.3.7: Engage in argument from evidence to support the claim that one change to Earth’s surface can create climate feedback loops that cause changes to other systems. Examples of climate feedbacks could include ice-albedo or warming oceans.
ESS.4: Stability and Change in Natural Resources
ESS.4.2: Use computational thinking to explain the relationships between the sustainability of natural resources and biodiversity within Earth systems. Emphasize the importance of responsible stewardship of Earth’s resources. Examples of factors related to sustainability could include costs of resource extraction, per-capita consumption, waste management, agricultural efficiency, or levels of conservation. Examples of natural resources could include minerals, water, or energy resources.
Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
Coral Reefs 2 - Biotic Factors
ESS.4.4: Evaluate design solutions for a major global or local environmental problem based on one of Earth’s systems. Define the problem, identify criteria and constraints, analyze available data on proposed solutions, and determine an optimal solution. Examples of major global or local problems could include water pollution or availability, air pollution, deforestation, or energy production.
GMOs and the Environment
Correlation last revised: 9/15/2020