CHEM.1: The Structure and Properties of Atoms

CHEM.1.1: Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information regarding the structure of the atom on the basis of experimental evidence. Emphasize the relationship between proton number and element identity, isotopes, and electrons in atoms. Examples of experimental evidence could include the gold foil experiment, cathode ray tube, or atomic spectrum data.

Bohr Model of Hydrogen
Bohr Model: Introduction
Element Builder
Isotopes
Star Spectra

CHEM.1.2: Analyze and interpret data to identify patterns in the stability of isotopes and predict likely modes of radioactive decay. Emphasize that different isotopes of the same element decay by different modes and at different rates depending on their nuclear stability. Examples of data could include band of stability charts, mass or nuclear binding energy per nucleon, or the inverse relationship between half-life and nuclear stability.

Half-life
Isotopes
Nuclear Decay

CHEM.1.3: Use mathematics and computational thinking to relate the rates of change in quantities of radioactive isotopes through radioactive decay (alpha, beta, and positron) to ages of materials or persistence in the environment. Emphasize a conceptual understanding of half-life. Examples could include radiocarbon dating, nuclear waste management, or nuclear medicine.

Half-life

CHEM.1.4: Construct an explanation about how fusion can form new elements with greater or lesser nuclear stability. Emphasize the nuclear binding energy, with the conceptual understanding that when fusion of elements results in a more stable nucleus, large quantities of energy are released, and when fusion results in a less stable nucleus, large quantities of energy are required. Examples could include the building up of elements in the universe starting with hydrogen to form heavier elements, the composition of stars, or supernovae producing heavy elements.

Nuclear Reactions

CHEM.1.5: Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms. Emphasize conceptual understanding of trends and patterns. Examples could include trends in ionization energy, atomic radius, or electronegativity. Examples of properties for main group elements could include general reactivity, bonding type, or ion formation.

Electron Configuration
Element Builder
Periodic Trends

CHEM.2: The Structure and Properties of Molecules

CHEM.2.1: Analyze data to predict the type of bonding most likely to occur between two elements using the patterns of reactivity on the periodic table. Emphasize the types and strengths of attractions between charged particles in ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds. Examples could include the attraction between electrons on one atom and the nucleus of another atom in a covalent bond or between ions in an ionic compound.

Covalent Bonds
Ionic Bonds
Periodic Trends
Polarity and Intermolecular Forces

CHEM.2.2: Plan and carry out an investigation to compare the properties of substances at the bulk scale and relate them to molecular structures. Emphasize using models to explain or describe the strength of electrical forces between particles. Examples of models could include Lewis dot structures or ball and stick models. Examples of particles could include ions, atoms, molecules, or networked materials (such as graphite). Examples of properties could include melting point and boiling point, vapor pressure, solubility, or surface tension.

Melting Points
Polarity and Intermolecular Forces

CHEM.3: Stability and Change in Chemical Systems

CHEM.3.1: Use mathematics and computational thinking to analyze the distribution and proportion of particles in solution. Emphasize proportional reasoning and the impact of concentration on solution properties, rather than algorithmic calculations. Examples of concentrations affecting solutions could include the Beer-Lambert Law, colligative properties, or pH.

Colligative Properties
Titration

CHEM.3.2: Analyze data to identify patterns that assist in making predictions of the outcomes of simple chemical reactions. Emphasize patterns based on the outermost electrons of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of chemical properties. Examples could include reactions between main group elements, combustion reactions, or reactions between Arrhenius acids and bases.

Covalent Bonds
Ionic Bonds
Periodic Trends

CHEM.3.3: Plan and carry out an investigation to observe the change in properties of substances in a chemical reaction to relate the macroscopically observed properties to the molecular level changes in bonds and the symbolic notation used in chemistry. Emphasize that the visible macroscopic changes in chemical reactions are a result of changes on the molecular level. Examples of observable properties could include changes in color or the production of a solid or gaseous product.

Balancing Chemical Equations
Chemical Changes
Equilibrium and Concentration
Limiting Reactants

CHEM.3.4: Use mathematics and computational thinking to support the observation that matter is conserved during chemical reactions and matter cycles. Emphasize that chemical reactions occur on both small and global scales, and that matter is always conserved. Examples of small scale reactions could include ratios of reactants and products in a single chemical reaction or simple stoichiometric calculation. Examples of global scale matter cycles could include tracing carbon through the chemical reactions of photosynthesis, combustion, or respiration.

Balancing Chemical Equations
Chemical Changes
Chemical Equations
Moles
Stoichiometry

CHEM.3.6: Construct an explanation using experimental evidence for how reaction conditions affect the rate of change of a reaction. Emphasize collision theory as an explanatory principle. Examples of reaction conditions could include temperature, concentration, particle size, or presence of a catalyst.

Collision Theory

CHEM.3.7: Design a solution that would refine a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would produce increased or decreased amounts of a product at equilibrium. Define the problem, identify criteria and constraints, develop possible solutions using models, analyze data to make improvements from iteratively testing solutions, and optimize a solution. Emphasize a qualitative understanding of Le Châtelier’s Principle and connections between macroscopic and molecular level changes.

Equilibrium and Concentration
Equilibrium and Pressure

CHEM.4: Energy in Chemical Systems

CHEM.4.1: Construct an argument from evidence about whether a simple chemical reaction absorbs or releases energy. Emphasize that the overall change in energy is related to the energy absorbed when bonds are broken and the energy released when bonds are formed. Examples could include chemical reactions releasing or absorbing energy to or from the surrounding solution or the metabolism of glucose.

Feel the Heat
Reaction Energy

CHEM.4.2: Construct an explanation of the effects that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter. Emphasize a qualitative understanding. Examples could include that low energy electromagnetic radiation can increase molecular rotation and bond vibration, visible light can cause electronic transitions, and high energy electromagnetic radiation can result in ionization and bond breaking.

Heat Absorption
Herschel Experiment - Metric
Photoelectric Effect
Radiation

CHEM.4.4: Use models to describe the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom during nuclear processes, and compare the energy released during nuclear processes to the energy released during chemical processes. Emphasize a qualitative understanding of nuclear changes. Examples of nuclear processes could include the formation of elements through fusion in stars, generation of electricity in a nuclear power plant, radioactive decay, or the use of radioisotopes in nuclear medicine.

Nuclear Decay
Nuclear Reactions

CHEM.4.5: Develop an argument from evidence to evaluate a proposed solution to societal energy demands based on prioritized criteria and trade-offs that account for a range of constraints that could include cost, safety, reliability, as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts.

Household Energy Usage

Correlation last revised: 9/15/2020

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