AP.OHB.1: Students shall explore the organizational structures of the body from the molecular to the organism level.
AP.OHB.1.AP.6: Investigate homeostatic control mechanisms and their importance to health and diseases
AP.OHB.1.AP.7: Predict the effect of positive and negative feedback mechanisms on homeostasis
AP.OHB.1.AP.8: Identify the major characteristics of life:
AP.CC.2: Students shall understand the role of chemistry in body processes.
AP.CC.2.AP.2: Explain the basic assumptions and conclusions of the atomic theory
AP.CC.2.AP.4: Explain the role of ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds in the human body
AP.CC.2.AP.5: Write simple formulas and chemical word equations for the four basic types of reactions:
AP.CC.2.AP.5.c: single replacement
AP.CC.2.AP.5.d: double replacement
AP.CC.2.AP.6: Analyze the role of water in the human body
AP.CC.2.AP.7: Explain the relationship among acids, bases, and salts
AP.CC.2.AP.8: Relate the concept of pH to homeostasis
AP.CC.2.AP.9: Compare the structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
AP.APC.3: Students shall understand that cells are the basic, structural, and functional units of life.
AP.APC.3.AP.1: Explain the structure and function of the plasma membrane
AP.APC.3.AP.2: Compare and contrast the different ways in which substances cross the plasma membrane:
AP.APC.3.AP.2.a: diffusion and osmosis
AP.APC.3.AP.2.b: facilitated diffusion
AP.APC.3.AP.2.c: active transport
AP.APC.3.AP.3: Describe the structure and function of organelles and cell parts
AP.APC.3.AP.4: Identify chemical substances produced by cells
AP.APC.3.AP.5: Differentiate among replication, transcription, and translation
AP.APC.3.AP.6: Differentiate between mitosis and meiosis
AP.APC.3.AP.7: Explain the consequences of abnormal cell division
BI.MC.1: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of chemistry in life processes.
BI.MC.1.B.1: Describe the structure and function of the major organic molecules found in living systems:
BI.MC.1.B.1.e: nucleic acids
BI.MC.1.B.3: Investigate the properties and importance of water and its significance for life:
BI.MC.1.B.4: Explain the role of energy in chemical reactions of living systems:
BI.MC.1.B.4.a: activation energy
BI.MC.2: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function of cells.
BI.MC.2.B.1: Construct a hierarchy of life from cells to ecosystems
BI.MC.2.B.3: Describe the role of sub-cellular structures in the life of a cell:
BI.MC.2.B.4: Relate the function of the plasma (cell) membrane to its structure
BI.MC.2.B.5: Compare and contrast the structures of an animal cell to a plant cell
BI.MC.2.B.7: Compare and contrast active transport and passive transport mechanisms:
BI.MC.2.B.8: Describe the main events in the cell cycle, including the differences in plant and animal cell division:
BI.MC.2.B.9: List in order and describe the stages of mitosis:
BI.MC.2.B.11: Discuss homeostasis using thermoregulation as an example
BI.MC.3: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of how cells obtain and use energy (energetics).
BI.MC.3.B.1: Compare and contrast the structure and function of mitochondria and chloroplasts
BI.MC.3.B.4: Describe and model the conversion of light energy to chemical energy by photosynthetic organisms:
BI.MC.3.B.4.a: light dependent reactions
BI.MC.3.B.4.b: light independent reactions
BI.MC.3.B.5: Compare and contrast cellular respiration and photosynthesis as energy conversion pathways
BI.HE.4: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of heredity.
BI.HE.4.B.1: Summarize the outcomes of Gregor Mendel’s experimental procedures
BI.HE.4.B.2: Differentiate among the laws and principles of inheritance:
BI.HE.4.B.2.c: independent assortment
BI.HE.4.B.3: Use the laws of probability and Punnett squares to predict genotypic and phenotypic ratios
BI.HE.4.B.4: Examine different modes of inheritance:
BI.HE.4.B.4.d: incomplete dominance
BI.HE.4.B.4.e: multiple alleles
BI.HE.4.B.5: Analyze the historically significant work of prominent geneticists
BI.HE.4.B.6: Evaluate karyotypes for abnormalities:
BI.HE.5: Students shall investigate the molecular basis of genetics.
BI.HE.5.B.1: Model the components of a DNA nucleotide and an RNA nucleotide
BI.HE.5.B.2: Describe the Watson-Crick double helix model of DNA, using the base-pairing rule (adenine-thymine, cytosine-guanine)
BI.HE.5.B.3: Compare and contrast the structure and function of DNA and RNA
BI.HE.5.B.4: Describe and model the processes of replication, transcription, and translation
BI.HE.5.B.5: Compare and contrast the different types of mutation events, including point mutation, frameshift mutation, deletion, and inversion
BI.HE.5.B.6: Identify effects of changes brought about by mutations:
BI.HE.6: Students shall examine the development of the theory of biological evolution.
BI.HE.6.B.1: Compare and contrast Lamarck’s explanation of evolution with Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection
BI.HE.6.B.2: Recognize that evolution involves a change in allele frequencies in a population across successive generations
BI.HE.6.B.3: Analyze the effects of mutations and the resulting variations within a population in terms of natural selection
BI.HE.6.B.4: Illustrate mass extinction events using a time line
BI.HE.6.B.5: Evaluate evolution in terms of evidence as found in the following:
BI.HE.6.B.5.a: fossil record
BI.HE.6.B.5.f: viral evolution
BI.HE.6.B.6: Compare the processes of relative dating and radioactive dating to determine the age of fossils
BI.CDL.7: Students shall demonstrate an understanding that organisms are diverse.
BI.CDL.7.B.3: Identify the seven major taxonomic categories:
BI.CDL.7.B.6: Compare and contrast the structures and characteristics of viruses (lytic and lysogenic cycles) with non-living and living things
BI.CDL.7.B.7: Evaluate the medical and economic importance of viruses
BI.CDL.7.B.8: Compare and contrast life cycles of familiar organisms
BI.CDL.7.B.8.b: asexual reproduction
BI.CDL.7.B.9: Classify bacteria according to their characteristics and adaptations
BI.CDL.7.B.19: Evaluate the medical and economic importance of plants
BI.EBR.8: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of ecological and behavioral relationships among organisms.
BI.EBR.8.B.4: Analyze an ecosystem’s energy flow through food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids
BI.EBR.8.B.5: Identify and predict the factors that control population, including predation, competition, crowding, water, nutrients, and shelter
BI.EBR.8.B.8: Identify the properties of each of the five levels of ecology:
BI.EBR.9: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the ecological impact of global issues.
BI.EBR.9.B.1: Analyze the effects of human population growth and technology on the environment/biosphere
CH.AT.1: Students shall understand the historical development of the model of the atom.
CH.AT.1.C.1: Summarize the discoveries of the subatomic particles
CH.AT.1.C.1.a: Rutherford’s gold foil
CH.AT.1.C.1.b: Chadwick’s discovery of the neutron
CH.AT.1.C.1.d: Millikan’s Oil Drop
CH.AT.1.C.2: Explain the historical events that led to the development of the current atomic theory
CH.AT.2: Student shall understand the structure of the atom.
CH.AT.2.C.1: Analyze an atom's particle position, arrangement, and charge using:
CH.AT.2.C.2: Compare the magnitude and range of nuclear forces to magnetic forces and gravitational forces
CH.AT.2.C.3: Draw and explain nuclear symbols and hyphen notations for isotopes:
CH.AT.2.C.3.a: nuclear symbol: ^A/Z X Where Hyphen notation: AX− Where X = element symbol; A = the mass number; Z= atomic number; the number of neutrons = A − Z
CH.AT.2.C.4: Derive an average atomic mass
CH.AT.2.C.5: Determine the arrangement of subatomic particles in the ion(s) of an atom
CH.AT.3: Students shall understand how the arrangement of electrons in atoms relates to the quantum model.
CH.AT.3.C.1: Correlate emissions of visible light with the arrangement of electrons in atoms:
CH.AT.3.C.1.b: c=vë Where; v=frequency ë=wavelength
CH.AT.3.C.2: Apply the following rules or principles to model electron arrangement in atoms:
CH.AT.3.C.2.a: Aufbau Principle (diagonal filling order)
CH.AT.3.C.2.b: Hund’s Rule
CH.AT.3.C.2.c: Pauli’s Exclusion Principle
CH.AT.3.C.3: Predict the placement of elements on the Periodic Table and their properties using electron configuration
CH.AT.3.C.4: Demonstrate electron placement in atoms using the following notations:
CH.AT.3.C.4.a: orbital notations
CH.AT.3.C.4.b: electron configuration notation
CH.P.4: Students shall understand the significance of the Periodic Table and its historical development.
CH.P.4.C.1: Compare and contrast the historical events leading to the evolution of the Periodic Table
CH.P.4.C.2: Describe the arrangement of the Periodic Table based on electron filling orders:
CH.P.4.C.3: Interpret periodic trends:
CH.P.4.C.3.a: atomic radius
CH.P.4.C.3.d: electron affinities
CH.P.5: Students shall name and write formulas for binary and ternary compounds.
CH.P.5.C.3: Predict the name and symbol for newly discovered elements using the IUPAC system
CH.P.6: Students shall explain the changes of matter using its physical and chemical properties.
CH.P.6.C.4: Design experiments tracing the energy involved in physical changes and chemical changes
CH.P.6.C.5: Predict the chemical properties of substances based on their electron configuration:
CH.B.8: Students shall understand the process of ionic bonding.
CH.B.8.C.1: Determine ion formation tendencies for groups on the Periodic Table:
CH.B.8.C.1.a: main group elements
CH.B.8.C.1.b: transition elements
CH.B.8.C.2: Derive formula units based on the charges of ions
CH.B.8.C.3: Use the electronegativitiy chart to predict the bonding type of compounds:
CH.B.8.C.3.c: non-polar covalent
CH.B.9: Students shall understand the process of covalent bonding.
CH.B.9.C.1: Draw Lewis structures to show valence electrons for covalent bonding:
CH.B.9.C.1.a: lone pairs
CH.B.9.C.1.b: shared pairs
CH.B.9.C.2: Determine the properties of covalent compounds based upon double and triple bonding
CH.S.12: Students shall understand the relationship between balanced chemical equations and mole relationships.
CH.S.12.C.1: Balance chemical equations when all reactants and products are given
CH.S.12.C.2: Use balanced reaction equations to obtain information about the amounts of reactants and products
CH.S.12.C.3: Distinguish between limiting reactants and excess reactants in balanced reaction equations
CH.S.12.C.4: Calculate stoichiometric quantities and use these to determine theoretical yields
CH.S.13: Students shall understand the mole concept and Avogadro's number.
CH.S.13.C.1: Apply the mole concept to calculate the number of particles and the amount of substance: Avogadro’s constant = 6.02 x 10 to the 23rd power.
CH.S.13.C.2: Determine the empirical and molecular formulas using the molar concept:
CH.S.13.C.2.a: molar mass
CH.S.13.C.2.b: average atomic mass
CH.S.14: Students shall predict the product(s) based upon the type of chemical reaction.
CH.S.14.C.1: Given the products and reactants predict products for the following types of reactions:
CH.S.14.C.1.c: single displacement
CH.S.14.C.1.d: double displacement
CH.S.15: Students shall understand the composition of solutions, their formation and their strengths expressed in various units.
CH.S.15.C.1: Distinguish between the terms solute, solvent, solution and concentration
CH.S.15.C.3: Calculate the following concentration expressions involving the amount of solute and volume of solution:
CH.S.15.C.3.d: normality (N)
CH.S.15.C.5: Define heat of solution
CH.S.15.C.6: Identify the physical state for each substance in a reaction equation
CH.GL.16: Students shall understand the behavior of gas particles as it relates to the kinetic theory.
CH.GL.16.C.1: Demonstrate the relationship of the kinetic theory as it applies to gas particles:
CH.GL.16.C.1.a: molecular motion
CH.GL.16.C.1.b: elastic collisions
CH.GL.16.C.1.e: ideal gas
CH.GL.16.C.2: Calculate the effects of pressure, temperature, and volume on the number of moles of gas particles in chemical reactions
CH.GL.17: Students shall understand the relationship among temperature, pressure, volume and moles of gas.
CH.GL.17.C.1: Calculate the effects of pressure, temperature, and volume to gases
CH.GL.17.C.1.b: Boyle’s Law
CH.GL.17.C.1.c: Charles’ Law
CH.GL.17.C.1.d: Combined Law
CH.GL.17.C.1.f: Graham’s Law of Effusion
CH.GL.18: Students shall apply the stoichiometric mass and volume relationships of gases in chemical reactions.
CH.GL.18.C.1: Calculate volume/mass relationships in balanced chemical reaction equations
CH.AB.20: Students shall apply rules of nomenclature to acids, bases and salts.
CH.AB.20.C.1: Name and write formulas for acids, bases and salts:
CH.AB.20.C.1.a: binary acids
CH.AB.20.C.1.b: ternary acids
CH.AB.20.C.1.c: ionic compounds
CH.AB.21: Students shall understand the general properties of acids, bases and salts.
CH.AB.21.C.1: Compare and contrast acid and base properties
CH.AB.21.C.3: Explain the role of the pH scale as applied to acids and bases
CH.KE.23: Students shall understand enthalpy, entropy, and free energy and their relationship to chemical reactions.
CH.KE.23.C.4: Define specific heat capacity and its relationship to calorimetric measurements:
CH.KE.23.C.4.a: q = m (deltaT)C sub p
CH.KE.23.C.5: Determine the heat of formation and the heat of reaction using enthalpy values and the Law of Conservation of Energy
CH.KE.23.C.6: Explain the role of activation energy and collision theory in chemical reactions
CH.E.24: Students shall apply rules of nomenclature to acids, bases, and salts.
CH.E.24.C.1: List and explain the factors which affect the rate of a reaction and the relationship of these factors to chemical equilibrium:
CH.E.24.C.1.a: reversible reactions
CH.E.24.C.1.b: reaction rate
CH.E.24.C.1.c: nature of reactants
CH.E.24.C.3: Explain the relationship of LeChatelier's Principle to equilibrium systems:
CH.E.24.C.4: Describe the application of equilibrium and kinetic concepts to the Haber Process:
CH.E.24.C.4.a: high concentration of hydrogen and nitrogen
CH.E.24.C.4.d: use of a contact catalyst
CH.OC.28: Students shall know and describe the functional groups in organic chemistry.
CH.OC.28.C.2: Name and write formulas for aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic hydrocarbons
CH.OC.29: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of organic compounds in living and non-living systems.
CH.OC.29.C.1: Differentiate among the biochemical functions of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids
CH.NC.30: Students shall understand the process transformations of nuclear radiation.
CH.NC.30.C.1: Describe the following radiation emissions:
CH.NC.30.C.1.a: alpha particles
CH.NC.30.C.1.b: beta particles
CH.NC.30.C.1.c: gamma rays
CH.NC.30.C.1.d: positron particles
CH.NC.30.C.2: Write and balance nuclear reactions
CH.NC.30.C.4: Apply the concept of half life to nuclear decay
CH.NC.31: Students shall understand the current and historical ramifications of nuclear energy.
CH.NC.31.C.1: Construct models of instruments used to study, control, and utilize radioactive materials and nuclear processes
CH.NC.31.C.2: Research the role of nuclear reactions in society:
CH.NC.31.C.2.b: nuclear power plants
CH.NC.31.C.2.c: Manhattan Project
ES.PD.1: Students shall understand the physical dynamics of Earth.
ES.PD.1.ES.5: Explain the processes of the rock cycle
ES.PD.1.ES.6: Describe the processes of degradation by weathering and erosion
ES.PD.1.ES.7: Describe tectonic forces relating to internal energy production and convection currents
ES.PD.1.ES.8: Describe the relationships of degradation (a general lowering of the earth's surface by erosion or weathering) and tectonic forces:
ES.PD.1.ES.9: Construct and interpret information on topographic maps
ES.PD.1.ES.14: Investigate the stratification of the ocean:
ES.PD.1.ES.14.a: colligative properties (depends on the ratio of the number of particles of solute and solvent in the solution, not the identity of the solute)
ES.PD.1.ES.15: Predict the effects of ocean currents on climate
ES.PD.1.ES.16: Explain heat transfer in the atmosphere and its relationship to meteorological processes:
ES.PD.1.ES.18: Construct and interpret weather maps
ES.PD.1.ES.19: Describe the cycling of materials and energy:
ES.BD.2: Students shall understand the biological dynamics of Earth.
ES.BD.2.ES.2: Describe relationships within a community:
ES.BD.2.ES.4: Construct a trophic-level pyramid (energy level)
ES.BD.2.ES.5: Construct a food chain
ES.BD.2.ES.7: Compare and contrast food webs and food chains
ES.BD.2.ES.9: Explain how limiting factors affect populations and ecosystems
ES.BD.2.ES.10: Describe the natural selection process in populations
ES.SP.3: Students shall understand the impact of human activities on the environment.
ES.SP.3.ES.1: Explain the reciprocal relationships between Earth’s processes (natural disasters) and human activities
ES.SP.3.ES.2: Investigate the relationships between human consumption of natural resources and the stewardship responsibility for reclamations including disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous waste
ES.SP.3.ES.3: Explain common problems related to water quality:
ES.SP.3.ES.6: Research how political systems influence environmental decisions
ES.SP.3.ES.7: Investigate which federal and state agencies have responsibility for environmental monitoring and action
ES.SP.3.ES.9: Evaluate personal and societal benefits when examining health, population, resource, and environmental issues
ES.SP.3.ES.10: Predict the long-term societal impact of specific health, population, resource, and environmental issues
ES.SP.3.ES.11: Investigate the effect of public policy decisions on health, population, resource, and environmental issues
PS.C.1: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of matter's composition and structure.
PS.C.1.PS.1: Compare and contrast chemical and physical properties of matter, including but not limited to flammability, reactivity, density, buoyancy, viscosity, melting point and boiling point
PS.C.1.PS.2: Compare and contrast chemical and physical changes, including but not limited to rusting, burning, evaporation, boiling and dehydration
PS.C.1.PS.4: Illustrate the placement of electrons in the first twenty elements using energy levels and orbitals
PS.C.1.PS.5: Distinguish among atoms, ions, and isotopes
PS.C.1.PS.6: Model the valence electrons using electron dot structures (Lewis electron dot structures)
PS.C.1.PS.7: Explain the role of valence electrons in determining chemical properties
PS.C.1.PS.8: Explain the role of valence electrons in forming chemical bonds
PS.C.1.PS.9: Model bonding:
PS.C.1.PS.11: Write formulas for ionic and covalent compounds
PS.C.1.PS.13: Identify the mole and amu (atomic mass unit) as units of measurement in chemistry
PS.C.2: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of energy in chemistry.
PS.C.2.PS.1: Identify the kinetic theory throughout the phases of matter
PS.C.2.PS.2: Create and label heat versus temperature graphs (heating curves):
PS.C.2.PS.2.e: heat of fusion
PS.C.2.PS.3: Relate thermal expansion to the kinetic theory
PS.C.2.PS.4: Compare and contrast Boyle’s law and Charles’ law
PS.C.2.PS.7: Compare and contrast the emissions produced by radioactive decay:
PS.C.2.PS.7.a: alpha particles
PS.C.2.PS.7.b: beta particles
PS.C.2.PS.7.c: gamma rays
PS.C.3: Students shall compare and contrast chemical reactions.
PS.C.3.PS.1: Identify and write balanced chemical equations:
PS.C.3.PS.1.a: decomposition reaction
PS.C.3.PS.1.b: synthesis reaction
PS.C.3.PS.1.c: single displacement reaction
PS.C.3.PS.1.d: double displacement reaction
PS.C.3.PS.2: Predict the product(s) of a chemical reaction when given the reactants using chemical symbols and words
PS.C.3.PS.3: Balance chemical equations using the Law of Conservation of Mass
PS.C.3.PS.4: Determine mole ratio from a balanced reaction equation
PS.C.3.PS.6: Model the role of activation energy in chemical reactions
PS.C.3.PS.7: Examine factors that affect the rate of chemical reactions, including but not limited to temperature, light, concentration, catalysts, surface area, pressure
PS.C.4: Students shall classify organic compounds.
PS.C.4.PS.1: Summarize carbon bonding:
PS.C.4.PS.1.b: carbon-carbon (single, double, triple)
PS.C.4.PS.2: Identify organic compounds by their:
PS.C.4.PS.4: Describe organic compounds and their functions in the human body:
PS.C.4.PS.4.d: nucleic acids
PS.P.5: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of energy in physics.
PS.P.5.PS.1: Distinguish among thermal energy, heat, and temperature
PS.P.6: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of forces in physics.
PS.P.6.PS.1: Analyze how force affects motion:
PS.P.6.PS.1.a: one-dimensional (linear)
PS.P.6.PS.1.b: two-dimensional (projectile and rotational)
PS.P.6.PS.3: Compare and contrast among speed, velocity and acceleration
PS.P.6.PS.4: Solve problems using the formulas for speed and acceleration:
PS.P.6.PS.4.a: v = d/t
PS.P.6.PS.4.b: a - delta v/delta t where a = acceleration, v = speed (velocity), delta t = change in time, delta v = change in speed velocity, t = time and d = distance
PS.P.6.PS.5: Interpret graphs related to motion:
PS.P.6.PS.5.a: distance versus time (d-t)
PS.P.6.PS.5.b: velocity versus time (v-t)
PS.P.6.PS.5.c: acceleration versus time (a-t)
PS.P.6.PS.6: Compare and contrast Newton’s three laws of motion
PS.P.6.PS.7: Design and conduct investigations demonstrating Newton’s first law of motion
PS.P.6.PS.8: Conduct investigations demonstrating Newton’s second law of motion
PS.P.6.PS.9: Design and conduct investigations demonstrating Newton’s third law of motion
PS.P.6.PS.11: Relate the Law of Conservation of Momentum to how it affects the movement of objects
PS.P.6.PS.12: Compare and contrast the effects of forces on fluids:
PS.P.6.PS.12.a: Archimedes’ principle
PS.P.6.PS.13: Design an experiment to show conversion of energy:
PS.P.6.PS.13.a: mechanical (potential and kinetic)
PS.P.6.PS.14: Solve problems by using formulas for gravitational potential and kinetic energy:
PS.P.6.PS.14.a: KE = 1/2 mv²
PS.P.6.PS.14.b: PE = mgh Where KE = kinetic energy, PE = potential energy, m = mass, v = velocity
PS.P.7: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of wave and particle motion.
PS.P.7.PS.1: Compare and contrast a wave’s speed through various mediums
PS.P.7.PS.3: Explain Doppler effect using examples
PS.P.7.PS.4: Calculate problems relating to wave properties:
PS.P.7.PS.4.a: gamma = vt
PS.P.7.PS.4.b: f = 1/T
PS.P.7.PS.4.c: v = fë Where ë = wavelength, f = frequency, T = period, v = velocity
PS.P.7.PS.5: Describe how the physical properties of sound waves affect its perception
PS.P.7.PS.6: Define light in terms of waves and particles
PS.P.7.PS.7: Explain the formation of color by light and by pigments
PS.P.7.PS.8: Investigate the separation of white light into colors by diffraction
PS.P.7.PS.9: Illustrate constructive and destructive interference of light waves
PS.P.7.PS.10: Differentiate among the reflected images produced by concave, convex, and plane mirrors
PS.P.7.PS.11: Differentiate between the refracted images produced by concave and convex lenses
PS.P.7.PS.12: Research current uses of optics and sound
PH.MF.1: Students shall understand one-dimensional motion.
PH.MF.1.P.1: Compare and contrast scalar and vector quantities
PH.MF.1.P.2: Solve problems involving constant and average velocity:
PH.MF.1.P.2.a: v = d/t
PH.MF.1.P.2.b: v(ave) = delta d/delta t
PH.MF.1.P.3: Apply kinematic equations to calculate distance, time, or velocity under conditions of constant acceleration:
PH.MF.1.P.3.a: a = v/t
PH.MF.1.P.3.b: a(ave) = delta v/delta t
PH.MF.1.P.3.c: delta x = 1/2 (v(f) + v(f)) (delta t)
PH.MF.1.P.3.d: v(f) = v(i) + a delta t
PH.MF.1.P.3.e: delta x = v (i) delta t + 1/2 a(delta t)²
PH.MF.1.P.3.f: v(f)² = v(i)² + 2a delta x
PH.MF.1.P.4: Compare graphic representations of motion:
PH.MF.1.P.5: Calculate the components of a free falling object at various points in motion:
PH.MF.1.P.5.a: v(f)² = v(i)² + 2a delta y Where a = gravity (g)
PH.MF.1.P.6: Compare and contrast contact force (e.g., friction) and field forces (e.g., gravitational force)
PH.MF.1.P.7: Draw free body diagrams of all forces acting upon an object
PH.MF.1.P.8: Calculate the applied forces represented in a free body diagram
PH.MF.1.P.9: Apply Newton’s first law of motion to show balanced and unbalanced forces
PH.MF.1.P.10: Apply Newton's second law of motion to solve motion problems that involve constant forces:
PH.MF.1.P.10.a: F = ma
PH.MF.1.P.11: Apply Newton’s third law of motion to explain action-reaction pairs
PH.MF.1.P.12: Calculate frictional forces (i.e., kinetic and static):
PH.MF.1.P.12.a: u(k) = F(k)/F(n)
PH.MF.1.P.12.b: u(s) = F(s)/F(n)
PH.MF.1.P.13: Calculate the magnitude of the force of friction:
PH.MF.1.P.13.a: F(f) = uF(n)
PH.MF.2: Students shall understand two-dimensional motion.
PH.MF.2.P.1: Calculate the resultant vector of a moving object
PH.MF.2.P.2: Resolve two-dimensional vectors into their components:
PH.MF.2.P.2.a: d(x) - d cos theta
PH.MF.2.P.2.b: d(y) = d sin theta
PH.MF.2.P.3: Calculate the magnitude and direction of a vector from its components:
PH.MF.2.P.3.a: d² = x² + y²
PH.MF.2.P.3.b: tan to the -1 power (theta) = x/y
PH.MF.2.P.4: Solve two-dimensional problems using balanced forces:
PH.MF.2.P.4.a: W = Tsin theta Where W = weight; T = tension
PH.MF.2.P.6: Describe the path of a projectile as a parabola
PH.MF.2.P.7: Apply kinematic equations to solve problems involving projectile motion of an object launched at an angle:
PH.MF.2.P.7.a: v(x) = v(i) cos theta = constant
PH.MF.2.P.7.b: delta x = v(i)(cost theta) delta t
PH.MF.2.P.7.c: v(y-f) = v(i)(sin theta) - g delta t
PH.MF.2.P.7.d: v(y-f)² = v(i)² (sing theta)² = 2g delta y
PH.MF.2.P.7.e: delta y = v(i)(sin theta) delta t = 1/2 g(delta t)²
PH.MF.2.P.9: Calculate rotational motion with a constant force directed toward the center:
PH.MF.2.P.9.a: F(c) = mv²/r
PH.MF.2.P.10: Solve problems in circular motion by using centripetal acceleration:
PH.MF.2.P.10.a: a(c) = v²/r = 4 pi²r/T²
PH.MF.3: Students shall understand the dynamics of rotational equilibrium.
PH.MF.3.P.1: Relate radians to degrees:
PH.MF.3.P.1.a: delta theta = delta s/r Where delta s = arc length; r = radius
PH.MF.3.P.2: Calculate the magnitude of torque on an object:
PH.MF.3.P.2.a: t = Fd(sin theta) Where t = torque
PH.MF.3.P.3: Calculate angular speed and angular acceleration:
PH.MF.3.P.3.a: omega(ave) = delta theta/delta t
PH.MF.3.P.3.b: alpha = delta omega/delta t
PH.MF.3.P.4: Solve problems using kinematic equations for angular motion:
PH.MF.3.P.4.a: omega(f) = omega(i) + alpha delta t
PH.MF.3.P.4.b: delta theta = omega(i) delta t + 1/2 alpha (delta t)²
PH.MF.3.P.4.c: omega(f)² = omega(i)² + 2 alpha (delta theta)
PH.MF.3.P.4.d: delta theta = 1/2(omega(i) + omega(f)) delta t
PH.MF.3.P.5: Solve problems involving tangential speed:
PH.MF.3.P.5.a: v(t) = r omega
PH.MF.3.P.6: Solve problems involving tangential acceleration:
PH.MF.3.P.6.a: a(t) = r alpha
PH.MF.3.P.7: Calculate centripetal acceleration:
PH.MF.3.P.7.a: a(c) = v(t)²/r
PH.MF.3.P.7.b: a(c) = r omega²
PH.MF.3.P.8: Apply Newton's universal law of gravitation to find the gravitational force between two masses:
PH.MF.3.P.8.a: F(g) = G (m(l)m(2))/r², Where G = 6.673 X 10 to the -11 power (N * m²)/kg²
PH.MF.4: Students shall understand the relationship between work and energy.
PH.MF.4.P.1: Calculate net work done by a constant net force:
PH.MF.4.P.1.a: W(net) = F(net) d cos theta Where W(net) = work
PH.MF.4.P.2: Solve problems relating kinetic energy and potential energy to the work-energy theorem:
PH.MF.4.P.2.a: W(net) = delta KE
PH.MF.4.P.3: Solve problems through the application of conservation of mechanical energy:
PH.MF.4.P.3.a: ME(i) = ME(f)
PH.MF.4.P.3.b: 1/2mv(i)² + mgh(i) = 1/2mv(f)² + mgh(f)
PH.MF.5: Students shall understand the law of conservation of momentum.
PH.MF.5.P.1: Describe changes in momentum in terms of force and time
PH.MF.5.P.2: Solve problems using the impulse-momentum theorem:
PH.MF.5.P.2.a: F delta t = delta p or F delta t = mv(f) = mv(i) Where delta p = change in momentum; F delta t = impulse
PH.MF.5.P.3: Compare total momentum of two objects before and after they interact:
PH.MF.5.P.3.a: m(1)v(li) + m(2i) = m(1)v(1f) + m(2)v(2f)
PH.MF.5.P.4: Solve problems for perfectly inelastic and elastic collisions:
PH.MF.5.P.4.a: m(1)v(1i) + m(2)v(2i) = (m(1) + m(2))v(f)
PH.MF.5.P.4.b: m(l)v(li) + m(2)v(2i) = m(l)v(lf) + m(2)v(2f) Where v(f) is the final velocity
PH.MF.6: Students shall understand the concepts of fluid mechanics.
PH.MF.6.P.1: Calibrate the applied buoyant force to determine if the object will sink or float:
PH.MF.6.P.1.a: F(B) = F(g(displaced fluid)) = m(f)g
PH.MF.6.P.3: Apply Bernoulli's equation to solve fluid-flow problems:
PH.MF.6.P.3.a: p = 1/2 pv² + pgh = constant Where p = density
PH.HT.7: Students shall understand the effects of thermal energy on particles and systems.
PH.HT.7.P.1: Perform specific heat capacity calculations:
PH.HT.7.P.1.a: C(p) = Q/m delta T
PH.HT.7.P.2: Perform calculations involving latent heat:
PH.HT.7.P.2.a: Q = mL
PH.HT.7.P.3: Interpret the various sections of a heating curve diagram
PH.HT.7.P.4: Calculate heat energy of the different phase changes of a substance:
PH.HT.7.P.4.a: Q = mC(p) delta T
PH.HT.7.P.4.b: Q = mL(f)
PH.HT.7.P.4.c: Q = mL(v) Where L(f) = Latent heat of fusion; L(v) Latent healt of vaporization
PH.HT.8: Students shall apply the two laws of thermodynamics.
PH.HT.8.P.1: Describe how the first law of thermodynamics is a statement of energy conversion
PH.HT.8.P.3: Calculate the efficiency of a heat engine by using the second law of thermodynamics:
PH.HT.8.P.3.a: Eff = W(net)/Q(h) = (Q(h) - Q(c))/Q(h) = 1 - Q(c) Where Q(h) = energy added as heat; Q(c) = energy removed as heat
PH.WO.9: Students shall distinguish between simple harmonic motion and waves.
PH.WO.9.P.1: Explain how force, velocity, and acceleration change as an object vibrates with simple harmonic motion
PH.WO.9.P.2: Calculate the spring force using Hooke's law:
PH.WO.9.P.2.a: F(elastic) = -kx Where -k = spring constant
PH.WO.9.P.3: Calculate the period and frequency of an object vibrating with a simple harmonic motion:
PH.WO.9.P.3.a: T = 2 pi times square root of L/g
PH.WO.9.P.3.b: f = 1/T Where T = period
PH.WO.9.P.4: Differentiate between pulse and periodic waves
PH.WO.9.P.5: Relate energy and amplitude
PH.WO.10: Students shall compare and contrast the law of reflection and the law of refraction.
PH.WO.10.P.1: Calculate the frequency and wavelength of electromagnetic radiation
PH.WO.10.P.3: Describe the images formed by flat mirrors
PH.WO.10.P.4: Calculate distances and focal lengths for curved mirrors:
PH.WO.10.P.4.a: 1/p + 1/q = 2/R Where p = object distance; q = image distance; R = radius of curvature
PH.WO.10.P.5: Draw ray diagrams to find the image distance and magnification for curved mirrors
PH.WO.10.P.6: Solve problems using Snell's law:
PH.WO.10.P.6.a: n(i)(sing theta(i)) = n(r)(sin theta(r))
PH.WO.10.P.7: Calculate the index of refraction through various media using the following equation:
PH.WO.10.P.7.a: n = c/v Where n = index of refraction; c = speed of light in vacuum; v = speed of light in medium
PH.WO.10.P.8: Use a ray diagram to find the position of an image produced by a lens
PH.WO.10.P.9: Solve problems using the thin-lens equation:
PH.WO.10.P.9.a: 1/p + 1/q = 1/f Where q = image distance; p = object distance; f = focal length
PH.WO.10.P.10: Calculate the magnification of lenses:
PH.WO.10.P.10.a: M = h'/h = q/p Where M = magnification; h' = image height; h = object height; q = image distance; p = object distance
PH.EM.11: Students shall understand the relationship between electric forces and electric fields.
PH.EM.11.P.1: Calculate electric force using Coulomb's law:
PH.EM.11.P.1.a: F = k(c)(q(i) x q(2)/r²) Where k(c) = Coulomb's constant 8.99 x 10 to the 9th power N times m²/c²
PH.EM.12: Students shall understand the relationship between electric energy and capacitance.
PH.EM.12.P.4: Construct a circuit to produce a pre-determined value of an Ohm’s law variable
PH.EM.13: Students shall understand how magnetism relates to induced and alternating currents.
PH.EM.13.P.3: Determine the magnitude and direction of the force on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field
PH.NP.15: Students shall understand the process of nuclear decay.
PH.NP.15.P.2: Predict the products of nuclear decay
PH.NP.15.P.3: Calculate the decay constant and the half-life of a radioactive substance
Correlation last revised: 3/25/2010