PS1-MS-1: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures.
PS1-MS-1.PS1.B: Chemical Reactions
PS1-MS-1.PS1.B.i: Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants.
PS1-MS-3: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Gather and make sense of information to describe that synthetic materials come from natural resources and impact society.
PS1-MS-3.PS1.B: Chemical Reactions
PS1-MS-3.PS1.B.i: Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants.
PS1-MS-4: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Develop a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed.
PS1-MS-4.PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter
PS1-MS-4.PS1.A.i: Gases and liquids are made of molecules or inert atoms that are moving about relative to each other.
PS1-MS-4.PS1.A.ii: In a liquid, the molecules are constantly in contact with others; in a gas, they are widely spaced except when they happen to collide. In a solid, atoms are closely spaced and may vibrate in position but do not change relative locations.
PS1-MS-4.PS1.A.iii: The changes of state that occur with variations in temperature or pressure can be described and predicted using these models of matter.
PS1-MS-4.PS3.A: Definitions of Energy
PS1-MS-4.PS3.A.i: The term “heat” as used in everyday language refers both to thermal energy (the motion of atoms or molecules with in a substance) and the transfer of that thermal energy from one object to another. In science, heat is used only for this second meaning; it refers to the energy transferred due to the temperature difference between two objects.
PS1-MS-5: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Develop and use a model to describe how the total number of atoms does not change in a chemical reaction and thus mass is conserved.
PS1-MS-5.PS1.B: Chemical Reactions
PS1-MS-5.PS1.B.i: Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants.
PS1-MS-5.PS1.B.ii: The total number of each type of atom is conserved, and thus the mass does not change.
PS1-MS-6: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Undertake a design project to construct, test, and modify a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes.
PS1-MS-6.PS1.B: Chemical Reactions
PS1-MS-6.PS1.B.i: Some chemical reactions release energy, others store energy.
PS1-MS-6.PS3.A: Definitions of Energy
PS1-MS-6.PS3.A.i: The temperature of a system is proportional to the average internal kinetic energy and potential energy per atom or molecule (whichever is the appropriate building block for the system’s material). The details of that relationship depend on the type of atom or molecule and the interactions among the atoms in the material. Temperature is not a direct measure of a system’s total thermal energy. The total thermal energy (sometimes called total internal energy) of a system depends jointly on the temperature, the total number of atoms in the system, and the state of the material.
PS2-MS-1: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Apply Newton’s Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects.
PS2-MS-1.PS2.A: Forces and Motion
PS2-MS-1.PS2.A.i: For any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction (Newton’s third law).
PS2-MS-2: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.
PS2-MS-2.PS2.A: Forces and Motion
PS2-MS-2.PS2.A.i: The motion of an object is determined by the sum of the forces acting on it; if the total force on the object is not zero, its motion will change. The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force needed to achieve the same change in motion. For any given object, a larger force causes a larger change in motion.
PS2-MS-3: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Ask questions about data to determine the factors that affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces.
PS2-MS-4: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects.
PS2-MS-4.PS2.B: Types of Interactions
PS2-MS-4.PS2.B.i: Gravitational forces are always attractive. There is a gravitational force between any two masses, but it is very small except when one or both of the objects have large mass-e.g., Earth and the sun.
PS2-MS-5: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Conduct an investigation and evaluate the experimental design to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact.
PS2-MS-5.PS2.B: Types of Interactions
PS2-MS-5.PS2.B.i: Forces that act at a distance (electric, magnetic, and gravitational) can be explained by fields that extend through space and can be mapped by their effect on a test object (a charged object, or a ball, respectively).
PS3-MS-1: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and to the speed of an object.
PS3-MS-1.PS3.A: Definitions of Energy
PS3-MS-1.PS3.A.i: Motion energy is properly called kinetic energy; it is proportional to the mass of the moving object and grows with the square of its speed.
PS3-MS-2: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Develop a model to describe that when the arrangement of objects interacting at a distance changes, different amounts of potential energy are stored in the system.
PS3-MS-4: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Plan an investigation to determine the relationships among the energy transferred, the type of matter, the mass, and the change in the average kinetic energy of the particles as measured by the temperature of the sample.
PS3-MS-4.PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer
PS3-MS-4.PS3.B.i: The amount of energy transfer needed to change the temperature of a matter sample by a given amount depends on the nature of the matter, the size of the sample, and the environment.
PS3-MS-5: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Construct, use, and present arguments to support the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object.
PS3-MS-5.PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer
PS3-MS-5.PS3.B.i: When the motion energy of an object changes, there is inevitably some other change in energy at the same time.
PS4-MS-1: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Use mathematical representations to describe a simple model for waves that includes how the amplitude of a wave is related to the energy in a wave.
PS4-MS-2: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials.
PS4-MS-2.PS4.A: Wave Properties
PS4-MS-2.PS4.A.i: A sound wave needs a medium through which it is transmitted.
PS4-MS-2.PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation
PS4-MS-2.PS4.B.i: When light shines on an object, it is reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through the object, depending on the object’s material and the frequency (color) of the light.
PS4-MS-2.PS4.B.ii: The path that light travels can be traced as straight lines, except at surfaces between different transparent materials (e.g., air and water, air and glass) where the light path bends.
MS-LS1-1: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Conduct an investigation to provide evidence that living things are made of cells; either one cell or many different numbers and types of cells.
MS-LS1-1.LS1.A: Structure and Function
MS-LS1-1.LS1.A.i: All living things are made up of cells, which is the smallest unit that can be said to be alive. An organism may consist of one single cell (unicellular) or many different numbers and types of cells (multicellular).
MS-LS1-2: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Develop and use a model to describe the function of a cell as a whole and ways parts of cells contribute to the function.
MS-LS1-2.LS1.A: Structure and Function
MS-LS1-2.LS1.A.i: Within cells, special structures are responsible for particular functions, and the cell membrane forms the boundary that controls what enters and leaves the cell.
MS-LS1-3: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Use argument supported by evidence for how a living organism is a system of interacting subsystems composed of groups of cells.
MS-LS1-4: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Construct a scientific argument based on evidence to defend a claim of life for a specific object or organism.
MS-LS1-4.LS1.B: Characteristics of Living Things
MS-LS1-4.LS1.B.i: Organisms reproduce, either sexually or asexually, and transfer their genetic information to their offspring.
MS-LS1-4.LS1.B.ii: Living things share certain characteristics. (These include response to environment, reproduction, energy use, growth and development, life cycles, made of cells, etc.)
MS-LS1-5: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for the role of photosynthesis in the cycling of matter and flow of energy into and out of organisms.
MS-LS1-5.LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms
MS-LS1-5.LS1.C.i: Plants, algae (including phytoplankton), and many microorganisms use the energy from light to make sugars (food) from carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and water through the process of photosynthesis, which also releases oxygen. These sugars can be used immediately or stored for growth or later use.
MS-LS1-6: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Develop a model to describe how food is rearranged through chemical reactions forming new molecules that support growth and/or release energy as this matter moves through an organism.
LS2-MS-1: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem.
LS2-MS-1.LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems
LS2-MS-1.LS2.A.i: Organisms, and populations of organisms, are dependent on their environmental interactions both with other living things and with nonliving factors.
LS2-MS-1.LS2.A.iii: Growth of organisms and population increases are limited by access to resources.
LS2-MS-2: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Construct an explanation that predicts patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems.
LS2-MS-2.LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems
LS2-MS-2.LS2.A.i: Similarly, predatory interactions may reduce the number of organisms or eliminate whole populations of organisms. Mutually beneficial interactions, in contrast, may become so interdependent that each organism requires the other for survival. Although the species involved in these competitive, predatory, and mutually beneficial interactions vary across ecosystems, the patterns of interactions of organisms with their environments, both living and nonliving, are shared.
LS2-MS-3: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy among living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem.
LS2-MS-3.LS2.B: Cycle of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems
LS2-MS-3.LS2.B.i: Food webs are models that demonstrate how matter and energy is transferred between producers, consumers, and decomposers as the three groups interact within an ecosystem. Transfers of matter into and out of the physical environment occur at every level. Decomposers recycle nutrients from dead plant or animal matter back to the soil in terrestrial environments or to the water in aquatic environments. The atoms that make up the organisms in an ecosystem are cycled repeatedly between the living and nonliving parts of the ecosystem.
LS2-MS-4: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Develop a model to describe the flow of energy through the trophic levels of an ecosystem.
LS2-MS-4.LS2.B: Cycle of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems
LS2-MS-4.LS2.B.i: Food webs can be broken down into multiple energy pyramids. Concepts should include the 10% rule of energy and biomass transfer between trophic levels and the environment.
LS2-MS-5: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Construct an argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem affect populations.
LS2-MS-5.LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience
LS2-MS-5.LS2.C.i: Ecosystems are dynamic in nature; their characteristics can vary over time. Disruptions to any physical or biological component of an ecosystem can lead to shifts in all its populations.
LS2-MS-6: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Evaluate competing design solutions for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services.
LS2-MS-6.LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience
LS2-MS-6.LS2.C.i: Biodiversity describes the variety of species found in Earth’s terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems. The completeness or integrity of an ecosystem’s biodiversity is often used as a measure of its health.
LS2-MS-6.LS4.D: Biodiversity and Humans
LS2-MS-6.LS4.D.i: Changes in biodiversity can influence humans’ resources, such as food, energy, and medicines, as well as ecosystem services that humans rely on-for example, water purification and recycling.
LS3-MS-1: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Develop and use a model to describe why mutations may result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of the organism.
LS3-MS-1.LS3.A: Inheritance of Traits
LS3-MS-1.LS3.A.i: Genes are located in the chromosomes of cells, with each chromosome pair containing two variants of each of many distinct genes. Each distinct gene chiefly controls the production of specific proteins, which in turn affects the traits of the individual. Changes (mutations) to genes can result in changes to proteins, which can affect the structures and functions of the organism and thereby change traits.
LS3-MS-1.LS3.B: Variation of Traits
LS3-MS-1.LS3.B.i: In addition to variations that arise from sexual reproduction, genetic information can be altered because of mutations. Though rare, mutations may result in changes to the structure and function of proteins. Some changes are beneficial, others harmful, and some neutral to the organism.
LS3-MS-2: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation.
LS3-MS-2.LS1.B: Growth and Development of Organisms
LS3-MS-2.LS1.B.i: Organisms reproduce, either sexually or asexually, and transfer their genetic information to their offspring.
LS3-MS-2.LS3.A: Inheritance of Traits
LS3-MS-2.LS3.A.i: Variations of inherited traits between parent and offspring arise from genetic differences that result from the subset of chromosomes (and therefore genes) inherited.
LS3-MS-2.LS3.B: Variation of Traits
LS3-MS-2.LS3.B.i: In sexually reproducing organisms, each parent contributes half of the genes acquired (at random) by the offspring. Individuals have two of each chromosome and hence two alleles of each gene, one acquired from each parent. These versions may be identical or may differ from each other.
LS4-MS-1: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Analyze and interpret data for patterns in the fossil record that document the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of life forms throughout the history of life on Earth under the assumption that natural laws operate today as in the past.
LS4-MS-1.LS4.A: Classification of Organisms
LS4-MS-1.LS4.A.i: The collection of fossils and their placement in chronological order is known as the fossil record and documents the change of many life forms throughout the history of the Earth. Anatomical similarities and differences between various organisms living today and between them and organisms in the fossil record enable the classification of living things.
LS4-MS-2: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Apply scientific ideas to construct an explanation for the anatomical similarities and differences among modern organisms and between modern and fossil organisms to infer relationships.
LS4-MS-2.LS4.A: Classification of Organisms
LS4-MS-2.LS4.A.i: The collection of fossils and their placement in chronological order is known as the fossil record and documents the change of many life forms throughout the history of the Earth. Anatomical similarities and differences between various organisms living today and between them and organisms in the fossil record enable the classification of living things.
LS4-MS-4: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Construct an explanation based on evidence that describes how genetic variations of traits in a population increase some individuals’ probability of surviving and reproducing in a specific environment.
LS4-MS-5: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Gather and synthesize information about the technologies that have changed the way humans influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms.
LS4-MS-5.LS4.B: Natural Selection
LS4-MS-5.LS4.B.i: In artificial selection, humans have the capacity to influence certain characteristics of organisms by selective breeding. One can choose desired parental traits determined by genes, which are then passed on to offspring.
LS4-MS-6: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Use mathematical representations to support explanations of how natural selection may lead to increases and decreases of specific traits in populations over time.
LS4-MS-6.LS4.C.i: Adaptation by natural selection acting over generations is one important process by which species change over time in response to changes in environmental conditions. Traits that support successful survival and reproduction in the new environment become more common; those that do not become less common. Thus, the distribution of traits in a population changes.
ESS1-MS-1: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Develop and use a model of the Earth-sun-moon system to describe the cyclic patterns of lunar phases, eclipses of the sun and moon, and seasons.
ESS1-MS-1.ESS1.A: The Universe and Its Stars
ESS1-MS-1.ESS1.A.i: Patterns of the apparent motion of the sun, the moon, and stars in the sky can be observed, described, predicted, and explained with models.
ESS1-MS-1.ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System
ESS1-MS-1.ESS1.B.i: This model of the solar system can explain eclipses of the sun and the moon. Earth’s spin axis is fixed in direction over the short-term but tilted relative to its orbit around the sun. The seasons are a result of that tilt and are caused by the differential intensity of sunlight on different areas of Earth across the year.
ESS1-MS-2: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Develop and use a model to describe the role of gravity in the motions within galaxies and the solar system.
ESS1-MS-2.ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System
ESS1-MS-2.ESS1.B.i: The solar system consists of the sun and a collection of objects, including planets, their moons, and asteroids that are held in orbit around the sun by its gravitational pull on them.
ESS1-MS-3: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Analyze and interpret data to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system.
ESS1-MS-3.ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System
ESS1-MS-3.ESS1.B.i: The solar system consists of the sun and a collection of objects, including planets, their moons, and asteroids that are held in orbit around the sun by its gravitational pull on them.
ESS2-MS-1: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Develop a model to describe the cycling of Earth’s materials and the flow of energy that drives this process.
ESS2-MS-1.ESS2.A: Earth’s Materials and Systems
ESS2-MS-1.ESS2.A.i: All Earth processes are the result of energy flowing and matter cycling within and among the planet’s systems. This energy is derived from the sun and Earth’s hot interior. The energy that flows and matter that cycles produce chemical and physical changes in Earth’s materials and living organisms.
ESS2-MS-2: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Construct an explanation based on evidence for how geoscience processes have changed Earth’s surface at varying time and spatial scales.
ESS2-MS-3: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Analyze and interpret data on the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to provide evidence of the past plate motions.
ESS2-MS-3.ESS1.C: The History of Planet Earth
ESS2-MS-3.ESS1.C.i: Tectonic processes continually generate new ocean sea floor at ridges and destroy old sea floor at trenches.
ESS2-MS-4: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Develop a model to describe the cycling of water through Earth’s systems driven by energy from the sun and the force of gravity.
ESS2-MS-4.ESS2.C: The Roles of Water in Earth’s Surface Processes
ESS2-MS-4.ESS2.C.i: Water continually cycles among land, ocean, and atmosphere via transpiration, evaporation, condensation and crystallization, and precipitation, as well as downhill flows on land.
ESS2-MS-4.ESS2.C.ii: Global movements of water and its changes in form are propelled by sunlight and gravity.
ESS2-MS-5: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Collect data to provide evidence for how the motions and complex interactions of air masses results in changes in weather conditions.
ESS2-MS-5.ESS2.C: The Roles of Water in Earth’s Surface Processes
ESS2-MS-5.ESS2.C.i: The complex patterns of the changes and the movement of water in the atmosphere, determined by winds, landforms, and ocean temperatures and currents, are major determinants of local weather patterns.
ESS2-MS-5.ESS2.D: Weather and Climate
ESS2-MS-5.ESS2.D.i: Because these patterns are so complex, weather can only be predicted using probability.
ESS2-MS-6: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Develop and use a model to describe how unequal heating and rotation of the Earth cause patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation that determine regional climates.
ESS2-MS-6.ESS2.D: Weather and Climate
ESS2-MS-6.ESS2.D.i: Weather and climate are influenced by interactions involving sunlight, the ocean, the atmosphere, ice, landforms, and living things. These interactions vary with latitude, altitude, and local and regional geography, all of which can affect oceanic and atmospheric flow patterns.
ESS3-MS-1: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how the uneven distributions of Earth’s mineral, energy, and groundwater resources are the result of past and current geoscience processes.
ESS3-MS-1.ESS3.A: Natural Resources
ESS3-MS-1.ESS3.A.i: Humans depend on Earth’s land, ocean, atmosphere, and biosphere for many different resources. Minerals, fresh water, and biosphere resources are limited, and many are not renewable or replaceable over human lifetimes. These resources are distributed unevenly around the planet as a result of past geologic processes.
ESS3-MS-3: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Apply scientific principles to design a method for monitoring and minimizing a human impact on the environment.
ESS3-MS-3.ESS3.C: Human Impacts on Earth Systems
ESS3-MS-3.ESS3.C.i: Human activities can have consequences (positive and negative) on the biosphere, sometimes altering natural habitats and causing the extinction of other species.
ESS3-MS-5: Students who demonstrate understanding can: Ask questions to interpret evidence of the factors that cause climate variability over time.
ESS3-MS-5.ESS3.C: Human Impacts on Earth Systems
ESS3-MS-5.ESS3.C.i: Mitigating current changes in climate depends on understanding climate science. Current scientific models indicate that human activities, such as the release of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion, are the primary factors in the present-day measured rise in Earth’s mean surface temperature. Natural activities, such as changes in incoming solar radiation, also contribute to changing global temperatures.
Correlation last revised: 11/2/2018