### 8.NS: The Number System

#### 8.NS.A: Understand that there are irrational numbers, and approximate them using rational numbers.

8.NS.A.1: Know that numbers that are not rational are called irrational. Understand informally that every number has a decimal expansion. Know that numbers whose decimal expansions do not terminate in zeros or in a repeating sequence of fixed digits are called irrational.

8.NS.A.2: Use rational approximations of irrational numbers to compare the size of irrational numbers. Locate them approximately on a number line diagram, and estimate their values.

### 8.EE: Expressions and Equations

#### 8.EE.A: Work with radicals and integer exponents.

8.EE.A.1: Understand and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions.

8.EE.A.2: Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form x² = p and x³= p, where p is a positive rational number. Know that the square root of 2 is irrational.

8.EE.A.2a: Evaluate square roots of perfect squares less than or equal to 225.

8.EE.A.2b: Evaluate cube roots of perfect cubes less than or equal to 1000.

8.EE.A.3: Use numbers expressed in the form of a single digit times an integer power of 10 to estimate very large or very small quantities, and express how many times larger or smaller one is than the other.

8.EE.A.4: Perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation including problems where both decimal and scientific notation are used. Use scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities.

#### 8.EE.B: Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations.

8.EE.B.5: Graph proportional relationships interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways.

8.EE.B.6: Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a non-vertical line in the coordinate plane. Derive the equation y = mx for a line through the origin and the equation y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at (0, b).

#### 8.EE.C: Analyze and solve linear equations, inequalities, and pairs of simultaneous linear equations.

8.EE.C.7: Fluently solve linear equations and inequalities in one variable.

8.EE.C.7a: Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solution. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers).

8.EE.C.7b: Solve linear equations and inequalities with rational number coefficients, including solutions that require expanding expressions using the distributive property and collecting like terms.

8.EE.C.8: Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations.

8.EE.C.8a: Understand that solutions to a system of two linear equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously.

8.EE.C.8b: Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically, and estimate solutions by graphing the equations including cases of no solution and infinite number of solutions. Solve simple cases by inspection.

8.EE.C.8c: Solve mathematical problems and problems in real-world context leading to two linear equations in two variables.

### 8.F: Functions

#### 8.F.A: Define, evaluate, and compare functions.

8.F.A.1: Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output. (Function notation is not required in Grade 8.)

8.F.A.2: Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions).

8.F.A.3: Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear.

#### 8.F.B: Use functions to model relationships between quantities.

8.F.B.4: Given a description of a situation, generate a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or a graph. Track how the values of the two quantities change together. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, its graph, or its table of values.

8.F.B.5: Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally.

### 8.G: Geometry

#### 8.G.A: Understand congruence and similarity.

8.G.A.1: Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations. Properties include: lines are taken to lines, line segments are taken to line segments of the same length, angles are taken to angles of the same measure, parallel lines are taken to parallel lines.

8.G.A.2: Understand that a two-dimensional figure is congruent to another if one can be obtained from the other by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that demonstrates congruence.

8.G.A.3: Describe the effect of dilations, translations, rotations, and reflections on two-dimensional figures using coordinates.

8.G.A.4: Understand that a two-dimensional figure is similar to another if, and only if, one can be obtained from the other by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar two-dimensional figures, describe a sequence that demonstrates similarity.

8.G.A.5: Use informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum and exterior angle of triangles, about the angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, and the angle-angle criterion for similarity of triangles.

#### 8.G.B: Understand and apply the Pythagorean Theorem.

8.G.B.6: Understand the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse.

8.G.B.7: Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths in right triangles in real-world context and mathematical problems in two and three dimensions.

8.G.B.8: Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to find the distance between two points in a coordinate system.

#### 8.G.C: Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving volume of cylinders, cones, and spheres.

8.G.C.9: Understand and use formulas for volumes of cones, cylinders and spheres and use them to solve real-world context and mathematical problems.

### 8.SP: Statistics and Probability

#### 8.SP.A: Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data.

8.SP.A.1: Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate and describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association.

8.SP.A.2: Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line.

8.SP.A.3: Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the context of bivariate measurement data, interpreting the slope and intercept.

8.SP.A.4: Understand that patterns of association can also be seen in bivariate categorical data by displaying frequencies and relative frequencies in a two-way table. Construct and interpret a two-way table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from the same subjects. Use relative frequencies calculated for rows or columns to describe possible association between the two variables.

#### 8.SP.B: Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models.

8.SP.B.5: Find probabilities of compound events using organized lists, tables, tree diagrams, and simulation.

8.SP.B.5a: Understand that the probability of a compound event is the fraction of outcomes in the sample space for which the compound event occurs.

8.SP.B.5b: Represent sample spaces for compound events using organized lists, tables, tree diagrams and other methods. Identify the outcomes in the sample space which compose the event.

8.SP.B.5c: Design and use a simulation to generate frequencies for compound events.

### 8.MP: Standards for Mathematical Practices

#### 8.MP.1: Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

6.1.1: Mathematically proficient students explain to themselves the meaning of a problem, look for entry points to begin work on the problem, and plan and choose a solution pathway. While engaging in productive struggle to solve a problem, they continually ask themselves, “Does this make sense?' to monitor and evaluate their progress and change course if necessary. Once they have a solution, they look back at the problem to determine if the solution is reasonable and accurate. Mathematically proficient students check their solutions to problems using different methods, approaches, or representations. They also compare and understand different representations of problems and different solution pathways, both their own and those of others.

#### 8.MP.3: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

6.3.1: Mathematically proficient students construct mathematical arguments (explain the reasoning underlying a strategy, solution, or conjecture) using concrete, pictorial, or symbolic referents. Arguments may also rely on definitions, assumptions, previously established results, properties, or structures. Mathematically proficient students make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures. They are able to analyze situations by breaking them into cases, and can recognize and use counterexamples. Mathematically proficient students present their arguments in the form of representations, actions on those representations, and explanations in words (oral or written). Students critique others by affirming or questioning the reasoning of others. They can listen to or read the reasoning of others, decide whether it makes sense, ask questions to clarify or improve the reasoning, and validate or build on it. Mathematically proficient students can communicate their arguments, compare them to others, and reconsider their own arguments in response to the critiques of others.

#### 8.MP.5: Use appropriate tools strategically.

6.5.1: Mathematically proficient students consider available tools when solving a mathematical problem. They choose tools that are relevant and useful to the problem at hand. Proficient students are sufficiently familiar with tools appropriate for their grade or course to make sound decisions about when each of these tools might be helpful; recognizing both the insight to be gained and their limitations. Students deepen their understanding of mathematical concepts when using tools to visualize, explore, compare, communicate, make and test predictions, and understand the thinking of others.

#### 8.MP.6: Attend to precision.

6.6.1: Mathematically proficient students clearly communicate to others using appropriate mathematical terminology, and craft explanations that convey their reasoning. When making mathematical arguments about a solution, strategy, or conjecture, they describe mathematical relationships and connect their words clearly to their representations. Mathematically proficient students understand meanings of symbols used in mathematics, calculate accurately and efficiently, label quantities appropriately, and record their work clearly and concisely.

#### 8.MP.7: Look for and make use of structure.

6.7.1: Mathematically proficient students use structure and patterns to assist in making connections among mathematical ideas or concepts when making sense of mathematics. Students recognize and apply general mathematical rules to complex situations. They are able to compose and decompose mathematical ideas and notations into familiar relationships. Mathematically proficient students manage their own progress, stepping back for an overview and shifting perspective when needed.

#### 8.MP.8: Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

6.8.1: Mathematically proficient students look for and describe regularities as they solve multiple related problems. They formulate conjectures about what they notice and communicate observations with precision. While solving problems, students maintain oversight of the process and continually evaluate the reasonableness of their results. This informs and strengthens their understanding of the structure of mathematics which leads to fluency.

Correlation last revised: 9/15/2020

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this state's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.