College- and Career-Readiness Standards
(Framing Text): Organisms reproduce, either sexually or asexually, and transfer their genetic information to their offspring. The process of passing genetic information to offspring is inheritance. During sexual reproduction, genetic information is passed to offspring resulting in similarities and differences between parental organisms and their offspring. There are advantages and disadvantages of the two types of reproduction.
L.8.2A: Students will demonstrate an understanding of how sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation while asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information.
L.8.2A.2: Create a diagram of mitosis and explain its role in asexual reproduction, which results in offspring with identical genetic information.
(Framing Text): Inheritance is the key process causing similarities between parental organisms and their offspring. Organisms that reproduce sexually transfer genetic information (DNA) to their offspring. This transfer of genetic information through inheritance leads to greater similarity among individuals within a population than between populations. Genetic changes can accumulate through natural selection or mutation that can lead to the evolution of species. Humans can manipulate genetic information using technology.
L.8.2B: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the differences in inherited and acquired characteristics and how environmental factors (natural selection) and the use of technologies (selective breeding, genetic engineering) influence the transfer of genetic information.
L.8.2B.3: Use mathematical and computational thinking to analyze data and make predictions about the outcome of specific genetic crosses (monohybrid Punnett Squares) involving simple dominant/recessive traits.
(Framing Text): The scientific theory of evolution underlies the study of biology and provides an explanation for both the diversity of life on Earth and similarities of all organisms at the chemical, cellular, and molecular level. Multiple forms of scientific evidence support the theory of evolution. Adaptations are physical or behavioral changes that are inherited and enhance the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment.
L.8.4A: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the process of natural selection, in which variations in a population increase some individuals’ likelihood of surviving and reproducing in a changing environment.
L.8.4A.2: Investigate to construct explanations about natural selection that connect growth, survival, and reproduction to genetic factors, environmental factors, food intake, and interactions with other organisms.
(Framing Text): Waves have energy that is transferred when they interact with various types of matter. A repeating pattern of motion allows the transfer of energy from place to place without overall displacement of matter. All types of waves have some features in common. When waves interact, they affect each other resulting in changes to the resonance. Many modern technologies are based on waves and their interactions with matter.
P.8.6: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the properties, behaviors, and application of waves.
P.8.6.3: Conduct simple investigations about the performance of waves to describe their behavior (e.g., refraction, reflection, transmission, and absorption) as they interact with various materials (e.g., lenses, mirrors, and prisms).
P.8.6.4: Use scientific processes to plan and conduct controlled investigations to conclude sound is a wave phenomenon that is characterized by amplitude and frequency.
P.8.6.6: Obtain and evaluate scientific information to explain the relationship between seeing color and the transmission, absorption, or reflection of light waves by various materials.
(Framing Text): Fossils are preserved remains or traces of organisms that lived in the past. Thousands of layers of sedimentary rock not only provide evidence of the history of Earth itself but also of changes in organisms whose fossil remains have been found in those layers. The collection of fossils and their placement in chronological order (e.g., through the location of rock layers or through radioactive dating) is collectively known as the fossil record. It documents the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of many life forms throughout the history of life on Earth.
E.8.7: Students will demonstrate an understanding of geological evidence to analyze patterns in Earth’s major events, processes, and evolution in history.
E.8.7.2: Create a model of the processes involved in the rock cycle and relate it to the fossil record.
(Framing Text): Earth systems and cycles are characterized by cause and effect relationships. All Earth processes are the result of energy flowing and matter cycling within and among the planet’s systems. Landforms and water distribution result from constructive and destructive processes. Physical and chemical interactions among rocks, sediments, water, air, and organisms produce soil. Water’s movements—both on the land and underground—cause weathering and erosion. Plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains the past and current crustal movements at the surface. This theory provides a framework for understanding geological history. Mapping land and water patterns based on investigations of rocks and fossils can help forecast the proximity and probability of future events.
E.8.9A: Students will demonstrate an understanding that physical processes and major geological events (e.g., plate movement, volcanic activity, mountain building, weathering, erosion) are powered by the Sun and the Earth’s internal heat and have occurred over millions of years.
E.8.9A.5: Use models that demonstrate convergent and divergent plate movements that are responsible for most landforms and the distribution of most rocks and minerals within Earth’s crust.
E.8.9A.7: Explain the interconnected relationship between surface water and groundwater.
(Framing Text): Natural processes can cause sudden or gradual changes to Earth’s systems. Some may adversely affect humans such as volcanic eruptions or earthquakes. Mapping the history of natural hazards in a region, combined with an understanding of related geological forces can help forecast the locations and likelihoods of future events.
E.8.9B: Students will demonstrate an understanding of natural hazards (volcanic eruptions, severe weather, earthquakes) and construct explanations for why some hazards are predictable and others are not.
E.8.9B.3: Using an engineering design process, create mechanisms to improve community resilience, which safeguard against natural hazards (e.g., building restrictions in flood or tidal zones, regional watershed management, Firewise construction).
(Framing Text): Humans depend on Earth’s land, ocean, atmosphere, and biosphere for many different resources, both renewable and nonrenewable. Human activities have significantly altered the biosphere, sometimes damaging, or destroying natural habitats that could cause extinction or the threat of extinction of many species. Past and present geological events have distributed resources unevenly around the planet; therefore, there has been an increase in, and continued need for, technology to harness available resources and develop alternatives.
E.8.10: Students will demonstrate an understanding that a decrease in natural resources is directly related to the increase in human population on Earth and must be conserved.
E.8.10.4: Using an engineering design process, develop a system to capture and distribute thermal energy that makes renewable energy more readily available and reduces human impact on the environment (e.g., building solar water heaters, conserving home energy).
Correlation last revised: 9/16/2020