C.3.1: Explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
C.3.1.i: use models to describe the structure of an atom
C.3.1.iii: determine the number of protons or electrons in an atom or ion when given one of these values
C.3.1.v: distinguish between ground state and excited state electron configurations, e.g., 2-8-2 vs. 2-7-3
C.3.1.vi: identify an element by comparing its bright-line spectrum to given spectra
C.3.1.vii: distinguish between valence and non-valence electrons, given an electron configuration, e.g., 2-8-2
C.3.1.viii: draw a Lewis electron-dot structure of an atom
C.3.1.ix: determine decay mode and write nuclear equations showing alpha and beta decay
C.3.1.xv: determine the group of an element, given the chemical formula of a compound, e.g., XCl or XCl2
C.3.1.xvi: explain the placement of an unknown element on the Periodic Table based on its properties
C.3.1.xix: distinguish among ionic, molecular, and metallic substances, given their properties
C.3.1.xxv: interpret and construct solubility curves
C.3.1.xxvi: apply the adage "like dissolves like" to real-world situations
C.3.1.xxxi: given properties, identify substances as Arrhenius acids or Arrhenius bases
C.3.1.xxxv: calculate the concentration or volume of a solution, using titration data
C.3.2: Use atomic and molecular models to explain common chemical reactions.
C.3.2.i: distinguish between chemical and physical changes
C.3.2.ii: identify types of chemical reactions
C.3.2.iii: determine a missing reactant or product in a balanced equation
C.3.2.v: balance equations, given the formulas of reactants and products
C.3.3: Apply the principle of conservation of mass to chemical reactions.
C.3.3.i: balance equations, given the formulas for reactants and products
C.3.3.ii: interpret balanced chemical equations in terms of conservation of matter and energy
C.3.3.iii: create and use models of particles to demonstrate balanced equations
C.3.3.iv: calculate simple mole-mole stoichiometry problems, given a balanced equation
C.3.3.vi: determine the mass of a given number of moles of a substance
C.3.3.viii: calculate the formula mass and gram-formula mass
C.3.3.ix: determine the number of moles of a substance, given its mass
C.3.4: Use kinetic molecular theory (KMT) to explain rates of reactions and the relationships among temperature, pressure, and volume of a substance.
C.3.4.i: explain the gas laws in terms of KMT
C.3.4.iv: describe the concentration of particles and rates of opposing reactions in an equilibrium system
C.3.4.v: qualitatively describe the effect of stress on equilibrium, using LeChatelier's principle
C.3.4.vi: use collision theory to explain how various factors, such as temperature, surface area, and concentration, influence the rate of reaction
C.3.4.vii: identify examples of physical equilibria as solution equilibrium and phase equilibrium, including the concept that a saturated solution is at equilibrium
C.4.2: Explain heat in terms of kinetic molecular theory.
C.4.2.i: distinguish between heat energy and temperature in terms of molecular motion and amount of matter
C.4.2.ii: explain phase change in terms of the changes in energy and intermolecular distances
C.4.2.iii: qualitatively interpret heating and cooling curves in terms of changes in kinetic and potential energy, heat of vaporization, heat of fusion, and phase changes
C.4.2.iv: calculate the heat involved in a phase or temperature change for a given sample of matter
C.4.4: Energy exists in many forms, and when these forms change energy is conserved.
C.4.4.i: calculate the initial amount, the fraction remaining, or the halflife of a radioactive isotope, given two of the three variables
C.4.4.iii: complete nuclear equations; predict missing particles from nuclear equations
C.4.4.iv: identify specific uses of some common radioisotopes, such as I-131 in diagnosing and treating thyroid disorders, C-14 to C-12 ratio in dating once-living organisms, U-238 to Pb-206 ratio in dating geological formations, and Co-60 in treating cancer
C.5.2: Students will explain chemical bonding in terms of the behavior of electrons.
C.5.2.i: demonstrate bonding concepts, using Lewis dot structures representing valence electrons:
C.5.2.i.a: transferred (ionic bonding)
C.5.2.i.b: shared (covalent bonding)
C.5.2.i.c: in a stable octet
C.5.2.iii: explain vapor pressure, evaporation rate, and phase changes in terms of intermolecular forces
P.4.1: Observe and describe transmission of various forms of energy.
P.4.1.i: describe and explain the exchange among potential energy, kinetic energy, and internal energy for simple mechanical systems, such as a pendulum, a roller coaster, a spring, a freely falling object
P.4.1.ii: predict velocities, heights, and spring compressions based on energy conservation
P.4.1.iv: determine the factors that affect the period of a pendulum
P.4.1.vi: recognize and describe conversions among different forms of energy in real or hypothetical devices such as a motor, a generator, a photocell, a battery
P.4.1.viii: measure current and voltage in a circuit
P.4.1.ix: use measurements to determine the resistance of a circuit element
P.4.1.xi: measure and compare the resistance of conductors of various lengths and cross-sectional areas
P.4.1.xii: construct simple series and parallel circuits
P.4.1.xiv: predict the behavior of lightbulbs in series and parallel circuits
P.4.3: Explain variations in wavelength and frequency in terms of the source of the vibrations that produce them, e.g., molecules, electrons, and nuclear particles.
P.4.3.i: compare the characteristics of two transverse waves such as amplitude, frequency, wavelength, speed, period, and phase
P.4.3.iv: differentiate between transverse and longitudinal waves
P.4.3.vi: predict the superposition of two waves interfering constructively and destructively (indicating nodes, antinodes, and standing waves)
P.4.3.vii: observe, sketch, and interpret the behavior of wave fronts as they reflect, refract, and diffract
P.4.3.ix: determine empirically the index of refraction of a transparent medium
P.5.1: Explain and predict different patterns of motion of objects (e.g., linear and uniform circular motion, velocity and acceleration, momentum and inertia).
P.5.1.i: construct and interpret graphs of position, velocity, or acceleration versus time
P.5.1.ii: determine and interpret slopes and areas of motion graphs
P.5.1.iii: determine the acceleration due to gravity near the surface of Earth
P.5.1.vi: resolve a vector into perpendicular components both graphically and algebraically
P.5.1.vii: sketch the theoretical path of a projectile
P.5.1.ix: verify Newton’s Second Law for linear motion
P.5.1.x: determine the coefficient of friction for two surfaces
P.5.1.xii: verify conservation of momentum
P.5.3: Compare energy relationships within an atom's nucleus to those outside the nucleus.
P.5.3.i: interpret energy-level diagrams
P.5.3.ii: correlate spectral lines with an energy-level diagram
L.4.1: Living things are both similar to and different from each other and from nonliving things.
L.4.1.1: Explain how diversity of populations within ecosystems relates to the stability of ecosystems.
L.4.1.1.a: Populations can be categorized by the function they serve. Food webs identify the relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers carrying out either autotropic or heterotropic nutrition.
L.4.1.1.b: An ecosystem is shaped by the nonliving environment as well as its interacting species. The world contains a wide diversity of physical conditions, which creates a variety of environments.
L.4.1.1.d: The interdependence of organisms in an established ecosystem often results in approximate stability over hundreds and thousands of years. For example, as one population increases, it is held in check by one or more environmental factors or another species.
L.4.1.1.e: Ecosystems, like many other complex systems, tend to show cyclic changes around a state of approximate equilibrium.
L.4.1.1.f: Every population is linked, directly or indirectly, with many others in an ecosystem. Disruptions in the numbers and types of species and environmental changes can upset ecosystem stability.
L.4.1.2: Describe and explain the structures and functions of the human body at different organizational levels (e.g., systems, tissues, cells, organelles).
L.4.1.2.a: Important levels of organization for structure and function include organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and whole organisms.
L.4.1.2.b: Humans are complex organisms. They require multiple systems for digestion, respiration, reproduction, circulation, excretion, movement, coordination, and immunity. The systems interact to perform the life functions.
L.4.1.2.c: The components of the human body, from organ systems to cell organelles, interact to maintain a balanced internal environment. To successfully accomplish this, organisms possess a diversity of control mechanisms that detect deviations and make corrective actions.
L.4.1.2.d: If there is a disruption in any human system, there may be a corresponding imbalance in homeostasis.
L.4.1.2.f: Cells have particular structures that perform specific jobs. These structures perform the actual work of the cell. Just as systems are coordinated and work together, cell parts must also be coordinated and work together.
L.4.1.2.g: Each cell is covered by a membrane that performs a number of important functions for the cell. These include: separation from its outside environment, controlling which molecules enter and leave the cell, and recognition of chemical signals. The processes of diffusion and active transport are important in the movement of materials in and out of cells.
L.4.1.2.i: Inside the cell a variety of specialized structures, formed from many different molecules, carry out the transport of materials (cytoplasm), extraction of energy from nutrients (mitochondria), protein building (ribosomes), waste disposal (cell membrane), storage (vacuole), and information storage (nucleus).
L.4.1.3: Explain how a one-celled organism is able to function despite lacking the levels of organization present in more complex organisms.
L.4.1.3.a: The structures present in some single-celled organisms act in a manner similar to the tissues and systems found in multicellular organisms, thus enabling them to perform all of the life processes needed to maintain homeostasis.
L.4.2: Organisms inherit genetic information in a variety of ways that result in continuity of structure and function between parents and offspring.
L.4.2.1: Explain how the structure and replication of genetic material result in offspring that resemble their parents.
L.4.2.1.a: Genes are inherited, but their expression can be modified by interactions with the environment.
L.4.2.1.b: Every organism requires a set of coded instructions for specifying its traits. For offspring to resemble their parents, there must be a reliable way to transfer information from one generation to the next. Heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another.
L.4.2.1.c: Hereditary information is contained in genes, located in the chromosomes of each cell. An inherited trait of an individual can be determined by one or by many genes, and a single gene can influence more than one trait. A human cell contains many thousands of different genes in its nucleus.
L.4.2.1.e: In sexually reproducing organisms, the new individual receives half of the genetic information from its mother (via the egg) and half from its father (via the sperm). Sexually produced offspring often resemble, but are not identical to, either of their parents.
L.4.2.1.f: In all organisms, the coded instructions for specifying the characteristics of the organism are carried in DNA, a large molecule formed from subunits arranged in a sequence with bases of four kinds (represented by A, G, C, and T). The chemical and structural properties of DNA are the basis for how the genetic information that underlies heredity is both encoded in genes (as a string of molecular "bases") and replicated by means of a template.
L.4.2.1.g: Cells store and use coded information. The genetic information stored in DNA is used to direct the synthesis of the thousands of proteins that each cell requires.
L.4.2.1.h: Genes are segments of DNA molecules. Any alteration of the DNA sequence is a mutation. Usually, an altered gene will be passed on to every cell that develops from it.
L.4.2.1.i: The work of the cell is carried out by the many different types of molecules it assembles, mostly proteins. Protein molecules are long, usually folded chains made from 20 different kinds of amino acids in a specific sequence. This sequence influences the shape of the protein. The shape of the protein, in turn, determines its function.
L.4.2.1.j: Offspring resemble their parents because they inherit similar genes that code for the production of proteins that form similar structures and perform similar functions.
L.4.2.2: Explain how the technology of genetic engineering allows humans to alter genetic makeup of organisms.
L.4.2.2.e: Knowledge of genetics is making possible new fields of health care; for example, finding genes which may have mutations that can cause disease will aid in the development of preventive measures to fight disease. Substances, such as hormones and enzymes, from genetically engineered organisms may reduce the cost and side effects of replacing missing body chemicals.
L.4.3: Individual organisms and species change over time.
L.4.3.1: Explain the mechanisms and patterns of evolution.
L.4.3.1.b: New inheritable characteristics can result from new combinations of existing genes or from mutations of genes in reproductive cells.
L.4.3.1.d: Mutations occur as random chance events. Gene mutations can also be caused by such agents as radiation and chemicals. When they occur in sex cells, the mutations can be passed on to offspring; if they occur in other cells, they can be passed on to other body cells only.
L.4.3.1.f: Species evolve over time. Evolution is the consequence of the interactions of (1) the potential for a species to increase its numbers, (2) the genetic variability of offspring due to mutation and recombination of genes, (3) a finite supply of the resources required for life, and (4) the ensuing selection by the environment of those offspring better able to survive and leave offspring.
L.4.3.1.g: Some characteristics give individuals an advantage over others in surviving and reproducing, and the advantaged offspring, in turn, are more likely than others to survive and reproduce. The proportion of individuals that have advantageous characteristics will increase.
L.4.3.1.k: Evolution does not necessitate long-term progress in some set direction. Evolutionary changes appear to be like the growth of a bush: Some branches survive from the beginning with little or no change, many die out altogether, and others branch repeatedly, sometimes giving rise to more complex organisms.
L.4.4: The continuity of life is sustained through reproduction and development.
L.4.4.1: Explain how organisms, including humans, reproduce their own kind.
L.4.4.1.b: Some organisms reproduce asexually with all the genetic information coming from one parent. Other organisms reproduce sexually with half the genetic information typically contributed by each parent. Cloning is the production of identical genetic copies.
L.4.4.1.c: The processes of meiosis and fertilization are key to sexual reproduction in a wide variety of organisms. The process of meiosis results in the production of eggs and sperm which each contain half of the genetic information. During fertilization, gametes
L.4.5: Organisms maintain a dynamic equilibrium that sustains life.
L.4.5.1: Explain the basic biochemical processes in living organisms and their importance in maintaining dynamic equilibrium.
L.4.5.1.a: The energy for life comes primarily from the Sun. Photosynthesis provides a vital connection between the Sun and the energy needs of living systems.
L.4.5.1.b: Plant cells and some one-celled organisms contain chloroplasts, the site of photosynthesis. The process of photosynthesis uses solar energy to combine the inorganic molecules carbon dioxide and water into energy-rich organic compounds (e.g., glucose) and release oxygen to the environment.
L.4.5.1.d: In all organisms, the energy stored in organic molecules may be released during cellular respiration. This energy is temporarily stored in ATP molecules. In many organisms, the process of cellular respiration is concluded in mitochondria, in which ATP is produced more efficiently, oxygen is used, and carbon dioxide and water are released as wastes.
L.4.5.3: Relate processes at the system level to the cellular level in order to explain dynamic equilibrium in multicelled organisms.
L.4.5.3.a: Dynamic equilibrium results from detection of and response to stimuli. Organisms detect and respond to change in a variety of ways both at the cellular level and at the organismal level.
L.4.5.3.b: Feedback mechanisms have evolved that maintain homeostasis. Examples include the changes in heart rate or respiratory rate in response to increased activity in muscle cells, the maintenance of blood sugar levels by insulin from the pancreas, and the changes in openings in the leaves of plants by guard cells to regulate water loss and gas exchange.
L.4.6: Plants and animals depend on each other and their physical environment.
L.4.6.1: Explain factors that limit growth of individuals and populations.
L.4.6.1.a: Energy flows through ecosystems in one direction, typically from the Sun, through photosynthetic organisms including green plants and algae, to herbivores to carnivores and decomposers.
L.4.6.1.b: The atoms and molecules on the Earth cycle among the living and nonliving components of the biosphere. For example, carbon dioxide and water molecules used in photosynthesis to form energy-rich organic compounds are returned to the environment when the energy in these compounds is eventually released by cells. Continual input of energy from sunlight keeps the process going. This concept may be illustrated with an energy pyramid.
L.4.6.1.d: The number of organisms any habitat can support (carrying capacity) is limited by the available energy, water, oxygen, and minerals, and by the ability of ecosystems to recycle the residue of dead organisms through the activities of bacteria and fungi.
L.4.6.1.e: In any particular environment, the growth and survival of organisms depend on the physical conditions including light intensity, temperature range, mineral availability, soil/rock type, and relative acidity (pH).
L.4.6.1.f: Living organisms have the capacity to produce populations of unlimited size, but environments and resources are finite. This has profound effects on the interactions among organisms.
L.4.6.1.g: Relationships between organisms may be negative, neutral, or positive. Some organisms may interact with one another in several ways. They may be in a producer/consumer, predator/prey, or parasite/host relationship; or one organism may cause disease in, scavenge, or decompose another.
L.4.6.2: Explain the importance of preserving diversity of species and habitats.
L.4.6.2.a: As a result of evolutionary processes, there is a diversity of organisms and roles in ecosystems. This diversity of species increases the chance that at least some will survive in the face of large environmental changes. Biodiversity increases the stabili
L.4.6.3: Explain how the living and nonliving environments change over time and respond to disturbances.
L.4.6.3.a: The interrelationships and interdependencies of organisms affect the development of stable ecosystems.
L.4.6.3.c: A stable ecosystem can be altered, either rapidly or slowly, through the activities of organisms (including humans), or through climatic changes or natural disasters. The altered ecosystem can usually recover through gradual changes back to a point of long- term stability.
L.4.7: Human decisions and activities have had a profound impact on the physical and living environment.
L.4.7.1: Describe the range of interrelationships of humans with the living and nonliving environment.
L.4.7.1.b: Natural ecosystems provide an array of basic processes that affect humans. Those processes include but are not limited to: maintenance of the quality of the atmosphere, generation of soils, control of the water cycle, removal of wastes, energy flow, and recycling of nutrients. Humans are changing many of these basic processes and the changes may be detrimental.
L.4.7.1.c: Human beings are part of the Earth's ecosystems. Human activities can, deliberately or inadvertently, alter the equilibrium in ecosystems. Humans modify ecosystems as a result of population growth, consumption, and technology. Human destruction of habitats through direct harvesting, pollution, atmospheric changes, and other factors is threatening current global stability, and if not addressed, ecosystems may be irreversibly affected.
L.4.7.2: Explain the impact of technological development and growth in the human population on the living and nonliving environment.
L.4.7.2.a: Human activities that degrade ecosystems result in a loss of diversity of the living and nonliving environment. For example, the influence of humans on other organisms occurs through land use and pollution. Land use decreases the space and resources available to other species, and pollution changes the chemical composition of air, soil, and water.
L.4.7.2.b: When humans alter ecosystems either by adding or removing specific organisms, serious consequences may result. For example, planting large expanses of one crop reduces the biodiversity of the area.
L.4.7.3: Explain how individual choices and societal actions can contribute to improving the environment.
L.4.7.3.a: Societies must decide on proposals which involve the introduction of new technologies. Individuals need to make decisions which will assess risks, costs, benefits, and trade-offs.
E.4.1: The Earth and celestial phenomena can be described by principles of relative motion and perspective.
E.4.1.1: Explain complex phenomena, such as tides, variations in day length, solar insolation, apparent motion of the planets, and annual traverse of the constellations.
E.4.1.1.a: Most objects in the solar system are in regular and predictable motion.
E.4.1.1.a.1: These motions explain such phenomena as the day, the year, seasons, phases of the moon, eclipses, and tides.
E.4.1.1.a.2: Gravity influences the motions of celestial objects. The force of gravity between two objects in the universe depends on their masses and the distance between them.
E.4.1.1.b: Nine planets move around the Sun in nearly circular orbits.
E.4.1.1.b.1: The orbit of each planet is an ellipse with the Sun located at one of the foci.
E.4.1.1.b.2: Earth is orbited by one moon and many artificial satellites.
E.4.1.1.c: Earth's coordinate system of latitude and longitude, with the equator and prime meridian as reference lines, is based upon Earth's rotation and our observation of the Sun and stars.
E.4.1.1.d: Earth rotates on an imaginary axis at a rate of 15 degrees per hour. To people on Earth, this turning of the planet makes it seem as though the Sun, the moon, and the stars are moving around Earth once a day. Rotation provides a basis for our system of local time; meridians of longitude are the basis for time zones.
E.4.1.1.f: Earth's changing position with regard to the Sun and the moon has noticeable effects.
E.4.1.1.f.1: Earth revolves around the Sun with its rotational axis tilted at 23.5 degrees to a line perpendicular to the plane of its orbit, with the North Pole aligned with Polaris.
E.4.1.1.f.2: During Earth's one-year period of revolution, the tilt of its axis results in changes in the angle of incidence of the Sun's rays at a given latitude; these changes cause variation in the heating of the surface. This produces seasonal variation in weather.
E.4.1.1.g: Seasonal changes in the apparent positions of constellations provide evidence of Earth's revolution.
E.4.1.1.h: The Sun's apparent path through the sky varies with latitude and season.
E.4.1.1.i: Approximately 70 percent of Earth's surface is covered by a relatively thin layer of water, which responds to the gravitational attraction of the moon and the Sun with a daily cycle of high and low tides.
E.4.1.2: Describe current theories about the origin of the universe and solar system.
E.4.1.2.a: The universe is vast and estimated to be over ten billion years old. The current theory is that the universe was created from an explosion called the Big Bang. Evidence for this theory includes:
E.4.1.2.a.2: a red-shift (the Doppler effect) in the light from very distant galaxies.
E.4.1.2.b: Stars form when gravity causes clouds of molecules to contract until nuclear fusion of light elements into heavier ones occurs. Fusion releases great amounts of energy over millions of years.
E.4.1.2.b.1: The stars differ from each other in size, temperature, and age.
E.4.1.2.g: Earth has continuously been recycling water since the outgassing of water early in its history. This constant recirculation of water at and near Earth's surface is described by the hydrologic (water) cycle.
E.4.1.2.g.2: The amount of precipitation that seeps into the ground or runs off is influenced by climate, slope of the land, soil, rock type, vegetation, land use, and degree of saturation.
E.4.1.2.g.3: Porosity, permeability, and water retention affect runoff and infiltration.
E.4.1.2.i: The pattern of evolution of life-forms on Earth is at least partially preserved in the rock record.
E.4.1.2.i.1: Fossil evidence indicates that a wide variety of life-forms has existed in the past and that most of these forms have become extinct.
E.4.1.2.j: Geologic history can be reconstructed by observing sequences of rock types and fossils to correlate bedrock at various locations.
E.4.1.2.j.5: The regular rate of nuclear decay (half-life time period) of radioactive isotopes allows geologists to determine the absolute age of materials found in some rocks.
E.4.2: Many of the phenomena that we observe on Earth involve interactions among components of air, water, and land.
E.4.2.1: Use the concepts of density and heat energy to explain observations of weather patterns, seasonal changes, and the movements of Earth's plates.
E.4.2.1.c: Weather patterns become evident when weather variables are observed, measured, and recorded. These variables include air temperature, air pressure, moisture (relative humidity and dewpoint), precipitation (rain, snow, hail, sleet, etc.), wind speed and direction, and cloud cover.
E.4.2.1.g: Weather variables can be represented in a variety of formats including radar and satellite images, weather maps (including station models, isobars, and fronts), atmospheric cross-sections, and computer models.
E.4.2.1.h: Atmospheric moisture, temperature and pressure distributions; jet streams, wind; air masses and frontal boundaries; and the movement of cyclonic systems and associated tornadoes, thunderstorms, and hurricanes occur in observable patterns. Loss of property, personal injury, and loss of life can be reduced by effective emergency preparedness.
E.4.2.1.i: Seasonal changes can be explained using concepts of density and heat energy. These changes include the shifting of global temperature zones, the shifting of planetary wind and ocean current patterns, the occurrence of monsoons, hurricanes, flooding, and severe weather.
E.4.2.1.j: Properties of Earth's internal structure (crust, mantle, inner core, and outer core) can be inferred from the analysis of the behavior of seismic waves (including velocity and refraction).
E.4.2.1.j.1: Analysis of seismic waves allows the determination of the location of earthquake epicenters, and the measurement of earthquake magnitude; this analysis leads to the inference that Earth's interior is composed of layers that differ in composition and states of matter.
E.4.2.1.l: The lithosphere consists of separate plates that ride on the more fluid asthenosphere and move slowly in relationship to one another, creating convergent, divergent, and transform plate boundaries. These motions indicate Earth is a dynamic geologic system
E.4.2.1.l.1: These plate boundaries are the sites of most earthquakes, volcanoes, and young mountain ranges.
E.4.2.1.l.2: Compared to continental crust, ocean crust is thinner and denser. New ocean crust continues to form at mid-ocean ridges.
E.4.2.1.l.3: Earthquakes and volcanoes present geologic hazards to humans. Loss of property, personal injury, and loss of life can be reduced by effective emergency preparedness.
E.4.2.1.n: Many of Earth's surface features such as mid-ocean ridges/rifts, trenches/subduction zones/island arcs, mountain ranges (folded, faulted, and volcanic), hot spots, and the magnetic and age patterns in surface bedrock are a consequence of forces associated with plate motion and interaction.
E.4.2.1.o: Plate motions have resulted in global changes in geography, climate, and the patterns of organic evolution.
E.4.2.1.p: Landforms are the result of the interaction of tectonic forces and the processes of weathering, erosion, and deposition.
E.4.2.1.q: Topographic maps represent landforms through the use of contour lines that are isolines connecting points of equal elevation. Gradients and profiles can be determined from changes in elevation over a given distance.
E.4.2.2: Explain how incoming solar radiation, ocean currents, and land masses affect weather and climate.
E.4.2.2.a: Insolation (solar radiation) heats Earth's surface and atmosphere unequally due to variations in:
E.4.2.2.a.1: the intensity caused by differences in atmospheric transparency and angle of incidence which vary with time of day, latitude, and season
E.4.2.2.a.2: characteristics of the materials absorbing the energy such as color, texture, transparency, state of matter, and specific heat
E.4.2.2.a.3: duration, which varies with seasons and latitude.
E.4.2.2.c: A location's climate is influenced by latitude, proximity to large bodies of water, ocean currents, prevailing winds, vegetative cover, elevation, and mountain ranges.
E.4.2.2.d: Temperature and precipitation patterns are altered by:
E.4.2.2.d.2: human influences including deforestation, urbanization, and the production of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane.
E.4.3: Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.
E.4.3.1: Explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
E.4.3.1.a: Minerals have physical properties determined by their chemical composition and crystal structure.
E.4.3.1.a.2: Chemical composition and physical properties determine how minerals are used by humans.
E.4.3.1.c: Rocks are usually composed of one or more minerals.
E.4.3.1.c.1: Rocks are classified by their origin, mineral content, and texture.
C.4.3: Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.
C.4.3.1: Explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
C.4.3.1.a: The modern model of the atom has evolved over a long period of time through the work of many scientists.
C.4.3.1.b: Each atom has a nucleus, with an overall positive charge, surrounded by negatively charged electrons.
C.4.3.1.c: Subatomic particles contained in the nucleus include protons and neutrons.
C.4.3.1.d: The proton is positively charged, and the neutron has no charge. The electron is negatively charged.
C.4.3.1.e: Protons and electrons have equal but opposite charges. The number of protons equals the number of electrons in an atom.
C.4.3.1.f: The mass of each proton and each neutron is approximately equal to one atomic mass unit. An electron is much less massive than a proton or a neutron.
C.4.3.1.g: The number of protons in an atom (atomic number) identifies the element. The sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom (mass number) identifies an isotope. Common notations that represent isotopes include: 14 C, 14 C, carbon-14, C-14. 6
C.4.3.1.i: Each electron in an atom has its own distinct amount of energy.
C.4.3.1.j: When an electron in an atom gains a specific amount of energy, the electron is at a higher energy state (excited state).
C.4.3.1.k: When an electron returns from a higher energy state to a lower energy state, a specific amount of energy is emitted. This emitted energy can be used to identify an element.
C.4.3.1.l: The outermost electrons in an atom are called the valence electrons. In general, the number of valence electrons affects the chemical properties of an element.
C.4.3.1.m: Atoms of an element that contain the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons are called isotopes of that element.
C.4.3.1.o: Stability of an isotope is based on the ratio of neutrons and protons in its nucleus. Although most nuclei are stable, some are unstable and spontaneously decay, emitting radiation.
C.4.3.1.p: Spontaneous decay can involve the release of alpha particles, beta particles, positrons, and/ or gamma radiation from the nucleus of an unstable isotope. These emissions differ in mass, charge, ionizing power, and penetrating power.
C.4.3.1.u: Elements are substances that are composed of atoms that have the same atomic number. Elements cannot be broken down by chemical change.
C.4.3.1.w: Elements can be differentiated by physical properties. Physical properties of substances, such as density, conductivity, malleability, solubility, and hardness, differ among elements.
C.4.3.1.y: The placement or location of an element on the Periodic Table gives an indication of the physical and chemical properties of that element. The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing atomic number.
C.4.3.1.z: For Groups 1, 2, and 13-18 on the Periodic Table, elements within the same group have the same number of valence electrons (helium is an exception) and therefore similar chemical properties.
C.4.3.1.aa: The succession of elements within the same group demonstrates characteristic trends: differences in atomic radius, ionic radius, electronegativity, first ionization energy, metallic/ nonmetallic properties.
C.4.3.1.ab: The succession of elements across the same period demonstrates characteristic trends: differences in atomic radius, ionic radius, electronegativity, first ionization energy, metallic/ nonmetallic properties.
C.4.3.1.ae: Types of chemical formulas include empirical, molecular, and structural.
C.4.3.1.af: Organic compounds contain carbon atoms, which bond to one another in chains, rings, and networks to form a variety of structures. Organic compounds can be named using the IUPAC system.
C.4.3.1.aj: The structure and arrangement of particles and their interactions determine the physical state of a substance at a given temperature and pressure.
C.4.3.1.ao: A solution is a homogeneous mixture of a solute dissolved in a solvent. The solubility of a solute in a given amount of solvent is dependent on the temperature, the pressure, and the chemical natures of the solute and solvent.
C.4.3.1.aq: The addition of a nonvolatile solute to a solvent causes the boiling point of the solvent to increase and the freezing point of the solvent to decrease. The greater the concentration of solute particles, the greater the effect.
C.4.3.1.as: The acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution can be measured by its pH value. The relative level of acidity or alkalinity of these solutions can be shown by using indicators.
C.4.3.1.av: Arrhenius acids yield H + (aq), hydrogen ion as the only positive ion in an aqueous solution. The hydrogen ion may also be written as H 3 O + (aq), hydronium ion.
C.4.3.1.aw: Arrhenius bases yield OH -(aq), hydroxide ion as the only negative ion in an aqueous solution.
C.4.3.1.az: Titration is a laboratory process in which a volume of a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution.
C.4.3.2: Use atomic and molecular models to explain common chemical reactions.
C.4.3.2.a: A physical change results in the rearrangement of existing particles in a substance. A chemical change results in the formation of different substances with changed properties.
C.4.3.2.b: Types of chemical reactions include synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, and double replacement.
C.4.3.2.c: Types of organic reactions include addition, substitution, polymerization, esterification, fermentation, saponification, and combustion.
C.4.3.2.i: Oxidation numbers (states) can be assigned to atoms and ions. Changes in oxidation numbers indicate that oxidation and reduction have occurred.
C.4.3.3: Apply the principle of conservation of mass to chemical reactions.
C.4.3.3.a: In all chemical reactions there is a conservation of mass, energy, and charge.
C.4.3.3.c: A balanced chemical equation represents conservation of atoms. The coefficients in a balanced chemical equation can be used to determine mole ratios in the reaction.
C.4.3.3.e: The formula mass of a substance is the sum of the atomic masses of its atoms. The molar mass (gram-formula mass) of a substance equals one mole of that substance.
C.4.3.4: Use kinetic molecular theory (KMT) to explain rates of reactions and the relationships among temperature, pressure, and volume of a substance.
C.4.3.4.a: The concept of an ideal gas is a model to explain the behavior of gases. A real gas is most like an ideal gas when the real gas is at low pressure and high temperature.
C.4.3.4.b: Kinetic molecular theory (KMT) for an ideal gas states that all gas particles:
C.4.3.4.b.1: are in random, constant, straight-line motion.
C.4.3.4.c: Kinetic molecular theory describes the relationships of pressure, volume, temperature, velocity, and frequency and force of collisions among gas molecules.
C.4.3.4.d: Collision theory states that a reaction is most likely to occur if reactant particles collide with the proper energy and orientation.
C.4.3.4.f: The rate of a chemical reaction depends on several factors: temperature, concentration, nature of the reactants, surface area, and the presence of a catalyst.
C.4.3.4.h: Some chemical and physical changes can reach equilibrium.
C.4.3.4.i: At equilibrium the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction. The measurable quantities of reactants and products remain constant at equilibrium.
C.4.3.4.j: LeChatelier's principle can be used to predict the effect of stress (change in pressure, volume, concentration, and temperature) on a system at equilibrium.
C.4.4.1: Observe and describe transmission of various forms of energy.
C.4.4.1.a: Energy can exist in different forms, such as chemical, electrical, electromagnetic, thermal, mechanical, nuclear.
C.4.4.1.b: Chemical and physical changes can be exothermic or endothermic.
C.4.4.2: Explain heat in terms of kinetic molecular theory.
C.4.4.2.a: Heat is a transfer of energy (usually thermal energy) from a body of higher temperature to a body of lower temperature. Thermal energy is the energy associated with the random motion of atoms and molecules.
C.4.4.2.b: Temperature is a measurement of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of material. Temperature is not a form of energy.
C.4.4.2.c: The concepts of kinetic and potential energy can be used to explain physical processes that include: fusion (melting), solidification (freezing), vaporization (boiling, evaporation), condensation, sublimation, and deposition.
C.4.4.4: Explain the benefits and risks of radioactivity.
C.4.4.4.a: Each radioactive isotope has a specific mode and rate of decay (half-life).
C.4.4.4.c: Nuclear reactions can be represented by equations that include symbols which represent atomic nuclei (with mass number and atomic number), subatomic particles (with mass number and charge), and/or emissions such as gamma radiation.
C.4.5: Energy and matter interact through forces that result in changes in motion.
C.4.5.2: Explain chemical bonding in terms of the behavior of electrons.
C.4.5.2.a: Chemical bonds are formed when valence electrons are:
C.4.5.2.a.1: transferred from one atom to another (ionic)
C.4.5.2.a.2: shared between atoms (covalent)
C.4.5.2.a.3: mobile within a metal (metallic)
C.4.5.2.b: Atoms attain a stable valence electron configuration by bonding with other atoms. Noble gases have stable valence configurations and tend not to bond.
C.4.5.2.c: When an atom gains one or more electrons, it becomes a negative ion and its radius increases. When an atom loses one or more electrons, it becomes a positive ion and its radius decreases.
C.4.5.2.d: Electron-dot diagrams (Lewis structures) can represent the valence electron arrangement in elements, compounds, and ions.
C.4.5.2.e: In a multiple covalent bond, more than one pair of electrons are shared between two atoms. Unsaturated organic compounds contain at least one double or triple bond.
C.4.5.2.g: Two major categories of compounds are ionic and molecular (covalent) compounds.
C.4.5.2.h: Metals tend to react with nonmetals to form ionic compounds. Nonmetals tend to react with other nonmetals to form molecular (covalent) compounds. Ionic compounds containing polyatomic ions have both ionic and covalent bonding.
C.4.5.3: Compare energy relationships within an atom's nucleus to those outside the nucleus.
C.4.5.3.a: A change in the nucleus of an atom that converts it from one element to another is called transmutation. This can occur naturally or can be induced by the bombardment of the nucleus with high-energy particles.
P.4.4: Energy exists in many forms, and when these forms change energy is conserved.
P.4.4.1: Students can observe and describe transmission of various forms of energy.
P.4.4.1.a: All energy transfers are governed by the law of conservation of energy.
P.4.4.1.b: Energy may be converted among mechanical, electromagnetic, nuclear, and thermal forms.
P.4.4.1.c: Potential energy is the energy an object possesses by virtue of its position or condition. Types of potential energy include gravitational and elastic.
P.4.4.1.d: Kinetic energy is the energy an object possesses by virtue of its motion.
P.4.4.1.e: In an ideal mechanical system, the sum of the macroscopic kinetic and potential energies (mechanical energy) is constant.
P.4.4.1.f: In a nonideal mechanical system, as mechanical energy decreases there is a corresponding increase in other energies such as internal energy.
P.4.4.1.g: When work is done on or by a system, there is a change in the total energy of the system.
P.4.4.1.l: All materials display a range of conductivity. At constant temperature, common metallic conductors obey Ohm's Law.
P.4.4.1.m: The factors affecting resistance in a conductor are length, cross-sectional area, temperature, and resistivity.
P.4.4.1.n: A circuit is a closed path in which a current can exist. (Note: Use conventional current.)
P.4.4.1.o: Circuit components may be connected in series or in parallel. Schematic dia-grams are used to represent circuits and circuit elements.
P.4.4.1.p: Electrical power and energy can be determined for electric circuits.
P.4.4.3: Students can explain variations in wavelength and frequency in terms of the source of the vibrations that produce them, e.g., molecules, electrons, and nuclear particles.
P.4.4.3.c: The model of a wave incorporates the characteristics of amplitude, wavelength, frequency, period, wave speed, and phase.
P.4.4.3.d: Mechanical waves require a material medium through which to travel.
P.4.4.3.e: Waves are categorized by the direction in which particles in a medium vibrate about an equilibrium position relative to the direction of propagation of the wave, such as transverse and longitudinal waves.
P.4.4.3.g: Electromagnetic radiation exhibits wave characteristics. Electromagnetic waves can propagate through a vacuum.
P.4.4.3.h: When a wave strikes a boundary between two media, reflection, transmission, and absorption occur. A transmitted wave may be refracted.
P.4.4.3.i: When a wave moves from one medium into another, the wave may refract due to a change in speed. The angle of refraction (measured with respect to the normal) depends on the angle of incidence and the properties of the media (indices of refraction).
P.4.4.3.j: The absolute index of refraction is inversely proportional to the speed of a wave.
P.4.4.3.k: All frequencies of electromagnetic radiation travel at the same speed in a vacuum.
P.4.4.3.l: Diffraction occurs when waves pass by obstacles or through openings. The wave-length of the incident wave and the size of the obstacle or opening affect how the wave spreads out.
P.4.4.3.m: When waves of a similar nature meet, the resulting interference may be explained using the principle of superposition. Standing waves are a special case of interference.
P.4.4.3.n: When a wave source and an observer are in relative motion, the observed frequency of the waves traveling between them is shifted (Doppler effect).
P.4.5: Energy and matter interact through forces that result in changes in motion.
P.4.5.1: Students can explain and predict different patterns of motion of objects (e.g., linear and uniform circular motion, velocity and acceleration, momentum and inertia).
P.4.5.1.b: A vector may be resolved into perpendicular components.
P.4.5.1.c: The resultant of two or more vectors, acting at any angle, is determined by vector addition.
P.4.5.1.d: An object in linear motion may travel with a constant velocity or with acceleration. (Note: Testing of acceleration will be limited to cases in which acceleration is constant.)
P.4.5.1.e: An object in free fall accelerates due to the force of gravity. Friction and other forces cause the actual motion of a falling object to deviate from its theoretical motion. (Note: Initial velocities of objects in free fall may be in any direction.)
P.4.5.1.f: The path of a projectile is the result of the simultaneous effect of the horizontal and vertical components of its motion; these components act independently.
P.4.5.1.g: A projectile's time of flight is dependent upon the vertical component of its motion.
P.4.5.1.h: The horizontal displacement of a projectile is dependent upon the horizontal component of its motion and its time of flight.
P.4.5.1.i: According to Newton's First Law, the inertia of an object is directly proportional to its mass. An object remains at rest or moves with constant velocity, unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
P.4.5.1.j: When the net force on a system is zero, the system is in equilibrium.
P.4.5.1.k: According to Newton's Second Law, an unbalanced force causes a mass to accelerate.
P.4.5.1.m: The elongation or compression of a spring depends upon the nature of the spring (its spring constant) and the magnitude of the applied force.
P.4.5.1.n: Centripetal force is the net force which produces centripetal acceleration. In uniform circular motion, the centripetal force is perpendicular to the tangential velocity.
P.4.5.1.p: The impulse imparted to an object causes a change in its momentum.
P.4.5.1.q: According to Newton's Third Law, forces occur in action/ reaction pairs. When one object exerts a force on a second, the second exerts a force on the first that is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.
P.4.5.1.r: Momentum is conserved in a closed system. (Note: Testing will be limited to momentum in one dimension.)
P.4.5.1.t: Gravitational forces are only attractive, whereas electrical and magnetic forces can be attractive or repulsive.
P.4.5.1.u: The inverse square law applies to electrical and gravitational fields produced by point sources.
P.4.5.3: Students can compare energy relationships within an atom's nucleus to those outside the nucleus. Major Understandings:
P.4.5.3.b: Charge is quantized on two levels. On the atomic level, charge is restricted to multiples of the elementary charge (charge on the electron or proton). On the subnuclear level, charge appears as fractional values of the elementary charge (quarks).
P.4.5.3.d: The energy of a photon is proportional to its frequency.
P.4.5.3.e: On the atomic level, energy and matter exhibit the characteristics of both waves and particles.
P.4.5.3.g: The Standard Model of Particle Physics has evolved from previous attempts to explain the nature of the atom and states that:
P.4.5.3.g.1: atomic particles are composed of subnuclear particles
P.4.5.3.g.3: each elementary particle has a corresponding antiparticle
P.4.5.3.j: The fundamental source of all energy in the universe is the conversion of mass into energy.
Correlation last revised: 5/21/2019