C: Chemistry

C.3: Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.

C.3.1: Explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.

C.3.1.i: use models to describe the structure of an atom

 Element Builder

C.3.1.iii: determine the number of protons or electrons in an atom or ion when given one of these values

 Element Builder

C.3.1.v: distinguish between ground state and excited state electron configurations, e.g., 2-8-2 vs. 2-7-3

 Electron Configuration

C.3.1.vi: identify an element by comparing its bright-line spectrum to given spectra

 Bohr Model of Hydrogen
 Bohr Model: Introduction
 Star Spectra

C.3.1.vii: distinguish between valence and non-valence electrons, given an electron configuration, e.g., 2-8-2

 Electron Configuration

C.3.1.viii: draw a Lewis electron-dot structure of an atom

 Covalent Bonds
 Element Builder
 Ionic Bonds

C.3.1.ix: determine decay mode and write nuclear equations showing alpha and beta decay

 Nuclear Decay

C.3.1.xv: determine the group of an element, given the chemical formula of a compound, e.g., XCl or XCl2

 Ionic Bonds

C.3.1.xvi: explain the placement of an unknown element on the Periodic Table based on its properties

 Electron Configuration

C.3.1.xix: distinguish among ionic, molecular, and metallic substances, given their properties

 Ionic Bonds

C.3.1.xxv: interpret and construct solubility curves

 Solubility and Temperature

C.3.1.xxvi: apply the adage "like dissolves like" to real-world situations

 Solubility and Temperature

C.3.1.xxxi: given properties, identify substances as Arrhenius acids or Arrhenius bases

 pH Analysis
 pH Analysis: Quad Color Indicator
 pH Analysis
 pH Analysis: Quad Color Indicator
 Mystery Powder Analysis
 pH Analysis
 pH Analysis: Quad Color Indicator
 Titration

C.3.1.xxxv: calculate the concentration or volume of a solution, using titration data

 Titration

C.3.2: Use atomic and molecular models to explain common chemical reactions.

C.3.2.i: distinguish between chemical and physical changes

 Density Experiment: Slice and Dice

C.3.2.ii: identify types of chemical reactions

 Balancing Chemical Equations
 Chemical Changes
 Chemical Equations
 Equilibrium and Concentration

C.3.2.iii: determine a missing reactant or product in a balanced equation

 Balancing Chemical Equations
 Chemical Equations

C.3.2.v: balance equations, given the formulas of reactants and products

 Balancing Chemical Equations
 Chemical Equations

C.3.3: Apply the principle of conservation of mass to chemical reactions.

C.3.3.i: balance equations, given the formulas for reactants and products

 Balancing Chemical Equations
 Chemical Equations

C.3.3.ii: interpret balanced chemical equations in terms of conservation of matter and energy

 Balancing Chemical Equations
 Chemical Equations

C.3.3.iii: create and use models of particles to demonstrate balanced equations

 Balancing Chemical Equations
 Chemical Equations

C.3.3.iv: calculate simple mole-mole stoichiometry problems, given a balanced equation

 Chemical Equations
 Limiting Reactants
 Stoichiometry

C.3.3.vi: determine the mass of a given number of moles of a substance

 Chemical Equations

C.3.3.viii: calculate the formula mass and gram-formula mass

 Chemical Equations
 Stoichiometry

C.3.3.ix: determine the number of moles of a substance, given its mass

 Chemical Equations
 Stoichiometry

C.3.4: Use kinetic molecular theory (KMT) to explain rates of reactions and the relationships among temperature, pressure, and volume of a substance.

C.3.4.i: explain the gas laws in terms of KMT

 Boyle's Law and Charles' Law

C.3.4.iv: describe the concentration of particles and rates of opposing reactions in an equilibrium system

 Diffusion
 Temperature and Particle Motion

C.3.4.v: qualitatively describe the effect of stress on equilibrium, using LeChatelier's principle

 Equilibrium and Concentration
 Equilibrium and Pressure

C.3.4.vi: use collision theory to explain how various factors, such as temperature, surface area, and concentration, influence the rate of reaction

 Collision Theory

C.3.4.vii: identify examples of physical equilibria as solution equilibrium and phase equilibrium, including the concept that a saturated solution is at equilibrium

 Equilibrium and Pressure

C.4: Students will understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories pertaining to the physical setting and living environment and recognize the historical development of ideas in science.

C.4.2: Explain heat in terms of kinetic molecular theory.

C.4.2.i: distinguish between heat energy and temperature in terms of molecular motion and amount of matter

 Calorimetry Lab
 Energy Conversion in a System
 Temperature and Particle Motion

C.4.2.ii: explain phase change in terms of the changes in energy and intermolecular distances

 Phase Changes

C.4.2.iii: qualitatively interpret heating and cooling curves in terms of changes in kinetic and potential energy, heat of vaporization, heat of fusion, and phase changes

 Phase Changes

C.4.2.iv: calculate the heat involved in a phase or temperature change for a given sample of matter

 Calorimetry Lab
 Phase Changes

C.4.4: Energy exists in many forms, and when these forms change energy is conserved.

C.4.4.i: calculate the initial amount, the fraction remaining, or the halflife of a radioactive isotope, given two of the three variables

 Half-life

C.4.4.iii: complete nuclear equations; predict missing particles from nuclear equations

 Nuclear Decay

C.4.4.iv: identify specific uses of some common radioisotopes, such as I-131 in diagnosing and treating thyroid disorders, C-14 to C-12 ratio in dating once-living organisms, U-238 to Pb-206 ratio in dating geological formations, and Co-60 in treating cancer

 Half-life

C.5: Energy and matter interact through forces that result in changes in motion.

C.5.2: Students will explain chemical bonding in terms of the behavior of electrons.

C.5.2.i: demonstrate bonding concepts, using Lewis dot structures representing valence electrons:

C.5.2.i.a: transferred (ionic bonding)

 Covalent Bonds
 Ionic Bonds

C.5.2.i.b: shared (covalent bonding)

 Covalent Bonds
 Ionic Bonds

C.5.2.i.c: in a stable octet

 Covalent Bonds
 Ionic Bonds

C.5.2.iii: explain vapor pressure, evaporation rate, and phase changes in terms of intermolecular forces

 Phase Changes

P: Physics

P.4: Students will understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories pertaining to the physical setting and living environment and recognize the historical development of ideas in science.

P.4.1: Observe and describe transmission of various forms of energy.

P.4.1.i: describe and explain the exchange among potential energy, kinetic energy, and internal energy for simple mechanical systems, such as a pendulum, a roller coaster, a spring, a freely falling object

 Energy Conversion in a System
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Roller Coaster Physics

P.4.1.ii: predict velocities, heights, and spring compressions based on energy conservation

 Air Track
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

P.4.1.iv: determine the factors that affect the period of a pendulum

 Pendulum Clock
 Period of a Pendulum

P.4.1.vi: recognize and describe conversions among different forms of energy in real or hypothetical devices such as a motor, a generator, a photocell, a battery

 Energy Conversion in a System
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

P.4.1.viii: measure current and voltage in a circuit

 Circuit Builder

P.4.1.ix: use measurements to determine the resistance of a circuit element

 Circuit Builder

P.4.1.xi: measure and compare the resistance of conductors of various lengths and cross-sectional areas

 Circuit Builder

P.4.1.xii: construct simple series and parallel circuits

 Advanced Circuits
 Circuit Builder
 Circuits

P.4.1.xiv: predict the behavior of lightbulbs in series and parallel circuits

 Circuit Builder

P.4.3: Explain variations in wavelength and frequency in terms of the source of the vibrations that produce them, e.g., molecules, electrons, and nuclear particles.

P.4.3.i: compare the characteristics of two transverse waves such as amplitude, frequency, wavelength, speed, period, and phase

 Ripple Tank

P.4.3.iv: differentiate between transverse and longitudinal waves

 Longitudinal Waves

P.4.3.vi: predict the superposition of two waves interfering constructively and destructively (indicating nodes, antinodes, and standing waves)

 Ripple Tank

P.4.3.vii: observe, sketch, and interpret the behavior of wave fronts as they reflect, refract, and diffract

 Basic Prism
 Longitudinal Waves
 Refraction
 Ripple Tank

P.4.3.ix: determine empirically the index of refraction of a transparent medium

 Basic Prism
 Refraction

P.5: Energy and matter interact through forces that result in changes in motion.

P.5.1: Explain and predict different patterns of motion of objects (e.g., linear and uniform circular motion, velocity and acceleration, momentum and inertia).

P.5.1.i: construct and interpret graphs of position, velocity, or acceleration versus time

 Distance-Time Graphs
 Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs
 Free-Fall Laboratory

P.5.1.ii: determine and interpret slopes and areas of motion graphs

 Distance-Time Graphs

P.5.1.iii: determine the acceleration due to gravity near the surface of Earth

 Free-Fall Laboratory
 Golf Range
 Shoot the Monkey

P.5.1.vi: resolve a vector into perpendicular components both graphically and algebraically

 Adding Vectors
 Vectors

P.5.1.vii: sketch the theoretical path of a projectile

 Golf Range
 Shoot the Monkey

P.5.1.ix: verify Newton’s Second Law for linear motion

 Atwood Machine
 Fan Cart Physics

P.5.1.x: determine the coefficient of friction for two surfaces

 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

P.5.1.xii: verify conservation of momentum

 2D Collisions
 Air Track

P.5.3: Compare energy relationships within an atom's nucleus to those outside the nucleus.

P.5.3.i: interpret energy-level diagrams

 Bohr Model of Hydrogen
 Electron Configuration

P.5.3.ii: correlate spectral lines with an energy-level diagram

 Bohr Model of Hydrogen
 Bohr Model: Introduction
 Star Spectra

L: Living Environment

L.4: Students will understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories pertaining to the physical setting and living environment and recognize the historical development of ideas in science.

L.4.1: Living things are both similar to and different from each other and from nonliving things.

L.4.1.1: Explain how diversity of populations within ecosystems relates to the stability of ecosystems.

L.4.1.1.a: Populations can be categorized by the function they serve. Food webs identify the relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers carrying out either autotropic or heterotropic nutrition.

 Forest Ecosystem

L.4.1.1.b: An ecosystem is shaped by the nonliving environment as well as its interacting species. The world contains a wide diversity of physical conditions, which creates a variety of environments.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Pond Ecosystem

L.4.1.1.d: The interdependence of organisms in an established ecosystem often results in approximate stability over hundreds and thousands of years. For example, as one population increases, it is held in check by one or more environmental factors or another species.

 Food Chain

L.4.1.1.e: Ecosystems, like many other complex systems, tend to show cyclic changes around a state of approximate equilibrium.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors

L.4.1.1.f: Every population is linked, directly or indirectly, with many others in an ecosystem. Disruptions in the numbers and types of species and environmental changes can upset ecosystem stability.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Food Chain

L.4.1.2: Describe and explain the structures and functions of the human body at different organizational levels (e.g., systems, tissues, cells, organelles).

L.4.1.2.a: Important levels of organization for structure and function include organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and whole organisms.

 Circulatory System
 Digestive System

L.4.1.2.b: Humans are complex organisms. They require multiple systems for digestion, respiration, reproduction, circulation, excretion, movement, coordination, and immunity. The systems interact to perform the life functions.

 Circulatory System
 Digestive System

L.4.1.2.c: The components of the human body, from organ systems to cell organelles, interact to maintain a balanced internal environment. To successfully accomplish this, organisms possess a diversity of control mechanisms that detect deviations and make corrective actions.

 Circulatory System

L.4.1.2.d: If there is a disruption in any human system, there may be a corresponding imbalance in homeostasis.

 Human Homeostasis

L.4.1.2.f: Cells have particular structures that perform specific jobs. These structures perform the actual work of the cell. Just as systems are coordinated and work together, cell parts must also be coordinated and work together.

 Cell Structure

L.4.1.2.g: Each cell is covered by a membrane that performs a number of important functions for the cell. These include: separation from its outside environment, controlling which molecules enter and leave the cell, and recognition of chemical signals. The processes of diffusion and active transport are important in the movement of materials in and out of cells.

 Cell Structure
 Osmosis

L.4.1.2.i: Inside the cell a variety of specialized structures, formed from many different molecules, carry out the transport of materials (cytoplasm), extraction of energy from nutrients (mitochondria), protein building (ribosomes), waste disposal (cell membrane), storage (vacuole), and information storage (nucleus).

 Cell Structure
 Paramecium Homeostasis
 RNA and Protein Synthesis

L.4.1.3: Explain how a one-celled organism is able to function despite lacking the levels of organization present in more complex organisms.

L.4.1.3.a: The structures present in some single-celled organisms act in a manner similar to the tissues and systems found in multicellular organisms, thus enabling them to perform all of the life processes needed to maintain homeostasis.

 Circulatory System
 Paramecium Homeostasis

L.4.2: Organisms inherit genetic information in a variety of ways that result in continuity of structure and function between parents and offspring.

L.4.2.1: Explain how the structure and replication of genetic material result in offspring that resemble their parents.

L.4.2.1.a: Genes are inherited, but their expression can be modified by interactions with the environment.

 Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

L.4.2.1.b: Every organism requires a set of coded instructions for specifying its traits. For offspring to resemble their parents, there must be a reliable way to transfer information from one generation to the next. Heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another.

 Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

L.4.2.1.c: Hereditary information is contained in genes, located in the chromosomes of each cell. An inherited trait of an individual can be determined by one or by many genes, and a single gene can influence more than one trait. A human cell contains many thousands of different genes in its nucleus.

 Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
 Human Karyotyping
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

L.4.2.1.e: In sexually reproducing organisms, the new individual receives half of the genetic information from its mother (via the egg) and half from its father (via the sperm). Sexually produced offspring often resemble, but are not identical to, either of their parents.

 Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

L.4.2.1.f: In all organisms, the coded instructions for specifying the characteristics of the organism are carried in DNA, a large molecule formed from subunits arranged in a sequence with bases of four kinds (represented by A, G, C, and T). The chemical and structural properties of DNA are the basis for how the genetic information that underlies heredity is both encoded in genes (as a string of molecular "bases") and replicated by means of a template.

 Building DNA
 DNA Analysis
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)
 RNA and Protein Synthesis

L.4.2.1.g: Cells store and use coded information. The genetic information stored in DNA is used to direct the synthesis of the thousands of proteins that each cell requires.

 RNA and Protein Synthesis

L.4.2.1.h: Genes are segments of DNA molecules. Any alteration of the DNA sequence is a mutation. Usually, an altered gene will be passed on to every cell that develops from it.

 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection

L.4.2.1.i: The work of the cell is carried out by the many different types of molecules it assembles, mostly proteins. Protein molecules are long, usually folded chains made from 20 different kinds of amino acids in a specific sequence. This sequence influences the shape of the protein. The shape of the protein, in turn, determines its function.

 RNA and Protein Synthesis

L.4.2.1.j: Offspring resemble their parents because they inherit similar genes that code for the production of proteins that form similar structures and perform similar functions.

 RNA and Protein Synthesis

L.4.2.2: Explain how the technology of genetic engineering allows humans to alter genetic makeup of organisms.

L.4.2.2.e: Knowledge of genetics is making possible new fields of health care; for example, finding genes which may have mutations that can cause disease will aid in the development of preventive measures to fight disease. Substances, such as hormones and enzymes, from genetically engineered organisms may reduce the cost and side effects of replacing missing body chemicals.

 Human Karyotyping

L.4.3: Individual organisms and species change over time.

L.4.3.1: Explain the mechanisms and patterns of evolution.

L.4.3.1.b: New inheritable characteristics can result from new combinations of existing genes or from mutations of genes in reproductive cells.

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection
 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection

L.4.3.1.d: Mutations occur as random chance events. Gene mutations can also be caused by such agents as radiation and chemicals. When they occur in sex cells, the mutations can be passed on to offspring; if they occur in other cells, they can be passed on to other body cells only.

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection
 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection

L.4.3.1.f: Species evolve over time. Evolution is the consequence of the interactions of (1) the potential for a species to increase its numbers, (2) the genetic variability of offspring due to mutation and recombination of genes, (3) a finite supply of the resources required for life, and (4) the ensuing selection by the environment of those offspring better able to survive and leave offspring.

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection
 Rainfall and Bird Beaks

L.4.3.1.g: Some characteristics give individuals an advantage over others in surviving and reproducing, and the advantaged offspring, in turn, are more likely than others to survive and reproduce. The proportion of individuals that have advantageous characteristics will increase.

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection
 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection
 Natural Selection
 Rainfall and Bird Beaks

L.4.3.1.k: Evolution does not necessitate long-term progress in some set direction. Evolutionary changes appear to be like the growth of a bush: Some branches survive from the beginning with little or no change, many die out altogether, and others branch repeatedly, sometimes giving rise to more complex organisms.

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection

L.4.4: The continuity of life is sustained through reproduction and development.

L.4.4.1: Explain how organisms, including humans, reproduce their own kind.

L.4.4.1.b: Some organisms reproduce asexually with all the genetic information coming from one parent. Other organisms reproduce sexually with half the genetic information typically contributed by each parent. Cloning is the production of identical genetic copies.

 Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

L.4.4.1.c: The processes of meiosis and fertilization are key to sexual reproduction in a wide variety of organisms. The process of meiosis results in the production of eggs and sperm which each contain half of the genetic information. During fertilization, gametes

 Pollination: Flower to Fruit

L.4.5: Organisms maintain a dynamic equilibrium that sustains life.

L.4.5.1: Explain the basic biochemical processes in living organisms and their importance in maintaining dynamic equilibrium.

L.4.5.1.a: The energy for life comes primarily from the Sun. Photosynthesis provides a vital connection between the Sun and the energy needs of living systems.

 Cell Energy Cycle
 Photosynthesis Lab
 Pond Ecosystem

L.4.5.1.b: Plant cells and some one-celled organisms contain chloroplasts, the site of photosynthesis. The process of photosynthesis uses solar energy to combine the inorganic molecules carbon dioxide and water into energy-rich organic compounds (e.g., glucose) and release oxygen to the environment.

 Cell Energy Cycle
 Cell Structure

L.4.5.1.d: In all organisms, the energy stored in organic molecules may be released during cellular respiration. This energy is temporarily stored in ATP molecules. In many organisms, the process of cellular respiration is concluded in mitochondria, in which ATP is produced more efficiently, oxygen is used, and carbon dioxide and water are released as wastes.

 Cell Energy Cycle

L.4.5.3: Relate processes at the system level to the cellular level in order to explain dynamic equilibrium in multicelled organisms.

L.4.5.3.a: Dynamic equilibrium results from detection of and response to stimuli. Organisms detect and respond to change in a variety of ways both at the cellular level and at the organismal level.

 Human Homeostasis
 Paramecium Homeostasis

L.4.5.3.b: Feedback mechanisms have evolved that maintain homeostasis. Examples include the changes in heart rate or respiratory rate in response to increased activity in muscle cells, the maintenance of blood sugar levels by insulin from the pancreas, and the changes in openings in the leaves of plants by guard cells to regulate water loss and gas exchange.

 Human Homeostasis
 Paramecium Homeostasis

L.4.6: Plants and animals depend on each other and their physical environment.

L.4.6.1: Explain factors that limit growth of individuals and populations.

L.4.6.1.a: Energy flows through ecosystems in one direction, typically from the Sun, through photosynthetic organisms including green plants and algae, to herbivores to carnivores and decomposers.

 Cell Energy Cycle
 Food Chain
 Forest Ecosystem

L.4.6.1.b: The atoms and molecules on the Earth cycle among the living and nonliving components of the biosphere. For example, carbon dioxide and water molecules used in photosynthesis to form energy-rich organic compounds are returned to the environment when the energy in these compounds is eventually released by cells. Continual input of energy from sunlight keeps the process going. This concept may be illustrated with an energy pyramid.

 Cell Energy Cycle
 Photosynthesis Lab

L.4.6.1.d: The number of organisms any habitat can support (carrying capacity) is limited by the available energy, water, oxygen, and minerals, and by the ability of ecosystems to recycle the residue of dead organisms through the activities of bacteria and fungi.

 Food Chain
 Forest Ecosystem

L.4.6.1.e: In any particular environment, the growth and survival of organisms depend on the physical conditions including light intensity, temperature range, mineral availability, soil/rock type, and relative acidity (pH).

 Natural Selection
 Rainfall and Bird Beaks

L.4.6.1.f: Living organisms have the capacity to produce populations of unlimited size, but environments and resources are finite. This has profound effects on the interactions among organisms.

 Food Chain
 Rabbit Population by Season

L.4.6.1.g: Relationships between organisms may be negative, neutral, or positive. Some organisms may interact with one another in several ways. They may be in a producer/consumer, predator/prey, or parasite/host relationship; or one organism may cause disease in, scavenge, or decompose another.

 Food Chain
 Forest Ecosystem

L.4.6.2: Explain the importance of preserving diversity of species and habitats.

L.4.6.2.a: As a result of evolutionary processes, there is a diversity of organisms and roles in ecosystems. This diversity of species increases the chance that at least some will survive in the face of large environmental changes. Biodiversity increases the stabili

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Coral Reefs 2 - Biotic Factors
 Natural Selection
 Rainfall and Bird Beaks

L.4.6.3: Explain how the living and nonliving environments change over time and respond to disturbances.

L.4.6.3.a: The interrelationships and interdependencies of organisms affect the development of stable ecosystems.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Food Chain

L.4.6.3.c: A stable ecosystem can be altered, either rapidly or slowly, through the activities of organisms (including humans), or through climatic changes or natural disasters. The altered ecosystem can usually recover through gradual changes back to a point of long- term stability.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Coral Reefs 2 - Biotic Factors
 Pond Ecosystem

L.4.7: Human decisions and activities have had a profound impact on the physical and living environment.

L.4.7.1: Describe the range of interrelationships of humans with the living and nonliving environment.

L.4.7.1.b: Natural ecosystems provide an array of basic processes that affect humans. Those processes include but are not limited to: maintenance of the quality of the atmosphere, generation of soils, control of the water cycle, removal of wastes, energy flow, and recycling of nutrients. Humans are changing many of these basic processes and the changes may be detrimental.

 Carbon Cycle
 Cell Energy Cycle
 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Coral Reefs 2 - Biotic Factors
 Food Chain
 Pond Ecosystem

L.4.7.1.c: Human beings are part of the Earth's ecosystems. Human activities can, deliberately or inadvertently, alter the equilibrium in ecosystems. Humans modify ecosystems as a result of population growth, consumption, and technology. Human destruction of habitats through direct harvesting, pollution, atmospheric changes, and other factors is threatening current global stability, and if not addressed, ecosystems may be irreversibly affected.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Coral Reefs 2 - Biotic Factors
 Pond Ecosystem
 Rabbit Population by Season

L.4.7.2: Explain the impact of technological development and growth in the human population on the living and nonliving environment.

L.4.7.2.a: Human activities that degrade ecosystems result in a loss of diversity of the living and nonliving environment. For example, the influence of humans on other organisms occurs through land use and pollution. Land use decreases the space and resources available to other species, and pollution changes the chemical composition of air, soil, and water.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors

L.4.7.2.b: When humans alter ecosystems either by adding or removing specific organisms, serious consequences may result. For example, planting large expanses of one crop reduces the biodiversity of the area.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Coral Reefs 2 - Biotic Factors
 Pond Ecosystem

L.4.7.3: Explain how individual choices and societal actions can contribute to improving the environment.

L.4.7.3.a: Societies must decide on proposals which involve the introduction of new technologies. Individuals need to make decisions which will assess risks, costs, benefits, and trade-offs.

 DNA Analysis

E: Earth Science

E.4: Students will understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories pertaining to the physical setting and living environment and recognize the historical development of ideas in science.

E.4.1: The Earth and celestial phenomena can be described by principles of relative motion and perspective.

E.4.1.1: Explain complex phenomena, such as tides, variations in day length, solar insolation, apparent motion of the planets, and annual traverse of the constellations.

E.4.1.1.a: Most objects in the solar system are in regular and predictable motion.

E.4.1.1.a.1: These motions explain such phenomena as the day, the year, seasons, phases of the moon, eclipses, and tides.

 3D Eclipse
 Seasons: Why do we have them?
 Summer and Winter
 Tides

E.4.1.1.a.2: Gravity influences the motions of celestial objects. The force of gravity between two objects in the universe depends on their masses and the distance between them.

 Gravitational Force
 Pith Ball Lab

E.4.1.1.b: Nine planets move around the Sun in nearly circular orbits.

E.4.1.1.b.1: The orbit of each planet is an ellipse with the Sun located at one of the foci.

 Orbital Motion - Kepler's Laws

E.4.1.1.b.2: Earth is orbited by one moon and many artificial satellites.

 Moonrise, Moonset, and Phases

E.4.1.1.c: Earth's coordinate system of latitude and longitude, with the equator and prime meridian as reference lines, is based upon Earth's rotation and our observation of the Sun and stars.

 Seasons in 3D

E.4.1.1.d: Earth rotates on an imaginary axis at a rate of 15 degrees per hour. To people on Earth, this turning of the planet makes it seem as though the Sun, the moon, and the stars are moving around Earth once a day. Rotation provides a basis for our system of local time; meridians of longitude are the basis for time zones.

 Moonrise, Moonset, and Phases
 Seasons Around the World
 Seasons in 3D

E.4.1.1.f: Earth's changing position with regard to the Sun and the moon has noticeable effects.

E.4.1.1.f.1: Earth revolves around the Sun with its rotational axis tilted at 23.5 degrees to a line perpendicular to the plane of its orbit, with the North Pole aligned with Polaris.

 Seasons Around the World
 Seasons: Why do we have them?

E.4.1.1.f.2: During Earth's one-year period of revolution, the tilt of its axis results in changes in the angle of incidence of the Sun's rays at a given latitude; these changes cause variation in the heating of the surface. This produces seasonal variation in weather.

 Seasons Around the World
 Seasons in 3D
 Seasons: Why do we have them?
 Summer and Winter

E.4.1.1.g: Seasonal changes in the apparent positions of constellations provide evidence of Earth's revolution.

 Seasons Around the World
 Seasons in 3D
 Seasons: Why do we have them?

E.4.1.1.h: The Sun's apparent path through the sky varies with latitude and season.

 Seasons in 3D

E.4.1.1.i: Approximately 70 percent of Earth's surface is covered by a relatively thin layer of water, which responds to the gravitational attraction of the moon and the Sun with a daily cycle of high and low tides.

 Tides

E.4.1.2: Describe current theories about the origin of the universe and solar system.

E.4.1.2.a: The universe is vast and estimated to be over ten billion years old. The current theory is that the universe was created from an explosion called the Big Bang. Evidence for this theory includes:

E.4.1.2.a.2: a red-shift (the Doppler effect) in the light from very distant galaxies.

 Doppler Shift
 Doppler Shift Advanced

E.4.1.2.b: Stars form when gravity causes clouds of molecules to contract until nuclear fusion of light elements into heavier ones occurs. Fusion releases great amounts of energy over millions of years.

E.4.1.2.b.1: The stars differ from each other in size, temperature, and age.

 H-R Diagram

E.4.1.2.g: Earth has continuously been recycling water since the outgassing of water early in its history. This constant recirculation of water at and near Earth's surface is described by the hydrologic (water) cycle.

E.4.1.2.g.2: The amount of precipitation that seeps into the ground or runs off is influenced by climate, slope of the land, soil, rock type, vegetation, land use, and degree of saturation.

 Porosity

E.4.1.2.g.3: Porosity, permeability, and water retention affect runoff and infiltration.

 Porosity

E.4.1.2.i: The pattern of evolution of life-forms on Earth is at least partially preserved in the rock record.

E.4.1.2.i.1: Fossil evidence indicates that a wide variety of life-forms has existed in the past and that most of these forms have become extinct.

 Human Evolution - Skull Analysis

E.4.1.2.j: Geologic history can be reconstructed by observing sequences of rock types and fossils to correlate bedrock at various locations.

E.4.1.2.j.5: The regular rate of nuclear decay (half-life time period) of radioactive isotopes allows geologists to determine the absolute age of materials found in some rocks.

 Half-life

E.4.2: Many of the phenomena that we observe on Earth involve interactions among components of air, water, and land.

E.4.2.1: Use the concepts of density and heat energy to explain observations of weather patterns, seasonal changes, and the movements of Earth's plates.

E.4.2.1.c: Weather patterns become evident when weather variables are observed, measured, and recorded. These variables include air temperature, air pressure, moisture (relative humidity and dewpoint), precipitation (rain, snow, hail, sleet, etc.), wind speed and direction, and cloud cover.

 Coastal Winds and Clouds
 Weather Maps

E.4.2.1.g: Weather variables can be represented in a variety of formats including radar and satellite images, weather maps (including station models, isobars, and fronts), atmospheric cross-sections, and computer models.

 Weather Maps

E.4.2.1.h: Atmospheric moisture, temperature and pressure distributions; jet streams, wind; air masses and frontal boundaries; and the movement of cyclonic systems and associated tornadoes, thunderstorms, and hurricanes occur in observable patterns. Loss of property, personal injury, and loss of life can be reduced by effective emergency preparedness.

 Coastal Winds and Clouds
 Weather Maps

E.4.2.1.i: Seasonal changes can be explained using concepts of density and heat energy. These changes include the shifting of global temperature zones, the shifting of planetary wind and ocean current patterns, the occurrence of monsoons, hurricanes, flooding, and severe weather.

 Seasons Around the World
 Seasons in 3D

E.4.2.1.j: Properties of Earth's internal structure (crust, mantle, inner core, and outer core) can be inferred from the analysis of the behavior of seismic waves (including velocity and refraction).

E.4.2.1.j.1: Analysis of seismic waves allows the determination of the location of earthquake epicenters, and the measurement of earthquake magnitude; this analysis leads to the inference that Earth's interior is composed of layers that differ in composition and states of matter.

 Earthquakes 1 - Recording Station
 Earthquakes 2 - Determination of Epicenter

E.4.2.1.l: The lithosphere consists of separate plates that ride on the more fluid asthenosphere and move slowly in relationship to one another, creating convergent, divergent, and transform plate boundaries. These motions indicate Earth is a dynamic geologic system

E.4.2.1.l.1: These plate boundaries are the sites of most earthquakes, volcanoes, and young mountain ranges.

 Plate Tectonics

E.4.2.1.l.2: Compared to continental crust, ocean crust is thinner and denser. New ocean crust continues to form at mid-ocean ridges.

 Plate Tectonics

E.4.2.1.l.3: Earthquakes and volcanoes present geologic hazards to humans. Loss of property, personal injury, and loss of life can be reduced by effective emergency preparedness.

 Earthquakes 1 - Recording Station

E.4.2.1.n: Many of Earth's surface features such as mid-ocean ridges/rifts, trenches/subduction zones/island arcs, mountain ranges (folded, faulted, and volcanic), hot spots, and the magnetic and age patterns in surface bedrock are a consequence of forces associated with plate motion and interaction.

 Plate Tectonics

E.4.2.1.o: Plate motions have resulted in global changes in geography, climate, and the patterns of organic evolution.

 Plate Tectonics

E.4.2.1.p: Landforms are the result of the interaction of tectonic forces and the processes of weathering, erosion, and deposition.

 Plate Tectonics

E.4.2.1.q: Topographic maps represent landforms through the use of contour lines that are isolines connecting points of equal elevation. Gradients and profiles can be determined from changes in elevation over a given distance.

 Building Topographic Maps
 Reading Topographic Maps

E.4.2.2: Explain how incoming solar radiation, ocean currents, and land masses affect weather and climate.

E.4.2.2.a: Insolation (solar radiation) heats Earth's surface and atmosphere unequally due to variations in:

E.4.2.2.a.1: the intensity caused by differences in atmospheric transparency and angle of incidence which vary with time of day, latitude, and season

 Seasons Around the World
 Seasons in 3D
 Seasons: Why do we have them?

E.4.2.2.a.2: characteristics of the materials absorbing the energy such as color, texture, transparency, state of matter, and specific heat

 Calorimetry Lab

E.4.2.2.a.3: duration, which varies with seasons and latitude.

 Seasons Around the World
 Seasons in 3D
 Seasons: Why do we have them?

E.4.2.2.c: A location's climate is influenced by latitude, proximity to large bodies of water, ocean currents, prevailing winds, vegetative cover, elevation, and mountain ranges.

 Coastal Winds and Clouds
 Seasons Around the World

E.4.2.2.d: Temperature and precipitation patterns are altered by:

E.4.2.2.d.2: human influences including deforestation, urbanization, and the production of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Greenhouse Effect
 Pond Ecosystem
 Rabbit Population by Season

E.4.3: Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.

E.4.3.1: Explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.

E.4.3.1.a: Minerals have physical properties determined by their chemical composition and crystal structure.

E.4.3.1.a.2: Chemical composition and physical properties determine how minerals are used by humans.

 Density Experiment: Slice and Dice

E.4.3.1.c: Rocks are usually composed of one or more minerals.

E.4.3.1.c.1: Rocks are classified by their origin, mineral content, and texture.

 Rock Classification

C.4.3: Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.

C.4.3.1: Explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.

C.4.3.1.a: The modern model of the atom has evolved over a long period of time through the work of many scientists.

 Bohr Model of Hydrogen
 Bohr Model: Introduction

C.4.3.1.b: Each atom has a nucleus, with an overall positive charge, surrounded by negatively charged electrons.

 Element Builder

C.4.3.1.c: Subatomic particles contained in the nucleus include protons and neutrons.

 Element Builder

C.4.3.1.d: The proton is positively charged, and the neutron has no charge. The electron is negatively charged.

 Element Builder

C.4.3.1.e: Protons and electrons have equal but opposite charges. The number of protons equals the number of electrons in an atom.

 Element Builder

C.4.3.1.f: The mass of each proton and each neutron is approximately equal to one atomic mass unit. An electron is much less massive than a proton or a neutron.

 Element Builder

C.4.3.1.g: The number of protons in an atom (atomic number) identifies the element. The sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom (mass number) identifies an isotope. Common notations that represent isotopes include: 14 C, 14 C, carbon-14, C-14. 6

 Element Builder

C.4.3.1.i: Each electron in an atom has its own distinct amount of energy.

 Bohr Model of Hydrogen
 Bohr Model: Introduction
 Electron Configuration
 Element Builder

C.4.3.1.j: When an electron in an atom gains a specific amount of energy, the electron is at a higher energy state (excited state).

 Bohr Model of Hydrogen
 Bohr Model: Introduction
 Electron Configuration
 Element Builder

C.4.3.1.k: When an electron returns from a higher energy state to a lower energy state, a specific amount of energy is emitted. This emitted energy can be used to identify an element.

 Bohr Model of Hydrogen
 Bohr Model: Introduction
 Electron Configuration
 Element Builder
 Star Spectra

C.4.3.1.l: The outermost electrons in an atom are called the valence electrons. In general, the number of valence electrons affects the chemical properties of an element.

 Electron Configuration
 Element Builder

C.4.3.1.m: Atoms of an element that contain the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons are called isotopes of that element.

 Element Builder

C.4.3.1.o: Stability of an isotope is based on the ratio of neutrons and protons in its nucleus. Although most nuclei are stable, some are unstable and spontaneously decay, emitting radiation.

 Element Builder
 Nuclear Decay

C.4.3.1.p: Spontaneous decay can involve the release of alpha particles, beta particles, positrons, and/ or gamma radiation from the nucleus of an unstable isotope. These emissions differ in mass, charge, ionizing power, and penetrating power.

 Nuclear Decay

C.4.3.1.u: Elements are substances that are composed of atoms that have the same atomic number. Elements cannot be broken down by chemical change.

 Element Builder

C.4.3.1.w: Elements can be differentiated by physical properties. Physical properties of substances, such as density, conductivity, malleability, solubility, and hardness, differ among elements.

 Circuit Builder

C.4.3.1.y: The placement or location of an element on the Periodic Table gives an indication of the physical and chemical properties of that element. The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing atomic number.

 Electron Configuration
 Element Builder

C.4.3.1.z: For Groups 1, 2, and 13-18 on the Periodic Table, elements within the same group have the same number of valence electrons (helium is an exception) and therefore similar chemical properties.

 Electron Configuration
 Element Builder
 Ionic Bonds

C.4.3.1.aa: The succession of elements within the same group demonstrates characteristic trends: differences in atomic radius, ionic radius, electronegativity, first ionization energy, metallic/ nonmetallic properties.

 Electron Configuration
 Ionic Bonds

C.4.3.1.ab: The succession of elements across the same period demonstrates characteristic trends: differences in atomic radius, ionic radius, electronegativity, first ionization energy, metallic/ nonmetallic properties.

 Electron Configuration

C.4.3.1.ae: Types of chemical formulas include empirical, molecular, and structural.

 Chemical Equations

C.4.3.1.af: Organic compounds contain carbon atoms, which bond to one another in chains, rings, and networks to form a variety of structures. Organic compounds can be named using the IUPAC system.

 Covalent Bonds
 Ionic Bonds

C.4.3.1.aj: The structure and arrangement of particles and their interactions determine the physical state of a substance at a given temperature and pressure.

 Phase Changes

C.4.3.1.ao: A solution is a homogeneous mixture of a solute dissolved in a solvent. The solubility of a solute in a given amount of solvent is dependent on the temperature, the pressure, and the chemical natures of the solute and solvent.

 Solubility and Temperature

C.4.3.1.aq: The addition of a nonvolatile solute to a solvent causes the boiling point of the solvent to increase and the freezing point of the solvent to decrease. The greater the concentration of solute particles, the greater the effect.

 Freezing Point of Salt Water

C.4.3.1.as: The acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution can be measured by its pH value. The relative level of acidity or alkalinity of these solutions can be shown by using indicators.

 Mystery Powder Analysis
 Titration
 pH Analysis
 pH Analysis: Quad Color Indicator

C.4.3.1.av: Arrhenius acids yield H + (aq), hydrogen ion as the only positive ion in an aqueous solution. The hydrogen ion may also be written as H 3 O + (aq), hydronium ion.

 pH Analysis
 pH Analysis: Quad Color Indicator

C.4.3.1.aw: Arrhenius bases yield OH -(aq), hydroxide ion as the only negative ion in an aqueous solution.

 pH Analysis
 pH Analysis: Quad Color Indicator

C.4.3.1.az: Titration is a laboratory process in which a volume of a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution.

 Titration

C.4.3.2: Use atomic and molecular models to explain common chemical reactions.

C.4.3.2.a: A physical change results in the rearrangement of existing particles in a substance. A chemical change results in the formation of different substances with changed properties.

 Chemical Changes
 Density Experiment: Slice and Dice

C.4.3.2.b: Types of chemical reactions include synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, and double replacement.

 Balancing Chemical Equations
 Chemical Equations
 Dehydration Synthesis
 Equilibrium and Concentration

C.4.3.2.c: Types of organic reactions include addition, substitution, polymerization, esterification, fermentation, saponification, and combustion.

 Balancing Chemical Equations
 Chemical Equations
 Dehydration Synthesis
 Equilibrium and Concentration

C.4.3.2.i: Oxidation numbers (states) can be assigned to atoms and ions. Changes in oxidation numbers indicate that oxidation and reduction have occurred.

 Electron Configuration
 Element Builder

C.4.3.3: Apply the principle of conservation of mass to chemical reactions.

C.4.3.3.a: In all chemical reactions there is a conservation of mass, energy, and charge.

 Chemical Changes
 Chemical Equations

C.4.3.3.c: A balanced chemical equation represents conservation of atoms. The coefficients in a balanced chemical equation can be used to determine mole ratios in the reaction.

 Balancing Chemical Equations
 Chemical Equations

C.4.3.3.e: The formula mass of a substance is the sum of the atomic masses of its atoms. The molar mass (gram-formula mass) of a substance equals one mole of that substance.

 Stoichiometry

C.4.3.4: Use kinetic molecular theory (KMT) to explain rates of reactions and the relationships among temperature, pressure, and volume of a substance.

C.4.3.4.a: The concept of an ideal gas is a model to explain the behavior of gases. A real gas is most like an ideal gas when the real gas is at low pressure and high temperature.

 Temperature and Particle Motion

C.4.3.4.b: Kinetic molecular theory (KMT) for an ideal gas states that all gas particles:

C.4.3.4.b.1: are in random, constant, straight-line motion.

 Temperature and Particle Motion

C.4.3.4.c: Kinetic molecular theory describes the relationships of pressure, volume, temperature, velocity, and frequency and force of collisions among gas molecules.

 Collision Theory
 Temperature and Particle Motion

C.4.3.4.d: Collision theory states that a reaction is most likely to occur if reactant particles collide with the proper energy and orientation.

 Collision Theory

C.4.3.4.f: The rate of a chemical reaction depends on several factors: temperature, concentration, nature of the reactants, surface area, and the presence of a catalyst.

 Collision Theory

C.4.3.4.h: Some chemical and physical changes can reach equilibrium.

 Diffusion
 Equilibrium and Concentration
 Equilibrium and Pressure

C.4.3.4.i: At equilibrium the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction. The measurable quantities of reactants and products remain constant at equilibrium.

 Equilibrium and Concentration
 Equilibrium and Pressure

C.4.3.4.j: LeChatelier's principle can be used to predict the effect of stress (change in pressure, volume, concentration, and temperature) on a system at equilibrium.

 Equilibrium and Concentration
 Equilibrium and Pressure

C.4.4.1: Observe and describe transmission of various forms of energy.

C.4.4.1.a: Energy can exist in different forms, such as chemical, electrical, electromagnetic, thermal, mechanical, nuclear.

 Energy Conversion in a System
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Roller Coaster Physics

C.4.4.1.b: Chemical and physical changes can be exothermic or endothermic.

 Chemical Changes

C.4.4.2: Explain heat in terms of kinetic molecular theory.

C.4.4.2.a: Heat is a transfer of energy (usually thermal energy) from a body of higher temperature to a body of lower temperature. Thermal energy is the energy associated with the random motion of atoms and molecules.

 Temperature and Particle Motion

C.4.4.2.b: Temperature is a measurement of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of material. Temperature is not a form of energy.

 Temperature and Particle Motion

C.4.4.2.c: The concepts of kinetic and potential energy can be used to explain physical processes that include: fusion (melting), solidification (freezing), vaporization (boiling, evaporation), condensation, sublimation, and deposition.

 Temperature and Particle Motion

C.4.4.4: Explain the benefits and risks of radioactivity.

C.4.4.4.a: Each radioactive isotope has a specific mode and rate of decay (half-life).

 Half-life
 Nuclear Decay

C.4.4.4.c: Nuclear reactions can be represented by equations that include symbols which represent atomic nuclei (with mass number and atomic number), subatomic particles (with mass number and charge), and/or emissions such as gamma radiation.

 Nuclear Decay

C.4.5: Energy and matter interact through forces that result in changes in motion.

C.4.5.2: Explain chemical bonding in terms of the behavior of electrons.

C.4.5.2.a: Chemical bonds are formed when valence electrons are:

C.4.5.2.a.1: transferred from one atom to another (ionic)

 Covalent Bonds
 Ionic Bonds

C.4.5.2.a.2: shared between atoms (covalent)

 Covalent Bonds
 Ionic Bonds

C.4.5.2.a.3: mobile within a metal (metallic)

 Ionic Bonds

C.4.5.2.b: Atoms attain a stable valence electron configuration by bonding with other atoms. Noble gases have stable valence configurations and tend not to bond.

 Covalent Bonds
 Electron Configuration
 Ionic Bonds

C.4.5.2.c: When an atom gains one or more electrons, it becomes a negative ion and its radius increases. When an atom loses one or more electrons, it becomes a positive ion and its radius decreases.

 Electron Configuration
 Element Builder

C.4.5.2.d: Electron-dot diagrams (Lewis structures) can represent the valence electron arrangement in elements, compounds, and ions.

 Covalent Bonds
 Ionic Bonds

C.4.5.2.e: In a multiple covalent bond, more than one pair of electrons are shared between two atoms. Unsaturated organic compounds contain at least one double or triple bond.

 Covalent Bonds

C.4.5.2.g: Two major categories of compounds are ionic and molecular (covalent) compounds.

 Covalent Bonds
 Ionic Bonds

C.4.5.2.h: Metals tend to react with nonmetals to form ionic compounds. Nonmetals tend to react with other nonmetals to form molecular (covalent) compounds. Ionic compounds containing polyatomic ions have both ionic and covalent bonding.

 Covalent Bonds
 Ionic Bonds

C.4.5.3: Compare energy relationships within an atom's nucleus to those outside the nucleus.

C.4.5.3.a: A change in the nucleus of an atom that converts it from one element to another is called transmutation. This can occur naturally or can be induced by the bombardment of the nucleus with high-energy particles.

 Nuclear Decay

P.4.4: Energy exists in many forms, and when these forms change energy is conserved.

P.4.4.1: Students can observe and describe transmission of various forms of energy.

P.4.4.1.a: All energy transfers are governed by the law of conservation of energy.

 2D Collisions
 Air Track
 Energy Conversion in a System

P.4.4.1.b: Energy may be converted among mechanical, electromagnetic, nuclear, and thermal forms.

 Energy Conversion in a System

P.4.4.1.c: Potential energy is the energy an object possesses by virtue of its position or condition. Types of potential energy include gravitational and elastic.

 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Potential Energy on Shelves
 Roller Coaster Physics

P.4.4.1.d: Kinetic energy is the energy an object possesses by virtue of its motion.

 Air Track
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Roller Coaster Physics

P.4.4.1.e: In an ideal mechanical system, the sum of the macroscopic kinetic and potential energies (mechanical energy) is constant.

 2D Collisions
 Air Track
 Energy Conversion in a System
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Roller Coaster Physics

P.4.4.1.f: In a nonideal mechanical system, as mechanical energy decreases there is a corresponding increase in other energies such as internal energy.

 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Roller Coaster Physics

P.4.4.1.g: When work is done on or by a system, there is a change in the total energy of the system.

 Pulley Lab

P.4.4.1.l: All materials display a range of conductivity. At constant temperature, common metallic conductors obey Ohm's Law.

 Circuit Builder

P.4.4.1.m: The factors affecting resistance in a conductor are length, cross-sectional area, temperature, and resistivity.

 Circuit Builder

P.4.4.1.n: A circuit is a closed path in which a current can exist. (Note: Use conventional current.)

 Advanced Circuits
 Circuit Builder
 Circuits

P.4.4.1.o: Circuit components may be connected in series or in parallel. Schematic dia-grams are used to represent circuits and circuit elements.

 Advanced Circuits
 Circuit Builder
 Circuits

P.4.4.1.p: Electrical power and energy can be determined for electric circuits.

 Advanced Circuits
 Circuit Builder

P.4.4.3: Students can explain variations in wavelength and frequency in terms of the source of the vibrations that produce them, e.g., molecules, electrons, and nuclear particles.

P.4.4.3.c: The model of a wave incorporates the characteristics of amplitude, wavelength, frequency, period, wave speed, and phase.

 Ripple Tank

P.4.4.3.d: Mechanical waves require a material medium through which to travel.

 Longitudinal Waves

P.4.4.3.e: Waves are categorized by the direction in which particles in a medium vibrate about an equilibrium position relative to the direction of propagation of the wave, such as transverse and longitudinal waves.

 Longitudinal Waves

P.4.4.3.g: Electromagnetic radiation exhibits wave characteristics. Electromagnetic waves can propagate through a vacuum.

 Ripple Tank

P.4.4.3.h: When a wave strikes a boundary between two media, reflection, transmission, and absorption occur. A transmitted wave may be refracted.

 Basic Prism
 Refraction

P.4.4.3.i: When a wave moves from one medium into another, the wave may refract due to a change in speed. The angle of refraction (measured with respect to the normal) depends on the angle of incidence and the properties of the media (indices of refraction).

 Refraction
 Ripple Tank

P.4.4.3.j: The absolute index of refraction is inversely proportional to the speed of a wave.

 Refraction

P.4.4.3.k: All frequencies of electromagnetic radiation travel at the same speed in a vacuum.

 Ripple Tank

P.4.4.3.l: Diffraction occurs when waves pass by obstacles or through openings. The wave-length of the incident wave and the size of the obstacle or opening affect how the wave spreads out.

 Ripple Tank

P.4.4.3.m: When waves of a similar nature meet, the resulting interference may be explained using the principle of superposition. Standing waves are a special case of interference.

 Ripple Tank
 Sound Beats and Sine Waves

P.4.4.3.n: When a wave source and an observer are in relative motion, the observed frequency of the waves traveling between them is shifted (Doppler effect).

 Doppler Shift
 Doppler Shift Advanced

P.4.5: Energy and matter interact through forces that result in changes in motion.

P.4.5.1: Students can explain and predict different patterns of motion of objects (e.g., linear and uniform circular motion, velocity and acceleration, momentum and inertia).

P.4.5.1.b: A vector may be resolved into perpendicular components.

 Adding Vectors
 Vectors

P.4.5.1.c: The resultant of two or more vectors, acting at any angle, is determined by vector addition.

 Adding Vectors
 Vectors

P.4.5.1.d: An object in linear motion may travel with a constant velocity or with acceleration. (Note: Testing of acceleration will be limited to cases in which acceleration is constant.)

 Atwood Machine
 Free-Fall Laboratory

P.4.5.1.e: An object in free fall accelerates due to the force of gravity. Friction and other forces cause the actual motion of a falling object to deviate from its theoretical motion. (Note: Initial velocities of objects in free fall may be in any direction.)

 Free-Fall Laboratory
 Golf Range
 Shoot the Monkey

P.4.5.1.f: The path of a projectile is the result of the simultaneous effect of the horizontal and vertical components of its motion; these components act independently.

 Golf Range
 Shoot the Monkey

P.4.5.1.g: A projectile's time of flight is dependent upon the vertical component of its motion.

 Golf Range
 Shoot the Monkey

P.4.5.1.h: The horizontal displacement of a projectile is dependent upon the horizontal component of its motion and its time of flight.

 Golf Range
 Shoot the Monkey

P.4.5.1.i: According to Newton's First Law, the inertia of an object is directly proportional to its mass. An object remains at rest or moves with constant velocity, unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.

 Fan Cart Physics

P.4.5.1.j: When the net force on a system is zero, the system is in equilibrium.

 Atwood Machine

P.4.5.1.k: According to Newton's Second Law, an unbalanced force causes a mass to accelerate.

 Atwood Machine
 Fan Cart Physics
 Free-Fall Laboratory

P.4.5.1.m: The elongation or compression of a spring depends upon the nature of the spring (its spring constant) and the magnitude of the applied force.

 Determining a Spring Constant

P.4.5.1.n: Centripetal force is the net force which produces centripetal acceleration. In uniform circular motion, the centripetal force is perpendicular to the tangential velocity.

 Uniform Circular Motion

P.4.5.1.p: The impulse imparted to an object causes a change in its momentum.

 2D Collisions
 Air Track

P.4.5.1.q: According to Newton's Third Law, forces occur in action/ reaction pairs. When one object exerts a force on a second, the second exerts a force on the first that is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.

 Fan Cart Physics

P.4.5.1.r: Momentum is conserved in a closed system. (Note: Testing will be limited to momentum in one dimension.)

 2D Collisions
 Air Track

P.4.5.1.t: Gravitational forces are only attractive, whereas electrical and magnetic forces can be attractive or repulsive.

 Coulomb Force (Static)
 Pith Ball Lab

P.4.5.1.u: The inverse square law applies to electrical and gravitational fields produced by point sources.

 Pith Ball Lab

P.4.5.3: Students can compare energy relationships within an atom's nucleus to those outside the nucleus. Major Understandings:

P.4.5.3.b: Charge is quantized on two levels. On the atomic level, charge is restricted to multiples of the elementary charge (charge on the electron or proton). On the subnuclear level, charge appears as fractional values of the elementary charge (quarks).

 Element Builder

P.4.5.3.d: The energy of a photon is proportional to its frequency.

 Photoelectric Effect

P.4.5.3.e: On the atomic level, energy and matter exhibit the characteristics of both waves and particles.

 Photoelectric Effect

P.4.5.3.g: The Standard Model of Particle Physics has evolved from previous attempts to explain the nature of the atom and states that:

P.4.5.3.g.1: atomic particles are composed of subnuclear particles

 Element Builder

P.4.5.3.g.3: each elementary particle has a corresponding antiparticle

 Element Builder

P.4.5.3.j: The fundamental source of all energy in the universe is the conversion of mass into energy.

 Carbon Cycle

Correlation last revised: 4/4/2018

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this state's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.