4: Students will understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories pertaining to the physical setting and living environment and recognize the historical development of ideas in science.

4.G: General Skills

4.G.2: safely and accurately use the following measurement tools:

4.G.2.b: balance

 Triple Beam Balance
 Weight and Mass
 Triple Beam Balance
 Weight and Mass

4.G.2.f: spring scale

 Weight and Mass
 Weight and Mass

4.G.4: recognize and analyze patterns and trends

 Pattern Finder
 Pattern Finder

4.G.5: classify objects according to an established scheme and a student-generated scheme

 Mineral Identification
 Mineral Identification

4.G.6: develop and use a dichotomous key

 Dichotomous Keys
 Dichotomous Keys

4.G.8: identify cause-and-effect relationships

 Pendulum Clock
 Pendulum Clock

4.L: Living Environment Skills

4.L.5: design and use a Punnett square or a pedigree chart to predict the probability of certain traits

 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

4.L.6: classify living things according to a student-generated scheme and an established scheme

 Dichotomous Keys
 Human Evolution - Skull Analysis
 Dichotomous Keys
 Human Evolution - Skull Analysis

4.L.7: interpret and/or illustrate the energy flow in a food chain, energy pyramid, or food web

 Food Chain
 Forest Ecosystem
 Prairie Ecosystem
 Food Chain
 Forest Ecosystem
 Prairie Ecosystem

4.L.9: identify structure and function relationships in organisms

 Flower Pollination
 Pollination: Flower to Fruit
 Flower Pollination
 Pollination: Flower to Fruit

4.P: Physical Setting Skills

4.P.1: given the latitude and longitude of a location, indicate its position on a map and determine the latitude and longitude of a given location on a map

 Building Topographic Maps
 Ocean Mapping
 Reading Topographic Maps
 Weather Maps
 Building Topographic Maps
 Ocean Mapping
 Reading Topographic Maps
 Weather Maps

4.P.2: using identification tests and a flow chart, identify mineral samples

 Mineral Identification
 Mineral Identification

4.P.3: use a diagram of the rock cycle to determine geological processes that led to the formation of a specific rock type

 Rock Cycle
 Rock Cycle

4.P.4: plot the location of recent earthquake and volcanic activity on a map and identify patterns of distribution

 Plate Tectonics
 Plate Tectonics

4.P.7: generate and interpret field maps including topographic and weather maps

 Building Topographic Maps
 Ocean Mapping
 Reading Topographic Maps
 Weather Maps
 Building Topographic Maps
 Ocean Mapping
 Reading Topographic Maps
 Weather Maps

4.P.9: measure weather variables such as wind speed and direction, relative humidity, barometric pressure, etc.

 Relative Humidity
 Relative Humidity

4.P.10: determine the density of liquids, and regular- and irregular-shaped solids

 Density
 Density Laboratory
 Density
 Density Laboratory

4.P.11: determine the volume of a regular- and an irregular-shaped solid, using water displacement

 Measuring Volume
 Measuring Volume

4.P.15: determine the electrical conductivity of a material, using a simple circuit

 Circuit Builder
 Circuit Builder

4.P.16: determine the speed and acceleration of a moving object

 Free-Fall Laboratory
 Free-Fall Laboratory

4.L1: Living things are both similar to and different from each other and from nonliving things.

4.L1.1b: The way in which cells function is similar in all living things. Cells grow and divide, producing more cells. Cells take in nutrients, which they use to provide energy for the work that cells do and to make the materials that a cell or an organism needs.

 Cell Division
 Cell Division

4.L1.1c: Most cells have cell membranes, genetic material, and cytoplasm. Some cells have a cell wall and/or chloroplasts. Many cells have a nucleus.

 Cell Energy Cycle
 Cell Structure
 RNA and Protein Synthesis
 Cell Energy Cycle
 Cell Structure
 RNA and Protein Synthesis

4.L1.1d: Some organisms are single cells; others, including humans, are multicellular.

 Digestive System
 Paramecium Homeostasis
 Digestive System
 Paramecium Homeostasis

4.L1.1e: Cells are organized for more effective functioning in multicellular organisms. Levels of organization for structure and function of a multicellular organism include cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems.

 Cell Structure
 Circulatory System
 Digestive System
 Paramecium Homeostasis
 Cell Structure
 Circulatory System
 Digestive System
 Paramecium Homeostasis

4.L1.1f: Many plants have roots, stems, leaves, and reproductive structures. These organized groups of tissues are responsible for a plant's life activities.

 Flower Pollination
 Pollination: Flower to Fruit
 Flower Pollination
 Pollination: Flower to Fruit

4.L1.1g: Multicellular animals often have similar organs and specialized systems for carrying out major life activities.

 Circulatory System
 Digestive System
 Circulatory System
 Digestive System

4.L1.1h: Living things are classified by shared characteristics on the cellular and organism level. In classifying organisms, biologists consider details of internal and external structures. Biological classification systems are arranged from general (kingdom) to

 Dichotomous Keys
 Human Evolution - Skull Analysis
 Dichotomous Keys
 Human Evolution - Skull Analysis

4.L1.2a: Each system is composed of organs and tissues which perform specific functions and interact with each other, e.g., digestion, gas exchange, excretion, circulation, locomotion, control, coordination, reproduction, and protection from disease.

 Circulatory System
 Digestive System
 Circulatory System
 Digestive System

4.L1.2b: Tissues, organs, and organ systems help to provide all cells with nutrients, oxygen, and waste removal.

 Circulatory System
 Digestive System
 Circulatory System
 Digestive System

4.L1.2c: The digestive system consists of organs that are responsible for the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food. The breakdown process results in molecules that can be absorbed and transported to cells.

 Digestive System
 Digestive System

4.L1.2d: During respiration, cells use oxygen to release the energy stored in food. The respiratory system supplies oxygen and removes carbon dioxide (gas exchange).

 Cell Energy Cycle
 Cell Energy Cycle

4.L1.2f: The circulatory system moves substances to and from cells, where they are needed or produced, responding to changing demands.

 Circulatory System
 Circulatory System

4.L1.2j: Disease breaks down the structures or functions of an organism. Some diseases are the result of failures of the system. Other diseases are the result of damage by infection from other organisms (germ theory). Specialized cells protect the body from infectious disease. The chemicals they produce identify and destroy microbes that enter the body.

 Disease Spread
 Disease Spread

4.L2: Organisms inherit genetic information in a variety of ways that result in continuity of structure and function between parents and offspring.

4.L2.1a: Hereditary information is contained in genes. Genes are composed of DNA that makes up the chromosomes of cells.

 Human Karyotyping
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)
 Human Karyotyping
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

4.L2.1b: Each gene carries a single unit of information. A single inherited trait of an individual can be determined by one pair or by many pairs of genes. A human cell contains thousands of different genes.

 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

4.L2.1e: In sexual reproduction typically half of the genes come from each parent. Sexually produced offspring are not identical to either parent.

 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

4.L2.2a: In all organisms, genetic traits are passed on from generation to generation.

 Inheritance
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)
 Inheritance
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

4.L2.2b: Some genes are dominant and some are recessive. Some traits are inherited by mechanisms other than dominance and recessiveness.

 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

4.L2.2c: The probability of traits being expressed can be determined using models of genetic inheritance. Some models of prediction are pedigree charts and Punnett squares.

 Chicken Genetics
 Inheritance
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)
 Chicken Genetics
 Inheritance
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

4.L3: Individual organisms and species change over time.

4.L3.1a: The processes of sexual reproduction and mutation have given rise to a variety of traits within a species.

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection
 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection
 Evolution: Mutation and Selection
 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection

4.L3.1b: Changes in environmental conditions can affect the survival of individual organisms with a particular trait. Small differences between parents and offspring can accumulate in successive generations so that descendants are very different from their ancestors. Individual organisms with certain traits are more likely to survive and have offspring than individuals without those traits.

 Natural Selection
 Rabbit Population by Season
 Natural Selection
 Rabbit Population by Season

4.L3.1c: Human activities such as selective breeding and advances in genetic engineering may affect the variations of species.

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection
 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection
 Evolution: Mutation and Selection
 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection

4.L4: The continuity of life is sustained through reproduction and development.

4.L4.1a: Some organisms reproduce asexually. Other organisms reproduce sexually. Some organisms can reproduce both sexually and asexually.

 Flower Pollination
 Pollination: Flower to Fruit
 Flower Pollination
 Pollination: Flower to Fruit

4.L4.1b: There are many methods of asexual reproduction, including division of a cell into two cells, or separation of part of an animal or plant from the parent, resulting in the growth of another individual.

 Cell Division
 Cell Division

4.L4.3c: Various body structures and functions change as an organism goes through its life cycle.

 Flower Pollination
 Pollination: Flower to Fruit
 Flower Pollination
 Pollination: Flower to Fruit

4.L4.3f: As an individual organism ages, various body structures and functions change.

 Flower Pollination
 Flower Pollination

4.L4.4b: In one type of cell division, chromosomes are duplicated and then separated into two identical and complete sets to be passed to each of the two resulting cells. In this type of cell division, the hereditary information is identical in all the cells that result.

 Cell Division
 Cell Division

4.L5: Organisms maintain a dynamic equilibrium that sustains life.

4.L5.1a: Animals and plants have a great variety of body plans and internal structures that contribute to their ability to maintain a balanced condition.

 Flower Pollination
 Pollination: Flower to Fruit
 Flower Pollination
 Pollination: Flower to Fruit

4.L5.1c: All organisms require energy to survive. The amount of energy needed and the method for obtaining this energy vary among cells. Some cells use oxygen to release the energy stored in food.

 Cell Structure
 Cell Structure

4.L5.1d: The methods for obtaining nutrients vary among organisms. Producers, such as green plants, use light energy to make their food. Consumers, such as animals, take in energy-rich foods.

 Forest Ecosystem
 Forest Ecosystem

4.L5.1e: Herbivores obtain energy from plants. Carnivores obtain energy from animals. Omnivores obtain energy from both plants and animals. Decomposers, such as bacteria and fungi, obtain energy by consuming wastes and/or dead organisms.

 Food Chain
 Forest Ecosystem
 Prairie Ecosystem
 Food Chain
 Forest Ecosystem
 Prairie Ecosystem

4.L5.1f: Regulation of an organism's internal environment involves sensing the internal environment and changing physiological activities to keep conditions within the range required for survival. Regulation includes a variety of nervous and hormonal feedback syst

 Homeostasis
 Human Homeostasis
 Paramecium Homeostasis
 Homeostasis
 Human Homeostasis
 Paramecium Homeostasis

4.L5.1g: The survival of an organism depends on its ability to sense and respond to its external environment.

 Homeostasis
 Homeostasis

4.L6: Plants and animals depend on each other and their physical environment.

4.L6.1a: Energy flows through ecosystems in one direction, usually from the Sun, through producers to consumers and then to decomposers. This process may be visualized with food chains or energy pyramids.

 Forest Ecosystem
 Forest Ecosystem

4.L6.1b: Food webs identify feeding relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in an ecosystem.

 Forest Ecosystem
 Forest Ecosystem

4.L6.1c: Matter is transferred from one organism to another and between organisms and their physical environment. Water, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and oxygen are examples of substances cycled between the living and nonliving environment.

 Pond Ecosystem
 Water Cycle
 Pond Ecosystem
 Water Cycle

4.L6.2a: Photosynthesis is carried on by green plants and other organisms containing chlorophyll. In this process, the Sun's energy is converted into and stored as chemical energy in the form of a sugar. The quantity of sugar molecules increases in green plants during photosynthesis in the presence of sunlight.

 Cell Energy Cycle
 Energy Conversions
 Photosynthesis Lab
 Cell Energy Cycle
 Energy Conversions
 Photosynthesis Lab

4.L6.2b: The major source of atmospheric oxygen is photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere and oxygen is released during photosynthesis.

 Cell Energy Cycle
 Photosynthesis Lab
 Cell Energy Cycle
 Photosynthesis Lab

4.L6.2c: Green plants are the producers of food which is used directly or indirectly by consumers.

 Food Chain
 Forest Ecosystem
 Food Chain
 Forest Ecosystem

4.L7: Human decisions and activities have had a profound impact on the physical and living environment.

4.L7.1a: A population consists of all individuals of a species that are found together at a given place and time. Populations living in one place form a community. The community and the physical factors with which it interacts compose an ecosystem.

 Food Chain
 Rabbit Population by Season
 Food Chain
 Rabbit Population by Season

4.L7.1b: Given adequate resources and no disease or predators, populations (including humans) increase. Lack of resources, habitat destruction, and other factors such as predation and climate limit the growth of certain populations in the ecosystem.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Food Chain
 Prairie Ecosystem
 Rabbit Population by Season
 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Food Chain
 Prairie Ecosystem
 Rabbit Population by Season

4.L7.1c: In all environments, organisms interact with one another in many ways. Relationships among organisms may be competitive, harmful, or beneficial. Some species have adapted to be dependent upon each other with the result that neither could survive without the other.

 Food Chain
 Food Chain

4.L7.2a: In ecosystems, balance is the result of interactions between community members and their environment.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Food Chain
 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Food Chain

4.L7.2b: The environment may be altered through the activities of organisms. Alterations are sometimes abrupt. Some species may replace others over time, resulting in long- term gradual changes (ecological succession).

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors

4.L7.2c: Overpopulation by any species impacts the environment due to the increased use of resources. Human activities can bring about environmental degradation through resource acquisition, urban growth, land-use decisions, waste disposal, etc.

 Rabbit Population by Season
 Rabbit Population by Season

4.L7.2d: Since the Industrial Revolution, human activities have resulted in major pollution of air, water, and soil. Pollution has cumulative ecological effects such as acid rain, global warming, or ozone depletion. The survival of living things on our planet depends on the conservation and protection of Earth's resources.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Greenhouse Effect
 Pond Ecosystem
 Water Pollution
 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Greenhouse Effect
 Pond Ecosystem
 Water Pollution

4.P1: The Earth and celestial phenomena can be described by principles of relative motion and perspective.

4.P1.1c: The Sun and the planets that revolve around it are the major bodies in the solar system. Other members include comets, moons, and asteroids. Earth' orbit is nearly circular.

 Gravity Pitch
 Solar System
 Solar System Explorer
 Gravity Pitch
 Solar System
 Solar System Explorer

4.P1.1d: Gravity is the force that keeps planets in orbit around the Sun and the Moon in orbit around the Earth.

 Gravity Pitch
 Gravity Pitch

4.P1.1e: Most objects in the solar system have a regular and predictable motion. These motions explain such phenomena as a day, a year, phases of the Moon, eclipses, tides, meteor showers, and comets.

 2D Eclipse
 Eclipse
 Ocean Tides
 Tides
 2D Eclipse
 Eclipse
 Ocean Tides
 Tides

4.P1.1f: The latitude/longitude coordinate system and our system of time are based on celestial observations.

 Comparing Earth and Venus
 Comparing Earth and Venus

4.P1.1h: The apparent motions of the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars across the sky can be explained by Earth's rotation and revolution. Earth's rotation causes the length of one day to be approximately 24 hours. This rotation also causes the Sun and Moon to appear to rise along the eastern horizon and to set along the western horizon. Earth's revolution around the Sun defines the length of the year as 365 1/4 days.

 Comparing Earth and Venus
 Moonrise, Moonset, and Phases
 Seasons in 3D
 Seasons: Earth, Moon, and Sun
 Comparing Earth and Venus
 Moonrise, Moonset, and Phases
 Seasons in 3D
 Seasons: Earth, Moon, and Sun

4.P1.1i: The tilt of Earth's axis of rotation and the revolution of Earth around the Sun cause seasons on Earth. The length of daylight varies depending on latitude and season.

 Seasons Around the World
 Seasons in 3D
 Seasons: Earth, Moon, and Sun
 Seasons: Why do we have them?
 Summer and Winter
 Seasons Around the World
 Seasons in 3D
 Seasons: Earth, Moon, and Sun
 Seasons: Why do we have them?
 Summer and Winter

4.P2: Many of the phenomena that we observe on Earth involve interactions among components of air, water, and land.

4.P2.1e: Rocks are composed of minerals. Only a few rock-forming minerals make up most of the rocks of Earth. Minerals are identified on the basis of physical properties such as streak, hardness, and reaction to acid.

 Mineral Identification
 Mineral Identification

4.P2.1h: The process of weathering breaks down rocks to form sediment. Soil consists of sediment, organic material, water, and air.

 Rock Cycle
 Rock Cycle

4.P2.1j: Water circulates through the atmosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere in what is known as the water cycle.

 Water Cycle
 Water Cycle

4.P2.2a: The interior of Earth is hot. Heat flow and movement of material within Earth cause sections of Earth's crust to move. This may result in earthquakes, volcanic eruption, and the creation of mountains and ocean basins.

 Plate Tectonics
 Plate Tectonics

4.P2.2b: Analysis of earthquake wave data (vibrational disturbances) leads to the conclusion that there are layers within Earth. These layers - the crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core - have distinct properties.

 Plate Tectonics
 Plate Tectonics

4.P2.2c: Folded, tilted, faulted, and displaced rock layers suggest past crustal movement.

 Plate Tectonics
 Plate Tectonics

4.P2.2d: Continents fitting together like puzzle parts and fossil correlations provided initial evidence that continents were once together.

 Building Pangaea
 Building Pangaea

4.P2.2e: The Theory of Plate Tectonics explains how the "solid" lithosphere consists of a series of plates that "float" on the partially molten section of the mantle. Convection cells within the mantle may be the driving force for the movement of the plates.

 Plate Tectonics
 Plate Tectonics

4.P2.2f: Plates may collide, move apart, or slide past one another. Most volcanic activity and mountain building occur at the boundaries of these plates, often resulting in earthquakes.

 Plate Tectonics
 Plate Tectonics

4.P2.2g: Rocks are classified according to their method of formation. The three classes of rocks are sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous. Most rocks show characteristics that give clues to their formation conditions.

 Rock Classification
 Rock Cycle
 Rock Classification
 Rock Cycle

4.P2.2h: The rock cycle model shows how types of rock or rock material may be transformed from one type of rock to another.

 Rock Cycle
 Rock Cycle

4.P2.2k: The uneven heating of Earth's surface is the cause of weather.

 Seasons Around the World
 Seasons in 3D
 Seasons Around the World
 Seasons in 3D

4.P2.2l: Air masses form when air remains nearly stationary over a large section of Earth's surface and takes on the conditions of temperature and humidity from that location. Weather conditions at a location are determined primarily by temperature, humidity, and pressure of air masses over that location.

 Relative Humidity
 Relative Humidity

4.P2.2m: Most local weather condition changes are caused by movement of air masses.

 Hurricane Motion
 Weather Maps
 Hurricane Motion
 Weather Maps

4.P2.2o: Fronts are boundaries between air masses. Precipitation is likely to occur at these boundaries.

 Weather Maps
 Weather Maps

4.P3: Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.

4.P3.1a: Substances have characteristic properties. Some of these properties include color, odor, phase at room temperature, density, solubility, heat and electrical conductivity, hardness, and boiling and freezing points.

 Circuit Builder
 Color Absorption
 Conduction and Convection
 Density
 Density Experiment: Slice and Dice
 Density Laboratory
 Heat Absorption
 Mineral Identification
 Phases of Water
 Circuit Builder
 Color Absorption
 Conduction and Convection
 Density
 Density Experiment: Slice and Dice
 Density Laboratory
 Heat Absorption
 Mineral Identification
 Phases of Water

4.P3.1c: The motion of particles helps to explain the phases (states) of matter as well as changes from one phase to another. The phase in which matter exists depends on the attractive forces among its particles.

 Phase Changes
 Phases of Water
 Phase Changes
 Phases of Water

4.P3.1g: Characteristic properties can be used to identify different materials, and separate a mixture of substances into its components. For example, iron can be removed from a mixture by means of a magnet. An insoluble substance can be separated from a soluble s

 Magnetism
 Magnetism

4.P3.1h: Density can be described as the amount of matter that is in a given amount of space. If two objects have equal volume, but one has more mass, the one with more mass is denser.

 Density
 Density Experiment: Slice and Dice
 Density Laboratory
 Density
 Density Experiment: Slice and Dice
 Density Laboratory

4.P3.1i: Buoyancy is determined by comparative densities.

 Archimedes' Principle
 Density
 Density Experiment: Slice and Dice
 Density Laboratory
 Density via Comparison
 Determining Density via Water Displacement
 Archimedes' Principle
 Density
 Density Experiment: Slice and Dice
 Density Laboratory
 Density via Comparison
 Determining Density via Water Displacement

4.P3.2a: During a physical change a substance keeps its chemical composition and properties. Examples of physical changes include freezing, melting, condensation, boiling, evaporation, tearing, and crushing.

 Density Experiment: Slice and Dice
 Phases of Water
 Density Experiment: Slice and Dice
 Phases of Water

4.P3.2d: Substances are often placed in categories if they react in similar ways. Examples include metals, nonmetals, and noble gases.

 Mineral Identification
 Mineral Identification

4.P3.2e: The Law of Conservation of Mass states that during an ordinary chemical reaction matter cannot be created or destroyed. In chemical reactions, the total mass of the reactants equals the total mass of the products.

 Chemical Changes
 Chemical Equations
 Chemical Changes
 Chemical Equations

4.P3.3a: All matter is made up of atoms. Atoms are far too small to see with a light microscope.

 Element Builder
 Element Builder

4.P3.3b: Atoms and molecules are perpetually in motion. The greater the temperature, the greater the motion.

 Temperature and Particle Motion
 Temperature and Particle Motion

4.P3.3d: Interactions among atoms and/or molecules result in chemical reactions.

 Chemical Changes
 Chemical Equations
 Chemical Changes
 Chemical Equations

4.P3.3e: The atoms of any one element are different from the atoms of other elements.

 Element Builder
 Element Builder

4.P3.3f: There are more than 100 elements. Elements combine in a multitude of ways to produce compounds that account for all living and nonliving substances. Few elements are found in their pure form.

 Element Builder
 Element Builder

4.P4: Energy exists in many forms, and when these forms change energy is conserved.

4.P4.1a: The Sun is a major source of energy for Earth. Other sources of energy include nuclear and geothermal energy.

 Seasons Around the World
 Seasons Around the World

4.P4.1b: Fossil fuels contain stored solar energy and are considered nonrenewable resources. They are a major source of energy in the United States. Solar energy, wind, moving water, and biomass are some examples of renewable energy resources.

 Energy Conversions
 Energy Conversions

4.P4.1c: Most activities in everyday life involve one form of energy being transformed into another. For example, the chemical energy in gasoline is transformed into mechanical energy in an automobile engine. Energy, in the form of heat, is almost always one of the products of energy transformations.

 Energy Conversion in a System
 Energy Conversions
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Energy Conversion in a System
 Energy Conversions
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

4.P4.1d: Different forms of energy include heat, light, electrical, mechanical, sound, nuclear, and chemical. Energy is transformed in many ways.

 Energy Conversion in a System
 Energy Conversions
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Heat Absorption
 Herschel Experiment
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Radiation
 Roller Coaster Physics
 Energy Conversion in a System
 Energy Conversions
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Heat Absorption
 Herschel Experiment
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Radiation
 Roller Coaster Physics

4.P4.1e: Energy can be considered to be either kinetic energy, which is the energy of motion, or potential energy, which depends on relative position.

 Air Track
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Potential Energy on Shelves
 Roller Coaster Physics
 Sled Wars
 Air Track
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Potential Energy on Shelves
 Roller Coaster Physics
 Sled Wars

4.P4.2a: Heat moves in predictable ways, flowing from warmer objects to cooler ones, until both reach the same temperature.

 Conduction and Convection
 Heat Transfer by Conduction
 Conduction and Convection
 Heat Transfer by Conduction

4.P4.2b: Heat can be transferred through matter by the collisions of atoms and/or molecules (conduction) or through space (radiation). In a liquid or gas, currents will facilitate the transfer of heat (convection).

 Conduction and Convection
 Heat Absorption
 Heat Transfer by Conduction
 Herschel Experiment
 Radiation
 Conduction and Convection
 Heat Absorption
 Heat Transfer by Conduction
 Herschel Experiment
 Radiation

4.P4.2c: During a phase change, heat energy is absorbed or released. Energy is absorbed when a solid changes to a liquid and when a liquid changes to a gas. Energy is released when a gas changes to a liquid and when a liquid changes to a solid.

 Phase Changes
 Phases of Water
 Phase Changes
 Phases of Water

4.P4.4a: Different forms of electromagnetic energy have different wavelengths. Some examples of electromagnetic energy are microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, X-rays, and gamma rays.

 Radiation
 Radiation

4.P4.4b: Light passes through some materials, sometimes refracting in the process. Materials absorb and reflect light, and may transmit light. To see an object, light from that object, emitted by or reflected from it, must enter the eye.

 Color Absorption
 Heat Absorption
 Ray Tracing (Lenses)
 Ray Tracing (Mirrors)
 Refraction
 Color Absorption
 Heat Absorption
 Ray Tracing (Lenses)
 Ray Tracing (Mirrors)
 Refraction

4.P4.4c: Vibrations in materials set up wave-like disturbances that spread away from the source. Sound waves are an example. Vibrational waves move at different speeds in different materials. Sound cannot travel in a vacuum.

 Longitudinal Waves
 Longitudinal Waves

4.P4.4d: Electrical energy can be produced from a variety of energy sources and can be transformed into almost any other form of energy.

 Energy Conversions
 Energy Conversions

4.P4.4f: Without touching them, material that has been electrically charged attracts uncharged material, and may either attract or repel other charged material.

 Charge Launcher
 Charge Launcher

4.P4.4g: Without direct contact, a magnet attracts certain materials and either attracts or repels other magnets. The attractive force of a magnet is greatest at its poles.

 Magnetism
 Magnetism

4.P4.5a: Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but only changed from one form into another.

 Air Track
 Energy Conversion in a System
 Energy Conversions
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Roller Coaster Physics
 Air Track
 Energy Conversion in a System
 Energy Conversions
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Roller Coaster Physics

4.P4.5b: Energy can change from one form to another, although in the process some energy is always converted to heat. Some systems transform energy with less loss of heat than others.

 Energy Conversion in a System
 Energy Conversions
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Energy Conversion in a System
 Energy Conversions
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

4.P5: Energy and matter interact through forces that result in changes in motion.

4.P5.1b: The motion of an object can be described by its position, direction of motion, and speed.

 Distance-Time Graphs
 Free Fall Tower
 Free-Fall Laboratory
 Measuring Motion
 Distance-Time Graphs
 Free Fall Tower
 Free-Fall Laboratory
 Measuring Motion

4.P5.1c: An object's motion is the result of the combined effect of all forces acting on the object. A moving object that is not subjected to a force will continue to move at a constant speed in a straight line. An object at rest will remain at rest.

 Fan Cart Physics
 Force and Fan Carts
 Fan Cart Physics
 Force and Fan Carts

4.P5.1d: Force is directly related to an object's mass and acceleration. The greater the force, the greater the change in motion.

 Fan Cart Physics
 Force and Fan Carts
 Free-Fall Laboratory
 Fan Cart Physics
 Force and Fan Carts
 Free-Fall Laboratory

4.P5.1e: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

 Fan Cart Physics
 Force and Fan Carts
 Fan Cart Physics
 Force and Fan Carts

4.P5.2a: Every object exerts gravitational force on every other object. Gravitational force depends on how much mass the objects have and on how far apart they are. Gravity is one of the forces acting on orbiting objects and projectiles.

 Gravitational Force
 Gravitational Force

4.P5.2c: Machines transfer mechanical energy from one object to another.

 Pulley Lab
 Pulley Lab

4.P5.2d: Friction is a force that opposes motion.

 Force and Fan Carts
 Force and Fan Carts

4.P5.2e: A machine can be made more efficient by reducing friction. Some common ways of reducing friction include lubricating or waxing surfaces.

 Pulley Lab
 Pulley Lab

4.P5.2f: Machines can change the direction or amount of force, or the distance or speed of force required to do work.

 Ants on a Slant (Inclined Plane)
 Pulley Lab
 Ants on a Slant (Inclined Plane)
 Pulley Lab

4.P5.2g: Simple machines include a lever, a pulley, a wheel and axle, and an inclined plane. A complex machine uses a combination of interacting simple machines, e.g., a bicycle.

 Ants on a Slant (Inclined Plane)
 Levers
 Pulley Lab
 Pulleys
 Trebuchet
 Wheel and Axle
 Ants on a Slant (Inclined Plane)
 Levers
 Pulley Lab
 Pulleys
 Trebuchet
 Wheel and Axle

Correlation last revised: 1/20/2017

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this state's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.