### RQ: Relationships between Quantities

#### (Framing Text): Perform arithmetic operations with complex numbers.

RQ.M.2HS.4: Know there is a complex number i such that i² = −1, and every complex number has the form a + bi with a and b real.

#### (Framing Text): Perform arithmetic operations on polynomials.

RQ.M.2HS.6: Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers, namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication; add, subtract and multiply polynomials.

### QF: Quadratic Functions and Modeling

#### (Framing Text): Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of a context.

QF.M.2HS.7: For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity.

QF.M.2HS.8: Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes. (e.g., If the function h(n) gives the number of person-hours it takes to assemble n engines in a factory, then the positive integers would be an appropriate domain for the function.)

QF.M.2HS.9: Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph.

#### (Framing Text): Analyze functions using different representations.

QF.M.2HS.10: Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases.

QF.M.2HS.10.a: Graph linear and quadratic functions and show intercepts, maxima, and minima.

QF.M.2HS.10.b: Graph square root, cube root and piecewise-defined functions, including step functions and absolute value functions.

QF.M.2HS.11: Write a function defined by an expression in different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain different properties of the function.

QF.M.2HS.11.a: Use the process of factoring and completing the square in a quadratic function to show zeros, extreme values and symmetry of the graph and interpret these in terms of a context.

QF.M.2HS.11.b: Use the properties of exponents to interpret expressions for exponential functions. (e.g., Identify percent rate of change in functions such as y = (1.02) to the 𝘵 power, 𝘺 = (0.97) to the 𝘵 power, 𝘺 = (1.01) to the 12𝘵 power, 𝘺 = (1.2) to the 𝘵/10 power, and classify them as representing exponential growth or decay.)

QF.M.2HS.12: Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). (e.g., Given a graph of one quadratic function and an algebraic expression for another, say which has the larger maximum).

#### (Framing Text): Build a function that models a relationship between two quantities.

QF.M.2HS.13: Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities.

QF.M.2HS.13.a: Determine an explicit expression, a recursive process or steps for calculation from a context.

QF.M.2HS.13.b: Combine standard function types using arithmetic operations. (e.g., Build a function that models the temperature of a cooling body by adding a constant function to a decaying exponential, and relate these functions to the model.

#### (Framing Text): Build new functions from existing functions.

QF.M.2HS.14: Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them.

QF.M.2HS.15: Find inverse functions. Solve an equation of the form f(x) = c for a simple function f that has an inverse and write an expression for the inverse.

#### (Framing Text): Construct and compare linear, quadratic, and exponential models and solve problems.

QF.M.2HS.16: Using graphs and tables, observe that a quantity increasing exponentially eventually exceeds a quantity increasing linearly, quadratically; or (more generally) as a polynomial function.

### EE: Expressions and Equations

#### (Framing Text): Interpret the structure of expressions.

EE.M.2HS.17: Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context.

EE.M.2HS.17.a: Interpret parts of an expression, such as terms, factors, and coefficients.

EE.M.2HS.17.b: Interpret complicated expressions by viewing one or more of their parts as a single entity.

EE.M.2HS.18: Use the structure of an expression to identify ways to rewrite it. For example, see x⁴ – y⁴ as (x⁴)⁴ – (y²)², thus recognizing it as a difference of squares that can be factored as (x² – y²)(x² + y²).

#### (Framing Text): Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems.

EE.M.2HS.19: Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression.

EE.M.2HS.19.a: Factor a quadratic expression to reveal the zeros of the function it defines.

EE.M.2HS.19.c: Use the properties of exponents to transform expressions for exponential functions.

#### (Framing Text): Create equations that describe numbers or relationships.

EE.M.2HS.20: Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems.

EE.M.2HS.21: Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales.

EE.M.2HS.22: Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. (e.g., Rearrange Ohm’s law V = IR to highlight resistance R.)

#### (Framing Text): Solve equations and inequalities in one variable.

EE.M.2HS.23: Solve quadratic equations in one variable.

EE.M.2HS.23.a: Use the method of completing the square to transform any quadratic equation in x into an equation of the form (x – p)² = q that has the same solutions. Derive the quadratic formula from this form.

EE.M.2HS.23.b: Solve quadratic equations by inspection (e.g., for x² = 49), taking square roots, completing the square, the quadratic formula and factoring, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation. Recognize when the quadratic formula gives complex solutions and write them as a ± bi for real numbers a and b.

#### (Framing Text): Use complex numbers in polynomial identities and equations.

EE.M.2HS.24: Solve quadratic equations with real coefficients that have complex solutions.

### AP: Applications of Probability

#### (Framing Text): Understand independence and conditional probability and use them to interpret data.

AP.M.2HS.28: Describe events as subsets of a sample space (the set of outcomes) using characteristics (or categories) of the outcomes or as unions, intersections or complements of other events (“or,” “and,” “not”).

AP.M.2HS.29: Understand that two events A and B are independent if the probability of A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities and use this characterization to determine if they are independent.

AP.M.2HS.30: Understand the conditional probability of A given B as P(A and B)/P(B), and interpret independence of A and B as saying that the conditional probability of A given B is the same as the probability of A, and the conditional probability of B given A is the same as the probability of B.

AP.M.2HS.31: Construct and interpret two-way frequency tables of data when two categories are associated with each object being classified. Use the two-way table as a sample space to decide if events are independent and to approximate conditional probabilities. (e.g., Collect data from a random sample of students in your school on their favorite subject among math, science and English. Estimate the probability that a randomly selected student from your school will favor science given that the student is in tenth grade. Do the same for other subjects and compare the results.)

AP.M.2HS.32: Recognize and explain the concepts of conditional probability and independence in everyday language and everyday situations. (e.g., Compare the chance of having lung cancer if you are a smoker with the chance of being a smoker if you have lung cancer.)

#### (Framing Text): Use the rules of probability to compute probabilities of compound events in a uniform probability model.

AP.M.2HS.33: Find the conditional probability of A given B as the fraction of B’s outcomes that also belong to A and interpret the answer in terms of the model.

AP.M.2HS.35: Apply the general Multiplication Rule in a uniform probability model, P(A and B) = P(A)P(B|A) = P(B)P(A|B), and interpret the answer in terms of the model.

AP.M.2HS.36: Use permutations and combinations to compute probabilities of compound events and solve problems.

#### (Framing Text): Use probability to evaluate outcomes of decisions.

AP.M.2HS.37: Use probabilities to make fair decisions (e.g., drawing by lots or using a random number generator).

AP.M.2HS.38: Analyze decisions and strategies using probability concepts (e.g., product testing, medical testing, and/or pulling a hockey goalie at the end of a game).

### SRT: Similarity, Right Triangle Trigonometry, and Proof

#### (Framing Text): Understand similarity in terms of similarity transformations.

SRT.M.2HS.39: Verify experimentally the properties of dilations given by a center and a scale factor.

SRT.M.2HS.39.a: A dilation takes a line not passing through the center of the dilation to a parallel line and leaves a line passing through the center unchanged.

SRT.M.2HS.39.b: The dilation of a line segment is longer or shorter in the ratio given by the scale factor.

SRT.M.2HS.40: Given two figures, use the definition of similarity in terms of similarity transformations to decide if they are similar; explain using similarity transformations the meaning of similarity for triangles as the equality of all corresponding pairs of angles and the proportionality of all corresponding pairs of sides.

#### (Framing Text): Prove geometric theorems.

SRT.M.2HS.42: Prove theorems about lines and angles. Theorems include: vertical angles are congruent; when a transversal crosses parallel lines, alternate interior angles are congruent and corresponding angles are congruent; points on a perpendicular bisector of a line segment are exactly those equidistant from the segment’s endpoints. Implementation may be extended to include concurrence of perpendicular bisectors and angle bisectors as preparation for M.2HS.C.3.

SRT.M.2HS.43: Prove theorems about triangles. Theorems include: measures of interior angles of a triangle sum to 180°; base angles of isosceles triangles are congruent; the segment joining midpoints of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and half the length; the medians of a triangle meet at a point.

SRT.M.2HS.44: Prove theorems about parallelograms. Theorems include: opposite sides are congruent, opposite angles are congruent, the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other and conversely, rectangles are parallelograms with congruent diagonals.

#### (Framing Text): Prove theorems involving similarity.

SRT.M.2HS.45: Prove theorems about triangles. Theorems include: a line parallel to one side of a triangle divides the other two proportionally and conversely; the Pythagorean Theorem proved using triangle similarity.

SRT.M.2HS.46: Use congruence and similarity criteria for triangles to solve problems and to prove relationships in geometric figures.

#### (Framing Text): Define trigonometric ratios and solve problems involving right triangles.

SRT.M.2HS.48: Understand that by similarity, side ratios in right triangles are properties of the angles in the triangle, leading to definitions of trigonometric ratios for acute angles.

SRT.M.2HS.50: Use trigonometric ratios and the Pythagorean Theorem to solve right triangles in applied problems.

#### (Framing Text): Prove and apply trigonometric identities.

SRT.M.2HS.51: Prove the Pythagorean identity sin²(θ) + cos²(θ) = 1 and use it to find sin(θ), cos (θ), or tan (θ), given sin (θ), cos (θ), or tan (θ), and the quadrant of the angle.

### CWC: Circles With and Without Coordinates

#### (Framing Text): Understand and apply theorems about circles.

CWC.M.2HS.53: Identify and describe relationships among inscribed angles, radii and chords. Include the relationship between central, inscribed and circumscribed angles; inscribed angles on a diameter are right angles; the radius of a circle is perpendicular to the tangent where the radius intersects the circle.

CWC.M.2HS.54: Construct the inscribed and circumscribed circles of a triangle and prove properties of angles for a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle.

#### (Framing Text): Translate between the geometric description and the equation for a conic section.

CWC.M.2HS.57: Derive the equation of a circle of given center and radius using the Pythagorean Theorem; complete the square to find the center and radius of a circle given by an equation.

CWC.M.2HS.58: Derive the equation of a parabola given the focus and directrix.

#### (Framing Text): Explain volume formulas and use them to solve problems.

CWC.M.2HS.60: Give an informal argument for the formulas for the circumference of a circle, area of a circle, volume of a cylinder, pyramid, and cone. Use dissection arguments, Cavalieri’s principle and informal limit arguments.

CWC.M.2HS.61: Use volume formulas for cylinders, pyramids, cones and spheres to solve problems. Volumes of solid figures scale by k3 under a similarity transformation with scale factor k.

Correlation last revised: 9/24/2019

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