II.I.I: Understand the properties, underlying structure, and reactions of matter.
II.I.I.PM: Properties of Matter
II.I.I.PM.1: Classify matter in a variety of ways (e.g., element, compound, mixture; solid, liquid, gas; acidic, basic, neutral).
II.I.I.PM.2: Identify, measure, and use a variety of physical and chemical properties (e.g., electrical conductivity, density, viscosity, chemical reactivity, pH, melting point).
II.I.I.PM.4: Describe trends in properties (e.g., ionization energy or reactivity as a function of location on the periodic table, boiling point of organic liquids as a function of molecular weight).
II.I.I.SM: Structure of Matter
II.I.I.SM.5: Understand that matter is made of atoms and that atoms are made of subatomic particles.
II.I.I.SM.6: Understand atomic structure, including:
II.I.I.SM.6.a: most space occupied by electrons
II.I.I.SM.6.b: nucleus made of protons and neutrons
II.I.I.SM.6.c: isotopes of an element
II.I.I.SM.7: Explain how electrons determine the properties of substances by:
II.I.I.SM.7.a: interactions between atoms through transferring or sharing valence electrons
II.I.I.SM.7.b: ionic and covalent bonds
II.I.I.SM.8: Make predictions about elements using the periodic table (e.g., number of valence electrons, metallic character, reactivity, conductivity, type of bond between elements).
II.I.I.SM.9: Understand how the type and arrangement of atoms and their bonds determine macroscopic properties (e.g., boiling point, electrical conductivity, hardness of minerals).
II.I.I.SM.10: Know that states of matter (i.e., solid, liquid, gas) depend on the arrangement of atoms and molecules and on their freedom of motion.
II.I.I.SM.11: Know that some atomic nuclei can change, including:
II.I.I.SM.11.a: spontaneous decay
II.I.I.SM.11.b: half-life of isotopes
II.I.I.SM.11.e: alpha, beta, and gamma radiation.
II.I.I.CR: Chemical Reactions
II.I.I.CR.13: Understand types of chemical reactions (e.g., synthesis, decomposition, combustion, redox, neutralization) and identify them as exothermic or endothermic.
II.I.I.CR.14: Know how to express chemical reactions with balanced equations that show:
II.I.I.CR.14.a: conservation of mass
II.I.I.CR.14.b: products of common reactions.
II.I.I.CR.15: Describe how the rate of chemical reactions depends on many factors that include temperature, concentration, and the presence of catalysts.
II.I.II: Understand the transformation and transmission of energy and how energy and matter interact.
II.I.II.ET: Energy Transformation and Transfer
II.I.II.ET.1: Identify different forms of energy, including kinetic, gravitational (potential), chemical, thermal, nuclear, and electromagnetic.
II.I.II.ET.2: Explain how thermal energy (heat) consists of the random motion and vibrations of atoms and molecules and is measured by temperature.
II.I.II.ET.3: Understand that energy can change from one form to another (e.g., changes in kinetic and potential energy in a gravitational field, heats of reaction, hydroelectric dams) and know that energy is conserved in these changes.
II.I.II.ET.4: Understand how heat can be transferred by conduction, convection, and radiation, and how heat conduction differs in conductors and insulators.
II.I.II.I: Interactions of Energy and Matter
II.I.II.I.9: Know that each kind of atom or molecule can gain or lose energy only in discrete amounts.
II.I.II.I.10: Explain how wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation can be used to identify atoms, molecules, and the composition of stars.
II.I.II.I.11: Understand the concept of equilibrium (i.e., thermal, mechanical, and chemical).
II.I.III: Understand the motion of objects and waves, and the forces that cause them.
II.I.III.F.1: Know that there are four fundamental forces in nature: gravitation, electromagnetism, weak nuclear force, and strong nuclear force.
II.I.III.F.2: Know that every object exerts gravitational force on every other object, and how this force depends on the masses of the objects and the distance between them.
II.I.III.F.5: Explain how electric currents cause magnetism and how changing magnetic fields produce electricity (e.g., electric motors, generators).
II.I.III.F.6: Represent the magnitude and direction of forces by vector diagrams.
II.I.III.F.7: Know that when one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts a force of equal magnitude and in the opposite direction on the first object (i.e., Newton’s Third Law).
II.I.III.M.8: Apply Newton's Laws to describe and analyze the behavior of moving objects, including:
II.I.III.M.8.a: displacement, velocity, and acceleration of a moving object
II.I.III.M.8.b: Newton’s Second Law, F = ma (e.g., momentum and its conservation, the motion of an object falling under gravity, the independence of a falling object’s motion on mass)
II.I.III.M.8.c: circular motion and centripetal force.
II.I.III.M.10: Describe wave propagation using amplitude, wavelength, frequency, and speed.
II.I.III.M.11: Explain how the interactions of waves can result in interference, reflection, and refraction.
II.I.III.M.12: Describe how waves are used for practical purposes (e.g., seismic data, acoustic effects, Doppler effect).
II.II.I: Understand how the survival of species depends on biodiversity and on complex interactions, including the cycling of matter and the flow of energy.
II.II.I.EC.1: Know that an ecosystem is complex and may exhibit fluctuations around a steady state or may evolve over time.
II.II.I.EC.2: Describe how organisms cooperate and compete in ecosystems (e.g., producers, decomposers, herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, predator-prey, symbiosis, mutualism).
II.II.I.EC.3: Understand and describe how available resources limit the amount of life an ecosystem can support (e.g., energy, water, oxygen, nutrients).
II.II.I.EC.4: Critically analyze how humans modify and change ecosystems (e.g., harvesting, pollution, population growth, technology).
II.II.I.EF: Energy Flow in the Environment
II.II.I.EF.5: Explain how matter and energy flow through biological systems (e.g., organisms, communities, ecosystems), and how the total amount of matter and energy is conserved but some energy is always released as heat to the environment.
II.II.I.EF.6: Describe how energy flows from the sun through plants to herbivores to carnivores and decomposers.
II.II.I.EF.7: Understand and explain the principles of photosynthesis (i.e., chloroplasts in plants convert light energy, carbon dioxide, and water into chemical energy).
II.II.I.BD.8: Understand and explain the hierarchical classification scheme (i.e., domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species), including:
II.II.I.BD.8.a: classification of an organism into a category
II.II.I.BD.8.b: similarity inferred from molecular structure (DNA) closely matching classification based on anatomical similarities
II.II.I.BD.8.c: similarities of organisms reflecting evolutionary relationships.
II.II.I.BD.9: Understand variation within and among species, including:
II.II.I.BD.9.a: mutations and genetic drift
II.II.I.BD.9.b: factors affecting the survival of an organism
II.II.I.BD.9.c: natural selection.
II.II.II: Understand the genetic basis for inheritance and the basic concepts of biological evolution.
II.II.II.G.1: Know how DNA carries all genetic information in the units of heredity called genes, including:
II.II.II.G.1.a: the structure of DNA (e.g., subunits A, G, C, T)
II.II.II.G.1.b: information-preserving replication of DNA
II.II.II.G.2: Use appropriate vocabulary to describe inheritable traits (i.e., genotype, phenotype).
II.II.II.G.3: Explain the concepts of segregation, independent assortment, and dominant/recessive alleles.
II.II.II.G.4: Identify traits that can and cannot be inherited.
II.II.II.G.5: Know how genetic variability results from the recombination and mutation of genes, including:
II.II.II.G.5.a: sorting and recombination of genes in sexual reproduction result in a change in DNA that is passed on to offspring
II.II.II.G.6: Understand the principles of sexual and asexual reproduction, including meiosis and mitosis.
II.II.II.G.7: Know that most cells in the human body contain 23 pairs of chromosomes including one pair that determines sex, and that human females have two X chromosomes and human males have an X and a Y chromosome.
II.II.II.BE: Biological Evolution
II.II.II.BE.9: Critically analyze the data and observations supporting the conclusion that the species living on Earth today are related by descent from the ancestral one-celled organisms.
II.II.II.BE.11: Understand that evolution is a consequence of many factors, including the ability of organisms to reproduce, genetic variability, the effect of limited resources, and natural selection.
II.II.II.BE.12: Explain how natural selection favors individuals who are better able to survive, reproduce, and leave offspring.
II.II.III: Understand the characteristics, structures, and functions of cells.
II.II.III.SF: Structure and Function
II.II.III.SF.1: Know that cells are made of proteins composed of combinations of amino acids.
II.II.III.SF.2: Know that specialized structures inside cells in most organisms carry out different functions, including:
II.II.III.SF.2.a: parts of a cell and their functions (e.g., nucleus, chromosomes, plasma, and mitochondria)
II.II.III.SF.2.c: similarities and differences between plant and animal cells
II.II.III.SF.2.d: prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
II.II.III.SF.3: Describe the mechanisms for cellular processes (e.g., energy production and storage, transport of molecules, waste disposal, synthesis of new molecules).
II.II.III.SF.4: Know how the cell membrane controls which ions and molecules enter and leave the cell based on membrane permeability and transport (i.e., osmosis, diffusion, active transport, passive transport).
II.II.III.SF.6: Know that DNA directs protein building (e.g., role of RNA).
II.II.III.BM: Biochemical Mechanisms
II.II.III.BM.7: Describe how most cell functions involve chemical reactions, including:
II.II.III.BM.7.b: processes of respiration (e.g., energy production, ATP)
II.III.I: Examine the scientific theories of the origin, structure, contents, and evolution of the solar system and the universe, and their interconnections.
II.III.I.1: Understand the scale and contents of the universe, including:
II.III.I.1.b: objects in the universe such as planets, stars, galaxies, and nebulae.
II.III.I.2: Predict changes in the positions and appearances of objects in the sky (e.g., moon, sun) based on knowledge of current positions and patterns of movements (e.g., lunar cycles, seasons).
II.III.I.5: Explain how objects in the universe emit different electromagnetic radiation and how this information is used.
II.III.I.6: Describe how stars are powered by nuclear fusion, how luminosity and temperature indicate their age, and how stellar processes create heavier and stable elements that are found throughout the universe.
II.III.II: Examine the scientific theories of the origin, structure, energy, and evolution of Earth and its atmosphere, and their interconnections.
II.III.II.EE: Characteristics and Evolution of Earth
II.III.II.EE.3: Describe the internal structure of Earth (e.g., core, mantle, crust) and the structure of Earth’s plates.
II.III.II.EE.4: Understand the changes in Earth's past and the investigative methods used to determine geologic time, including:
II.III.II.EE.4.a: rock sequences, relative dating, fossil correlation, and radiometric dating
II.III.II.EE.5: Explain plate tectonic theory and understand the evidence that supports it.
II.III.II.ES: Energy in Earth's System
II.III.II.ES.7: Describe convection as the mechanism for moving heat energy from deep within Earth to the surface and discuss how this process results in plate tectonics, including:
II.III.II.ES.7.a: geological manifestations (e.g., earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain building) that occur at plate boundaries
II.III.II.ES.8: Describe the patterns and relationships in the circulation of air and water driven by the sun's radiant energy, including:
II.III.II.ES.8.c: global climate, global warming, and the greenhouse effect
II.III.II.ES.8.d: El Niño, La Niña, and other climatic trends.
II.III.II.GC: Geochemical Cycles
II.III.II.GC.9: Know that Earth’s system contains a fixed amount of natural resources that cycle among land, water, the atmosphere, and living things (e.g., carbon and nitrogen cycles, rock cycle, water cycle, ground water, aquifers).
II.III.II.GC.10a: the major rock types (i.e., sedimentary, igneous, metamorphic) and their formation
II.III.II.GC.12: Explain how the availability of ground water through aquifers can fluctuate based on multiple factors (i.e., rate of use, rate of replenishment, surface changes, and changes in temperature).
Correlation last revised: 4/4/2018