II: Content of Science

II.I: Understand the structure and properties of matter, the characteristics of energy, and the interactions between matter and energy.

II.I.I: Understand the properties, underlying structure, and reactions of matter.

II.I.I.PM: Properties of Matter

II.I.I.PM.1: Classify matter in a variety of ways (e.g., element, compound, mixture; solid, liquid, gas; acidic, basic, neutral).

 pH Analysis
 pH Analysis: Quad Color Indicator

II.I.I.PM.2: Identify, measure, and use a variety of physical and chemical properties (e.g., electrical conductivity, density, viscosity, chemical reactivity, pH, melting point).

 Circuit Builder
 Density Experiment: Slice and Dice
 Density Laboratory

II.I.I.PM.4: Describe trends in properties (e.g., ionization energy or reactivity as a function of location on the periodic table, boiling point of organic liquids as a function of molecular weight).

 Electron Configuration

II.I.I.SM: Structure of Matter

II.I.I.SM.5: Understand that matter is made of atoms and that atoms are made of subatomic particles.

 Element Builder

II.I.I.SM.6: Understand atomic structure, including:

II.I.I.SM.6.a: most space occupied by electrons

 Element Builder

II.I.I.SM.6.b: nucleus made of protons and neutrons

 Element Builder

II.I.I.SM.6.c: isotopes of an element

 Element Builder

II.I.I.SM.7: Explain how electrons determine the properties of substances by:

II.I.I.SM.7.a: interactions between atoms through transferring or sharing valence electrons

 Covalent Bonds
 Electron Configuration
 Ionic Bonds

II.I.I.SM.7.b: ionic and covalent bonds

 Covalent Bonds
 Ionic Bonds

II.I.I.SM.8: Make predictions about elements using the periodic table (e.g., number of valence electrons, metallic character, reactivity, conductivity, type of bond between elements).

 Covalent Bonds
 Electron Configuration
 Ionic Bonds

II.I.I.SM.9: Understand how the type and arrangement of atoms and their bonds determine macroscopic properties (e.g., boiling point, electrical conductivity, hardness of minerals).

 Covalent Bonds
 Electron Configuration
 Ionic Bonds

II.I.I.SM.10: Know that states of matter (i.e., solid, liquid, gas) depend on the arrangement of atoms and molecules and on their freedom of motion.

 Phase Changes

II.I.I.SM.11: Know that some atomic nuclei can change, including:

II.I.I.SM.11.a: spontaneous decay

 Nuclear Decay

II.I.I.SM.11.b: half-life of isotopes

 Half-life

II.I.I.SM.11.e: alpha, beta, and gamma radiation.

 Nuclear Decay

II.I.I.CR: Chemical Reactions

II.I.I.CR.13: Understand types of chemical reactions (e.g., synthesis, decomposition, combustion, redox, neutralization) and identify them as exothermic or endothermic.

 Balancing Chemical Equations
 Chemical Changes
 Chemical Equations
 Dehydration Synthesis
 Equilibrium and Concentration
 Titration

II.I.I.CR.14: Know how to express chemical reactions with balanced equations that show:

II.I.I.CR.14.a: conservation of mass

 Balancing Chemical Equations
 Chemical Equations

II.I.I.CR.14.b: products of common reactions.

 Balancing Chemical Equations
 Chemical Equations

II.I.I.CR.15: Describe how the rate of chemical reactions depends on many factors that include temperature, concentration, and the presence of catalysts.

 Collision Theory

II.I.II: Understand the transformation and transmission of energy and how energy and matter interact.

II.I.II.ET: Energy Transformation and Transfer

II.I.II.ET.1: Identify different forms of energy, including kinetic, gravitational (potential), chemical, thermal, nuclear, and electromagnetic.

 Energy Conversion in a System
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Potential Energy on Shelves
 Roller Coaster Physics

II.I.II.ET.2: Explain how thermal energy (heat) consists of the random motion and vibrations of atoms and molecules and is measured by temperature.

 Energy Conversion in a System
 Temperature and Particle Motion

II.I.II.ET.3: Understand that energy can change from one form to another (e.g., changes in kinetic and potential energy in a gravitational field, heats of reaction, hydroelectric dams) and know that energy is conserved in these changes.

 Energy Conversion in a System
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Roller Coaster Physics

II.I.II.ET.4: Understand how heat can be transferred by conduction, convection, and radiation, and how heat conduction differs in conductors and insulators.

 Herschel Experiment

II.I.II.I: Interactions of Energy and Matter

II.I.II.I.9: Know that each kind of atom or molecule can gain or lose energy only in discrete amounts.

 Bohr Model of Hydrogen
 Bohr Model: Introduction
 Star Spectra

II.I.II.I.10: Explain how wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation can be used to identify atoms, molecules, and the composition of stars.

 Star Spectra

II.I.II.I.11: Understand the concept of equilibrium (i.e., thermal, mechanical, and chemical).

 Equilibrium and Concentration
 Equilibrium and Pressure

II.I.III: Understand the motion of objects and waves, and the forces that cause them.

II.I.III.F: Forces

II.I.III.F.1: Know that there are four fundamental forces in nature: gravitation, electromagnetism, weak nuclear force, and strong nuclear force.

 Free-Fall Laboratory
 Gravitational Force
 Pith Ball Lab

II.I.III.F.2: Know that every object exerts gravitational force on every other object, and how this force depends on the masses of the objects and the distance between them.

 Gravitational Force
 Pith Ball Lab

II.I.III.F.5: Explain how electric currents cause magnetism and how changing magnetic fields produce electricity (e.g., electric motors, generators).

 Electromagnetic Induction
 Magnetic Induction

II.I.III.F.6: Represent the magnitude and direction of forces by vector diagrams.

 Coulomb Force (Static)
 Pith Ball Lab

II.I.III.F.7: Know that when one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts a force of equal magnitude and in the opposite direction on the first object (i.e., Newton’s Third Law).

 Fan Cart Physics

II.I.III.M: Motion

II.I.III.M.8: Apply Newton's Laws to describe and analyze the behavior of moving objects, including:

II.I.III.M.8.a: displacement, velocity, and acceleration of a moving object

 Atwood Machine
 Fan Cart Physics

II.I.III.M.8.b: Newton’s Second Law, F = ma (e.g., momentum and its conservation, the motion of an object falling under gravity, the independence of a falling object’s motion on mass)

 2D Collisions
 Air Track
 Atwood Machine
 Fan Cart Physics

II.I.III.M.8.c: circular motion and centripetal force.

 Uniform Circular Motion

II.I.III.M.10: Describe wave propagation using amplitude, wavelength, frequency, and speed.

 Longitudinal Waves
 Refraction
 Ripple Tank

II.I.III.M.11: Explain how the interactions of waves can result in interference, reflection, and refraction.

 Basic Prism
 Longitudinal Waves
 Refraction
 Ripple Tank
 Sound Beats and Sine Waves

II.I.III.M.12: Describe how waves are used for practical purposes (e.g., seismic data, acoustic effects, Doppler effect).

 Doppler Shift
 Doppler Shift Advanced
 Longitudinal Waves

II.II: Understand the properties, structures, and processes of living things and the interdependence of living things and their environments.

II.II.I: Understand how the survival of species depends on biodiversity and on complex interactions, including the cycling of matter and the flow of energy.

II.II.I.EC: Ecosystems

II.II.I.EC.1: Know that an ecosystem is complex and may exhibit fluctuations around a steady state or may evolve over time.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors

II.II.I.EC.2: Describe how organisms cooperate and compete in ecosystems (e.g., producers, decomposers, herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, predator-prey, symbiosis, mutualism).

 Food Chain
 Forest Ecosystem

II.II.I.EC.3: Understand and describe how available resources limit the amount of life an ecosystem can support (e.g., energy, water, oxygen, nutrients).

 Food Chain
 Rabbit Population by Season

II.II.I.EC.4: Critically analyze how humans modify and change ecosystems (e.g., harvesting, pollution, population growth, technology).

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Coral Reefs 2 - Biotic Factors
 Pond Ecosystem

II.II.I.EF: Energy Flow in the Environment

II.II.I.EF.5: Explain how matter and energy flow through biological systems (e.g., organisms, communities, ecosystems), and how the total amount of matter and energy is conserved but some energy is always released as heat to the environment.

 Food Chain

II.II.I.EF.6: Describe how energy flows from the sun through plants to herbivores to carnivores and decomposers.

 Food Chain
 Forest Ecosystem

II.II.I.EF.7: Understand and explain the principles of photosynthesis (i.e., chloroplasts in plants convert light energy, carbon dioxide, and water into chemical energy).

 Cell Energy Cycle
 Photosynthesis Lab

II.II.I.BD: Biodiversity

II.II.I.BD.8: Understand and explain the hierarchical classification scheme (i.e., domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species), including:

II.II.I.BD.8.a: classification of an organism into a category

 Dichotomous Keys
 Human Evolution - Skull Analysis

II.II.I.BD.8.b: similarity inferred from molecular structure (DNA) closely matching classification based on anatomical similarities

 Human Evolution - Skull Analysis

II.II.I.BD.8.c: similarities of organisms reflecting evolutionary relationships.

 Human Evolution - Skull Analysis

II.II.I.BD.9: Understand variation within and among species, including:

II.II.I.BD.9.a: mutations and genetic drift

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection
 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection

II.II.I.BD.9.b: factors affecting the survival of an organism

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection

II.II.I.BD.9.c: natural selection.

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection
 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection
 Natural Selection
 Rainfall and Bird Beaks

II.II.II: Understand the genetic basis for inheritance and the basic concepts of biological evolution.

II.II.II.G: Genetics

II.II.II.G.1: Know how DNA carries all genetic information in the units of heredity called genes, including:

II.II.II.G.1.a: the structure of DNA (e.g., subunits A, G, C, T)

 Building DNA
 DNA Analysis

II.II.II.G.1.b: information-preserving replication of DNA

 Building DNA

II.II.II.G.2: Use appropriate vocabulary to describe inheritable traits (i.e., genotype, phenotype).

 Chicken Genetics
 Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

II.II.II.G.3: Explain the concepts of segregation, independent assortment, and dominant/recessive alleles.

 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

II.II.II.G.4: Identify traits that can and cannot be inherited.

 Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

II.II.II.G.5: Know how genetic variability results from the recombination and mutation of genes, including:

II.II.II.G.5.a: sorting and recombination of genes in sexual reproduction result in a change in DNA that is passed on to offspring

 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

II.II.II.G.6: Understand the principles of sexual and asexual reproduction, including meiosis and mitosis.

 Cell Division
 Pollination: Flower to Fruit

II.II.II.G.7: Know that most cells in the human body contain 23 pairs of chromosomes including one pair that determines sex, and that human females have two X chromosomes and human males have an X and a Y chromosome.

 Human Karyotyping

II.II.II.BE: Biological Evolution

II.II.II.BE.9: Critically analyze the data and observations supporting the conclusion that the species living on Earth today are related by descent from the ancestral one-celled organisms.

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection

II.II.II.BE.11: Understand that evolution is a consequence of many factors, including the ability of organisms to reproduce, genetic variability, the effect of limited resources, and natural selection.

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection
 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection
 Microevolution
 Rainfall and Bird Beaks

II.II.II.BE.12: Explain how natural selection favors individuals who are better able to survive, reproduce, and leave offspring.

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection
 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection
 Microevolution
 Natural Selection
 Rainfall and Bird Beaks

II.II.III: Understand the characteristics, structures, and functions of cells.

II.II.III.SF: Structure and Function

II.II.III.SF.1: Know that cells are made of proteins composed of combinations of amino acids.

 RNA and Protein Synthesis

II.II.III.SF.2: Know that specialized structures inside cells in most organisms carry out different functions, including:

II.II.III.SF.2.a: parts of a cell and their functions (e.g., nucleus, chromosomes, plasma, and mitochondria)

 Cell Structure
 Human Karyotyping
 Paramecium Homeostasis
 RNA and Protein Synthesis

II.II.III.SF.2.c: similarities and differences between plant and animal cells

 Cell Structure

II.II.III.SF.2.d: prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

 Cell Structure
 Paramecium Homeostasis

II.II.III.SF.3: Describe the mechanisms for cellular processes (e.g., energy production and storage, transport of molecules, waste disposal, synthesis of new molecules).

 Cell Structure
 Osmosis
 Paramecium Homeostasis
 RNA and Protein Synthesis

II.II.III.SF.4: Know how the cell membrane controls which ions and molecules enter and leave the cell based on membrane permeability and transport (i.e., osmosis, diffusion, active transport, passive transport).

 Cell Structure
 Osmosis

II.II.III.SF.6: Know that DNA directs protein building (e.g., role of RNA).

 RNA and Protein Synthesis

II.II.III.BM: Biochemical Mechanisms

II.II.III.BM.7: Describe how most cell functions involve chemical reactions, including:

II.II.III.BM.7.b: processes of respiration (e.g., energy production, ATP)

 Cell Energy Cycle
 Cell Structure

II.III: Understand the structure of Earth, the solar system, and the universe, the interconnections among them, and the processes and interactions of Earth's systems.

II.III.I: Examine the scientific theories of the origin, structure, contents, and evolution of the solar system and the universe, and their interconnections.

II.III.I.1: Understand the scale and contents of the universe, including:

II.III.I.1.b: objects in the universe such as planets, stars, galaxies, and nebulae.

 H-R Diagram

II.III.I.2: Predict changes in the positions and appearances of objects in the sky (e.g., moon, sun) based on knowledge of current positions and patterns of movements (e.g., lunar cycles, seasons).

 Moonrise, Moonset, and Phases
 Seasons Around the World
 Seasons in 3D

II.III.I.5: Explain how objects in the universe emit different electromagnetic radiation and how this information is used.

 Star Spectra

II.III.I.6: Describe how stars are powered by nuclear fusion, how luminosity and temperature indicate their age, and how stellar processes create heavier and stable elements that are found throughout the universe.

 H-R Diagram

II.III.II: Examine the scientific theories of the origin, structure, energy, and evolution of Earth and its atmosphere, and their interconnections.

II.III.II.EE: Characteristics and Evolution of Earth

II.III.II.EE.3: Describe the internal structure of Earth (e.g., core, mantle, crust) and the structure of Earth’s plates.

 Plate Tectonics

II.III.II.EE.4: Understand the changes in Earth's past and the investigative methods used to determine geologic time, including:

II.III.II.EE.4.a: rock sequences, relative dating, fossil correlation, and radiometric dating

 Half-life

II.III.II.EE.5: Explain plate tectonic theory and understand the evidence that supports it.

 Plate Tectonics

II.III.II.ES: Energy in Earth's System

II.III.II.ES.7: Describe convection as the mechanism for moving heat energy from deep within Earth to the surface and discuss how this process results in plate tectonics, including:

II.III.II.ES.7.a: geological manifestations (e.g., earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain building) that occur at plate boundaries

 Plate Tectonics

II.III.II.ES.8: Describe the patterns and relationships in the circulation of air and water driven by the sun's radiant energy, including:

II.III.II.ES.8.c: global climate, global warming, and the greenhouse effect

 Carbon Cycle
 Greenhouse Effect

II.III.II.ES.8.d: El Niño, La Niña, and other climatic trends.

 Coastal Winds and Clouds
 Hurricane Motion
 Weather Maps

II.III.II.GC: Geochemical Cycles

II.III.II.GC.9: Know that Earth’s system contains a fixed amount of natural resources that cycle among land, water, the atmosphere, and living things (e.g., carbon and nitrogen cycles, rock cycle, water cycle, ground water, aquifers).

 Carbon Cycle
 Cell Energy Cycle
 Porosity

II.III.II.GC.10a: the major rock types (i.e., sedimentary, igneous, metamorphic) and their formation

 Rock Classification

II.III.II.GC.12: Explain how the availability of ground water through aquifers can fluctuate based on multiple factors (i.e., rate of use, rate of replenishment, surface changes, and changes in temperature).

 Porosity

Correlation last revised: 4/4/2018

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this state's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.