8.1: Matter and Energy Interact in the Physical World
8.1.1: Develop a model to describe the scale and proportion of atoms and molecules. Emphasize developing atomic models of elements and their numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons, as well as models of simple molecules. Topics like valence electrons, bond energy, ionic complexes, ions, and isotopes will be introduced at the high school level.
8.1.5: Develop a model that uses computational thinking to illustrate cause and effect relationships in particle motion, temperature, density, and state of a pure substance when heat energy is added or removed. Emphasize molecular-level models of solids, liquids, and gases to show how adding or removing heat energy can result in phase changes, and focus on calculating the density of a substance’s state.
8.1.6: Develop a model to describe how the total number of atoms does not change in a chemical reaction, indicating that matter is conserved. Emphasize demonstrations of an understanding of the law of conservation of matter. Balancing equations and stoichiometry will be learned at the high school level.
Balancing Chemical Equations
8.2: Energy is Stored and Transferred in Physical Systems
8.2.1: Use computational thinking to analyze data about the relationship between the mass and speed of objects and the relative amount of kinetic energy of the objects. Emphasis should be on the quantity of mass and relative speed to the observable effects of the kinetic energy. Examples could include a full cart vs. an empty cart or rolling spheres with different masses down a ramp to measure the effects on stationary masses. Calculations of kinetic and potential energy will be learned at the high school level.
Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
8.2.2: Ask questions about how the amount of potential energy varies as distance within the system changes. Plan and conduct an investigation to answer a question about potential energy. Emphasize comparing relative amounts of energy. Examples could include a full cart vs. an empty cart or rolling spheres with different masses down a ramp to measure the effects on stationary masses. Calculations of kinetic and potential energy will be learned at the high school level.
Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
8.2.4: Use computational thinking to describe a simple model for waves that shows the pattern of wave amplitude being related to wave energy. Emphasize describing waves with both quantitative and qualitative thinking. Examples could include using graphs, charts, computer simulations, or physical models to demonstrate amplitude and energy correlation.
8.3: Life Systems Store and Transfer Matter and Energy
8.3.1: Plan and conduct an investigation and use the evidence to construct an explanation of how photosynthetic organisms use energy to transform matter. Emphasize molecular and energy transformations during photosynthesis.
8.3.2: Develop a model to describe how food is changed through chemical reactions to form new molecules that support growth and/or release energy as matter cycles through an organism. Emphasis is on describing that during cellular respiration molecules are broken apart and rearranged into new molecules, and that this process releases energy.
Cell Energy Cycle
8.4: Interactions with Natural Systems and Resources
8.4.5: Analyze and interpret patterns of the occurrence of natural hazards to forecast future catastrophic events, and investigate how data are used to develop technologies to mitigate their effects. Emphasize how some natural hazards, such as volcanic eruptions and severe weather, are preceded by phenomena that allow prediction, but others, such as earthquakes, may occur without warning.
Correlation last revised: 9/24/2019