12.3.1: develop an understanding of the structure of the atom.
12.3.1.A: Investigate and describe the structure of atoms, focusing on properties of subatomic particles.
12.3.1.B: Investigate and explain the types of nuclear reactions.
12.3.2: develop an understanding of the structure and properties of matter.
12.3.2.A: Investigate and understand that atoms interact with one another by transferring or sharing electrons.
12.3.2.B: Investigate and explain the periodic table of elements in terms of repeating patterns of physical and chemical properties.
12.3.2.D: Investigate and explain how the interactions among the molecules of a compound determine its physical and chemical properties.
12.3.2.E: Investigate and use changes in energy to explain the differences among the states of matter.
12.3.2.F: Investigate and describe the bonding of carbon atoms in chains and rings to produce compounds essential to life.
12.3.3: develop an understanding of chemical reactions.
12.3.3.C: Investigate and describe how electrons are involved in bond formation during chemical reactions.
12.3.3.D: Investigate and describe the factors influencing the rates of chemical reactions, including catalysts.
12.3.4: develop an understanding of motions and forces.
12.3.4.A: Investigate and understand the effect of forces on the motion of objects.
12.3.4.B: Investigate and understand gravity as an attractive force that each mass exerts on any other mass.
12.3.5: develop an understanding of the conservation of energy and increase in disorder.
12.3.5.A: Understand that the total energy in the universe is constant and can never be destroyed.
12.3.5.B: Investigate and distinguish between kinetic energy and potential energy.
12.3.5.C: Investigate and describe heat transfer in terms of conduction, convection, and radiation.
12.3.6: develop an understanding of the interactions of energy and matter.
12.3.6.A: Investigate and understand that all waves possess and transfer energy.
12.3.6.B: Understand that electromagnetic waves result when a charged object accelerates.
12.3.6.C: Investigate and illustrate how wavelength and frequency of waves are inversely related.
12.3.6.D: Investigate and understand that the energy of waves can be changed into other forms of energy, just as other forms of energy can be transformed into wave energy.
12.3.6.E: Investigate and understand that atoms or molecules can be identified by spectral analysis.
12.3.6.F: Investigate and describe how the composition and temperature of a material affect electron flow.
12.4.1: develop an understanding of the cell.
12.4.1.A: Investigate and describe the form and function of subcellular structures that regulate cell activities.
12.4.1.B: Investigate and describe cell functions (e.g., photosynthesis, respiration, cell division).
12.4.2: develop an understanding of the molecular basis of heredity.
12.4.2.B: Investigate and understand that genetic variation occurs when genetic information is transmitted during sexual reproduction.
12.4.2.C: Investigate and explain how some mutations could help, harm or have no effect on individual organisms.
12.4.2.D: Investigate and explain how mutations in sex cells, but not in body cells, could be passed on to offspring.
12.4.3: develop an understanding of the theory of biological evolution.
12.4.3.A: Understand that the concept of biological evolution is a theory which explains the consequence of the interactions of:
12.4.3.A.1: the potential for a species to increase its numbers:
12.4.3.A.2: the genetic variability of offspring due to mutation and recombination of genes:
12.4.3.A.3: a finite supply of the resources of life;
12.4.3.A.4: the ensuing selection by the environment of those offspring better able to survive and leave offspring.
12.4.3.B: Investigate and use the theory of biological evolution to explain diversity of life.
12.4.3.C: Investigate whether natural selection provides a scientific explanation of the fossil record and the molecular similarities among the diverse species of living organisms.
12.4.4: develop an understanding of the interdependence of organisms.
12.4.4.B: Investigate and describe the flow of energy through ecosystems, in one direction, from producers to herbivores to carnivores and decomposers.
12.4.4.D: Investigate and understand that interactions among organisms are affected by the conflict between an organism’s capacity to produce infinite populations and the finite amount of resources.
12.4.4.E: Investigate and describe how humans modify the ecosystem as a result of population growth, technology, and consumption.
12.4.5: develop an understanding of matter, energy, and organization in living systems.
12.4.5.B: Investigate and understand that producers use solar energy to combine molecules of carbon dioxide and water into organic compounds.
12.4.5.C: Investigate and explain how distribution and abundance of different organisms in ecosystems are limited by the availability of matter and energy and the ability of the ecosystem to recycle materials.
12.4.6: develop an understanding of the behavior of organisms.
12.4.6.B: Investigate and describe how organisms respond to internal changes and external stimuli.
12.4.6.C: Investigate and explain how the behavioral patterns of organisms have evolved through natural selection.
12.5.1: develop an understanding of energy in the earth system.
12.5.1.A: Distinguish between internal sources of energy, (e.g., radioactive decay and gravitational energy) and external sources of energy (e.g., the sun) and explaining how both provide energy to the earth systems.
12.5.2: develop an understanding of geochemical cycles.
12.5.2.A: Investigate and diagram how elements and compounds on earth move among reservoirs in the solid earth, oceans, atmosphere, and organisms as part of geochemical cycles.
12.5.3: develop a scientific understanding of the origin of the earth system.
12.5.3.B: Investigate and estimate geologic time by observing rock sequences and using fossils to correlate the sequences at various locations.
12.5.4: develop a scientific understanding of the origin of the universe.
12.5.4.C: Describe the life cycle of a star.
Correlation last revised: 11/13/2008