B2: Students describe the general structure and function of cells. They can explain that all living systems are composed of cells and that organisms may be unicellular or multicellular. They understand that cells are composed of biological macromolecules and that the complex processes of the cell allow it to maintain a stable internal environment necessary to maintain life. They make predictions based on these understandings.

B2.p1C: Describe growth and development in terms of increase in cell number, cell size, and/or cell products. (prerequisite)

 Cell Division

B2.p1D: Explain how the systems in a multicellular organism work together to support the organism. (prerequisite)

 Circulatory System
 Digestive System

B2.p1E: Compare and contrast how different organisms accomplish similar functions (e.g., obtain oxygen for respiration, and excrete waste). (prerequisite)

 Cell Energy Cycle
 Dichotomous Keys
 Pollination: Flower to Fruit

B2.p2A: Describe how organisms sustain life by obtaining, transporting, transforming, releasing, and eliminating matter and energy. (prerequisite)

 Cell Structure
 Osmosis
 Paramecium Homeostasis

B2.p4A: Classify different organisms based on how they obtain energy for growth and development. (prerequisite)

 Food Chain
 Forest Ecosystem

B2.p4B: Explain how an organism obtains energy from the food it consumes. (prerequisite)

 Food Chain

B2.p5B: Identify the most common complex molecules that make up living organisms. (prerequisite)

 RNA and Protein Synthesis

B2.1A: Explain how cells transform energy (ultimately obtained from the sun) from one form to another through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Identify the reactants and products in the general reaction of photosynthesis.

 Cell Energy Cycle
 Photosynthesis Lab

B2.1B: Compare and contrast the transformation of matter and energy during photosynthesis and respiration.

 Cell Energy Cycle

B2.1C: Explain cell division, growth, and development as a consequence of an increase in cell number, cell size, and/or cell products.

 Cell Division

B2.2D: Explain the general structure and primary functions of the major complex organic molecules that compose living organisms.

 RNA and Protein Synthesis

B2.2E: Describe how dehydration and hydrolysis relate to organic molecules.

 Dehydration Synthesis

B2.2f: Explain the role of enzymes and other proteins in biochemical functions (e.g., the protein hemoglobin carries oxygen in some organisms, digestive enzymes, and hormones).

 Digestive System

B2.2g: Propose how moving an organism to a new environment may influence its ability to survive and predict the possible impact of this type of transfer.

 Natural Selection
 Rabbit Population by Season
 Rainfall and Bird Beaks

B2.3A: Describe how cells function in a narrow range of physical conditions, such as temperature and pH (acidity), to perform life functions.

 Paramecium Homeostasis

B2.3d: Identify the general functions of the major systems of the human body (digestion, respiration, reproduction, circulation, excretion, protection from disease, and movement, control, and coordination) and describe ways that these systems interact with each other.

 Circulatory System
 Digestive System

B2.3e: Describe how human body systems maintain relatively constant internal conditions (temperature, acidity, and blood sugar).

 Circulatory System
 Digestive System
 Human Homeostasis

B2.3f: Explain how human organ systems help maintain human health.

 Circulatory System
 Digestive System

B2.4A: Explain that living things can be classified based on structural, embryological, and molecular (relatedness of DNA sequence) evidence.

 Dichotomous Keys
 Human Evolution - Skull Analysis

B2.4B: Describe how various organisms have developed different specializations to accomplish a particular function and yet the end result is the same (e.g., excreting nitrogenous wastes in animals, obtaining oxygen for respiration).

 Cell Energy Cycle

B2.4e: Explain how cellular respiration is important for the production of ATP (build on aerobic vs. anaerobic).

 Cell Energy Cycle

B2.4g: Explain that some structures in the modern eukaryotic cell developed from early prokaryotes, such as mitochondria, and in plants, chloroplasts.

 Cell Energy Cycle
 Cell Structure

B2.4h: Describe the structures of viruses and bacteria.

 Virus Lytic Cycle

B2.5B: Explain how major systems and processes work together in animals and plants, including relationships between organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms. Relate these to molecular functions.

 Circulatory System

B2.5C: Describe how energy is transferred and transformed from the Sun to energy-rich molecules during photosynthesis.

 Cell Energy Cycle
 Photosynthesis Lab

B2.5e: Explain the interrelated nature of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of ATP synthesis and degradation.

 Cell Energy Cycle

B2.5f: Relate plant structures and functions to the process of photosynthesis and respiration.

 Cell Energy Cycle
 Photosynthesis Lab

B2.5g: Compare and contrast plant and animal cells.

 Cell Structure

B2.5h: Explain the role of cell membranes as a highly selective barrier (diffusion, osmosis, and active transport).

 Cell Structure
 Osmosis

B2.5i: Relate cell parts/organelles to their function.

 Cell Structure
 Paramecium Homeostasis
 RNA and Protein Synthesis

B2.6a: Explain that the regulatory and behavioral responses of an organism to external stimuli occur in order to maintain both short- and long-term equilibrium.

 Human Homeostasis

B2.r6d: Explain how higher levels of organization result from specific complex interactions of smaller units and that their maintenance requires a constant input of energy as well as new material. (recommended)

 Cell Structure

B2.r6e: Analyze the body's response to medical interventions such as organ transplants, medicines, and inoculations. (recommended)

 Human Karyotyping

B3: Students describe the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration and how energy is transferred through food webs. They recognize and analyze the consequences of the dependence of organisms on environmental resources and the interdependence of organisms in ecosystems.

B3.p1A: Provide examples of a population, community, and ecosystem. (prerequisite)

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Food Chain
 Rabbit Population by Season

B3.p2A: Describe common relationships among organisms and provide examples of producer/consumer, predator/ prey, or parasite/host relationship. (prerequisite)

 Food Chain
 Forest Ecosystem
 Prairie Ecosystem

B3.p2B: Describe common ecological relationships between and among species and their environments (competition, territory, carrying capacity, natural balance, population, dependence, survival, and other biotic and abiotic factors). (prerequisite)

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Food Chain
 Natural Selection
 Pond Ecosystem
 Prairie Ecosystem

B3.p2C: Describe the role of decomposers in the transfer of energy in an ecosystem. (prerequisite)

 Forest Ecosystem

B3.p3A: Identify the factors in an ecosystem that influence fluctuations in population size. (prerequisite)

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Food Chain
 Pond Ecosystem
 Rabbit Population by Season

B3.p3B: Distinguish between the living (biotic) and nonliving (abiotic) components of an ecosystem. (prerequisite)

 Pond Ecosystem

B3.p3C: Explain how biotic and abiotic factors cycle in an ecosystem (water, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen). (prerequisite)

 Cell Energy Cycle
 Pond Ecosystem

B3.p3D: Predict how changes in one population might affect other populations based upon their relationships in a food web. (prerequisite)

 Forest Ecosystem

B3.p4A: Recognize that, and describe how, human beings are part of Earth's ecosystems. Note that human activities can deliberately or inadvertently alter the equilibrium in ecosystems. (prerequisite)

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Coral Reefs 2 - Biotic Factors
 Pond Ecosystem

B3.1B: Illustrate and describe the energy conversions that occur during photosynthesis and respiration.

 Cell Energy Cycle
 Photosynthesis Lab

B3.1C: Recognize the equations for photosynthesis and respiration and identify the reactants and products for both.

 Cell Energy Cycle
 Photosynthesis Lab

B3.1e: Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis and cellular respiration and explain in words what they mean.

 Cell Energy Cycle
 Photosynthesis Lab

B3.1f: Summarize the process of photosynthesis.

 Cell Energy Cycle
 Photosynthesis Lab
 Pond Ecosystem

B3.2B: Describe energy transfer through an ecosystem, accounting for energy lost to the environment as heat.

 Food Chain

B3.2C: Draw the flow of energy through an ecosystem. Predict changes in the food web when one or more organisms are removed.

 Food Chain
 Forest Ecosystem

B3.3A: Use a food web to identify and distinguish producers, consumers, and decomposers and explain the transfer of energy through trophic levels.

 Forest Ecosystem
 Prairie Ecosystem

B3.4C: Examine the negative impact of human activities.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Coral Reefs 2 - Biotic Factors
 Pond Ecosystem

B3.4d: Describe the greenhouse effect and list possible causes.

 Carbon Cycle
 Greenhouse Effect

B3.4e: List the possible causes and consequences of global warming.

 Carbon Cycle
 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Greenhouse Effect

B3.5e: Recognize that and describe how the physical or chemical environment may influence the rate, extent, and nature of population dynamics within ecosystems.

 Food Chain
 Rabbit Population by Season

B3.5f: Graph an example of exponential growth. Then show the population leveling off at the carrying capacity of the environment.

 Food Chain
 Prairie Ecosystem
 Rabbit Population by Season

B4: Students recognize that the specific genetic instructions for any organism are contained within genes composed of DNA molecules located in chromosomes. They explain the mechanism for the direct production of specific proteins based on inherited DNA. Students diagram how occasional modifications in genes and the random distribution of genes from each parent provide genetic variation and become the raw material for evolution. Content Statements, Performances, and Boundaries

B4.p2A: Explain that the traits of an individual are influenced by both the environment and the genetics of the individual. Acquired traits are not inherited; only genetic traits are inherited. (prerequisite)

 Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
 Inheritance
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

B4.1B: Explain that the information passed from parents to offspring is transmitted by means of genes that are coded in DNA molecules. These genes contain the information for the production of proteins.

 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)
 RNA and Protein Synthesis

B4.1c: Differentiate between dominant, recessive, codominant, polygenic, and sex-linked traits.

 Chicken Genetics
 Inheritance
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

B4.1d: Explain the genetic basis for Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment.

 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)

B4.1e: Determine the genotype and phenotype of monohybrid crosses using a Punnett Square.

 Chicken Genetics
 Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

B4.2C: Describe the structure and function of DNA.

 Building DNA

B4.2E: Propose possible effects (on the genes) of exposing an organism to radiation and toxic chemicals.

 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection

B4.2f: Demonstrate how the genetic information in DNA molecules provides instructions for assembling protein molecules and that this is virtually the same mechanism for all life forms.

 RNA and Protein Synthesis

B4.2g: Describe the processes of replication, transcription, and translation and how they relate to each other in molecular biology.

 RNA and Protein Synthesis

B4.3C: Explain how it might be possible to identify genetic defects from just a karyotype of a few cells.

 Human Karyotyping
 Evolution: Mutation and Selection

B4.3f: Predict how mutations may be transferred to progeny.

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection
 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection

B4.4a: Describe how inserting, deleting, or substituting DNA segments can alter a gene. Recognize that an altered gene may be passed on to every cell that develops from it and that the resulting features may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring's success in its environment.

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection
 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection

B4.4c: Explain how mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may be silent or result in phenotypic change in an organism and in its offspring.

 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection

B5: Students recognize that evolution is the result of genetic changes that occur in constantly changing environments. They can explain that modern evolution includes both the concepts of common descent and natural selection. They illustrate how the consequences of natural selection and differential reproduction have led to the great biodiversity on Earth.

B5.p1B: Define a population and identify local populations. (prerequisite)

 Food Chain
 Rabbit Population by Season

B5.p1D: Explain the importance of the fossil record. (prerequisite)

 Human Evolution - Skull Analysis

B5.p2A: Explain, with examples, that ecology studies the varieties and interactions of living things across space while evolution studies the varieties and interactions of living things across time. (prerequisite)

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Evolution: Mutation and Selection

B5.1A: Summarize the major concepts of natural selection (differential survival and reproduction of chance inherited variants, depending on environmental conditions).

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection
 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection
 Inheritance
 Microevolution
 Natural Selection
 Rainfall and Bird Beaks

B5.1B: Describe how natural selection provides a mechanism for evolution.

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection
 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection
 Microevolution
 Rainfall and Bird Beaks

B5.1c: Summarize the relationships between present-day organisms and those that inhabited the Earth in the past (e.g., use fossil record, embryonic stages, homologous structures, chemical basis).

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection
 Human Evolution - Skull Analysis

B5.1d: Explain how a new species or variety originates through the evolutionary process of natural selection.

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection

B5.1e: Explain how natural selection leads to organisms that are well suited for the environment (differential survival and reproduction of chance inherited variants, depending upon environmental conditions).

 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection
 Inheritance
 Rainfall and Bird Beaks

B5.1f: Explain, using examples, how the fossil record, comparative anatomy, and other evidence supports the theory of evolution.

 Human Evolution - Skull Analysis

B5.1g: Illustrate how genetic variation is preserved or eliminated from a population through natural selection (evolution) resulting in biodiversity.

 Rainfall and Bird Beaks

B5.2a: Describe species as reproductively distinct groups of organisms that can be classified based on morphological, behavioral, and molecular similarities.

 Dichotomous Keys
 Human Evolution - Skull Analysis

B5.2b: Explain that the degree of kinship between organisms or species can be estimated from the similarity of their DNA and protein sequences.

 RNA and Protein Synthesis

B5.3A: Explain how natural selection acts on individuals, but it is populations that evolve. Relate genetic mutations and genetic variety produced by sexual reproduction to diversity within a given population.

 Microevolution
 Rainfall and Bird Beaks

B5.3d: Explain how evolution through natural selection can result in changes in biodiversity.

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection
 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection
 Rainfall and Bird Beaks

B5.3e: Explain how changes at the gene level are the foundation for changes in populations and eventually the formation of new species.

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection

C1: Students will understand the nature of science and demonstrate an ability to practice scientific reasoning by applying it to the design, execution, and evaluation of scientific investigations. Students will demonstrate their understanding that scientific knowledge is gathered through various forms of direct and indirect observations and the testing of this information by methods including, but not limited to, experimentation. They will be able to distinguish between types of scientific knowledge (e.g., hypotheses, laws, theories) and become aware of areas of active research in contrast to conclusions that are part of established scientific consensus. They will use their scientific knowledge to assess the costs, risks, and benefits of technological systems as they make personal choices and participate in public policy decisions. These insights will help them analyze the role science plays in society, technology, and potential career opportunities.

C1.1A: Generate new questions that can be investigated in the laboratory or field.

 Hearing: Frequency and Volume
 Pendulum Clock
 Sight vs. Sound Reactions

C1.1B: Evaluate the uncertainties or validity of scientific conclusions using an understanding of sources of measurement error, the challenges of controlling variables, accuracy of data analysis, logic of argument, logic of experimental design, and/or the dependence on underlying assumptions.

 Coral Reefs 2 - Biotic Factors
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Pendulum Clock
 Real-Time Histogram

C1.1C: Conduct scientific investigations using appropriate tools and techniques (e.g., selecting an instrument that measures the desired quantity-length, volume, weight, time interval, temperature-with the appropriate level of precision).

 Diffusion
 Hearing: Frequency and Volume

C1.1D: Identify patterns in data and relate them to theoretical models.

 Pendulum Clock

C1.1E: Describe a reason for a given conclusion using evidence from an investigation.

 Diffusion

C1.1f: Predict what would happen if the variables, methods, or timing of an investigation were changed.

 Diffusion
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Effect of Temperature on Gender
 Hearing: Frequency and Volume
 Pendulum Clock
 Seed Germination
 Sight vs. Sound Reactions

C1.1h: Design and conduct a systematic scientific investigation that tests a hypothesis. Draw conclusions from data presented in charts or tables.

 Diffusion
 Earthquakes 1 - Recording Station
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Effect of Temperature on Gender
 Pendulum Clock
 Real-Time Histogram
 Sight vs. Sound Reactions
 Time Estimation

C1.2A: Critique whether or not specific questions can be answered through scientific investigations.

 Diffusion
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Hearing: Frequency and Volume
 Pendulum Clock

C1.2h: Describe the distinctions between scientific theories, laws, hypotheses, and observations.

 Effect of Temperature on Gender

C1.2j: Apply science principles or scientific data to anticipate effects of technological design decisions.

 Pendulum Clock
 Trebuchet

C2: Students recognize the many forms of energy and understand that energy is central to predicting and explaining how and why chemical reactions occur. The chemical topics of bonding, gas behavior, kinetics, enthalpy, entropy, free energy, and nuclear stability are addressed in this standard. Chemistry students relate temperature to the average kinetic energy of the molecules and use the kinetic molecular theory to describe and explain the behavior of gases and the rates of chemical reactions. They understand nuclear stability in terms of reaching a state of minimum potential energy.

C2.p1A: Describe energy changes associated with changes of state in terms of the arrangement and order of the atoms (molecules) in each state. (prerequisite)

 Phase Changes

C2.p1B: Use the positions and arrangements of atoms and molecules in solid, liquid, and gas state to explain the need for an input of energy for melting and boiling and a release of energy in condensation and freezing. (prerequisite)

 Phase Changes

C2.1c: Compare qualitatively the energy changes associated with melting various types of solids in terms of the types of forces between the particles in the solid.

 Phase Changes

C2.2B: Describe the various states of matter in terms of the motion and arrangement of the molecules (atoms) making up the substance.

 Phase Changes

C2.2c: Explain changes in pressure, volume, and temperature for gases using the kinetic molecular model.

 Temperature and Particle Motion

C2.2d: Explain convection and the difference in transfer of thermal energy for solids, liquids, and gases using evidence that molecules are in constant motion.

 Conduction and Convection
 Heat Transfer by Conduction

C2.3a: Explain how the rate of a given chemical reaction is dependent on the temperature and the activation energy.

 Collision Theory

C2.4a: Describe energy changes in flame tests of common elements in terms of the (characteristic) electron transitions.

 Bohr Model of Hydrogen
 Bohr Model: Introduction
 Star Spectra

C2.4b: Contrast the mechanism of energy changes and the appearance of absorption and emission spectra.

 Bohr Model of Hydrogen
 Bohr Model: Introduction
 Star Spectra

C2.4d: Compare various wavelengths of light (visible and nonvisible) in terms of frequency and relative energy.

 Heat Absorption
 Herschel Experiment
 Radiation

C2.5a: Determine the age of materials using the ratio of stable and unstable isotopes of a particular type.

 Half-life

C3: Students apply the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics to explain and predict most chemical phenomena. Chemistry students use the term enthalpy to describe the transfer of energy between reactants and products in simple calorimetry experiments performed in class and will recognize Hess's Law as an application of the conservation of energy. Students understand the tremendous energy released in nuclear reactions is a result of small amounts of matter being converted to energy.

C3.p2A: Trace (or diagram) energy transfers involving various types of energy including nuclear, chemical, electrical, sound, and light. (prerequisite)

 Heat Absorption
 Radiation

C3.3A: Describe how heat is conducted in a solid.

 Conduction and Convection
 Heat Transfer by Conduction

C3.3B: Describe melting on a molecular level.

 Phase Changes

C3.4A: Use the terms endothermic and exothermic correctly to describe chemical reactions in the laboratory.

 Chemical Changes

C3.4B: Explain why chemical reactions will either release or absorb energy.

 Chemical Changes

C4: Compounds, elements, and mixtures are categories used to organize matter. Students organize materials into these categories based on their chemical and physical behavior. Students understand the structure of the atom to make predictions about the physical and chemical properties of various elements and the types of compounds those elements will form. An understanding of the organization the Periodic Table in terms of the outer electron configuration is one of the most important tools for the chemist and student to use in prediction and explanation of the structure and behavior of atoms.

C4.p1A: For a substance that can exist in all three phases, describe the relative motion of the particles in each of the phases. (prerequisite)

 Phase Changes

C4.p1B: For a substance that can exist in all three phases, make a drawing that shows the arrangement and relative spacing of the particles in each of the phases. (prerequisite)

 Phase Changes

C4.p1C: For a simple compound, present a drawing that shows the number of particles in the system does not change as a result of a phase change. (prerequisite)

 Phase Changes

C4.p2A: Distinguish between an element, compound, or mixture based on drawings or formulae. (prerequisite)

 Chemical Equations

C4.1c: Use the empirical formula and molecular weight of a compound to determine the molecular formula.

 Chemical Equations
 Stoichiometry

C4.2A: Name simple binary compounds using their formulae.

 Chemical Equations

C4.2B: Given the name, write the formula of simple binary compounds.

 Chemical Equations

C4.2c: Given a formula, name the compound.

 Chemical Equations

C4.3e: Predict whether the forces of attraction in a solid are primarily metallic, covalent, network covalent, or ionic based upon the elements' location on the periodic table.

 Covalent Bonds
 Ionic Bonds

C4.4a: Explain why at room temperature different compounds can exist in different phases.

 Phase Changes

C4.6a: Calculate the number of moles of any compound or element given the mass of the substance.

 Chemical Equations

C4.7a: Investigate the difference in the boiling point or freezing point of pure water and a salt solution.

 Freezing Point of Salt Water

C4.8A: Identify the location, relative mass, and charge for electrons, protons, and neutrons.

 Element Builder

C4.8B: Describe the atom as mostly empty space with an extremely small, dense nucleus consisting of the protons and neutrons and an electron cloud surrounding the nucleus.

 Element Builder

C4.8D: Give the number of electrons and protons present if the fluoride ion has a -1 charge.

 Element Builder

C4.8e: Write the complete electron configuration of elements in the first four rows of the periodic table.

 Electron Configuration

C4.8f: Write kernel structures for main group elements.

 Electron Configuration

C4.8g: Predict oxidation states and bonding capacity for main group elements using their electron structure.

 Covalent Bonds
 Electron Configuration
 Ionic Bonds

C4.8h: Describe the shape and orientation of s and p orbitals.

 Electron Configuration

C4.9A: Identify elements with similar chemical and physical properties using the periodic table.

 Electron Configuration

C4.9c: Predict general trends in atomic radius, first ionization energy, and electronegativity of the elements using the periodic table.

 Electron Configuration

C4.10A: List the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons for any given ion or isotope.

 Element Builder

C4.10B: Recognize that an element always contains the same number of protons.

 Element Builder

C4.10c: Calculate the average atomic mass of an element given the percent abundance and mass of the individual isotopes.

 Element Builder

C4.10e: Write the symbol for an isotope, X Z A , where Z is the atomic number, A is the mass number, and X is the symbol for the element.

 Element Builder

C5: Students will analyze a chemical change phenomenon from the point of view of what is the same and what is not the same.

C5.r1a: Predict how the rate of a chemical reaction will be influenced by changes in concentration, and temperature, pressure. (recommended)

 Collision Theory

C5.r1b: Explain how the rate of a reaction will depend on concentration, temperature, pressure, and nature of reactant. (recommended)

 Collision Theory

C5.2A: Balance simple chemical equations applying the conservation of matter.

 Balancing Chemical Equations
 Chemical Equations

C5.2C: Draw pictures to distinguish the relationships between atoms in physical and chemical changes.

 Chemical Changes

C5.2d: Calculate the mass of a particular compound formed from the masses of starting materials.

 Chemical Equations

C5.2e: Identify the limiting reagent when given the masses of more than one reactant.

 Limiting Reactants

C5.3a: Describe equilibrium shifts in a chemical system caused by changing conditions (Le Chatelier's Principle).

 Equilibrium and Concentration
 Equilibrium and Pressure

C5.3b: Predict shifts in a chemical system caused by changing conditions (Le Chatelier's Principle).

 Equilibrium and Concentration
 Equilibrium and Pressure

C5.3c: Predict the extent reactants are converted to products using the value of the equilibrium constant.

 Equilibrium and Concentration
 Equilibrium and Pressure

C5.4A: Compare the energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of aluminum and one gram of water the same number of degrees.

 Calorimetry Lab

C5.5A: Predict if the bonding between two atoms of different elements will be primarily ionic or covalent.

 Covalent Bonds
 Ionic Bonds

C5.4B: Measure, plot, and interpret the graph of the temperature versus time of an ice-water mixture, under slow heating, through melting and boiling.

 Chemical Equations

C5.5c: Draw Lewis structures for simple compounds.

 Covalent Bonds
 Ionic Bonds

C5.6b: Predict single replacement reactions.

 Balancing Chemical Equations
 Chemical Equations
 Equilibrium and Concentration

C5.7C: Describe tests that can be used to distinguish an acid from a base.

 Mystery Powder Analysis
 Titration
 pH Analysis
 pH Analysis: Quad Color Indicator

C5.7D: Classify various solutions as acidic or basic, given their pH.

 pH Analysis
 pH Analysis: Quad Color Indicator

E1: Students will understand the nature of science and demonstrate an ability to practice scientific reasoning by applying it to the design, execution, and evaluation of scientific investigations. Students will demonstrate their understanding that scientific knowledge is gathered through various forms of direct and indirect observations and the testing of this information by methods including, but not limited to, experimentation. They will be able to distinguish between types of scientific knowledge (e.g., hypotheses, laws, theories) and become aware of areas of active research in contrast to conclusions that are part of established scientific consensus. They will use their scientific knowledge to assess the costs, risks, and benefits of technological systems as they make personal choices and participate in public policy decisions. These insights will help them analyze the role science plays in society, technology, and potential career opportunities.

E1.1A: Generate new questions that can be investigated in the laboratory or field.

 Hearing: Frequency and Volume
 Pendulum Clock
 Sight vs. Sound Reactions

E1.1B: Evaluate the uncertainties or validity of scientific conclusions using an understanding of sources of measurement error, the challenges of controlling variables, accuracy of data analysis, logic of argument, logic of experimental design, and/or the dependence on underlying assumptions.

 Coral Reefs 2 - Biotic Factors
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Pendulum Clock
 Real-Time Histogram

E1.1C: Conduct scientific investigations using appropriate tools and techniques (e.g., selecting an instrument that measures the desired quantity-length, volume, weight, time interval, temperature-with the appropriate level of precision).

 Diffusion
 Hearing: Frequency and Volume

E1.1D: Identify patterns in data and relate them to theoretical models.

 Pendulum Clock

E1.1E: Describe a reason for a given conclusion using evidence from an investigation.

 Diffusion

E1.1f: Predict what would happen if the variables, methods, or timing of an investigation were changed.

 Diffusion
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Effect of Temperature on Gender
 Hearing: Frequency and Volume
 Pendulum Clock
 Seed Germination
 Sight vs. Sound Reactions

E1.1h: Design and conduct a systematic scientific investigation that tests a hypothesis. Draw conclusions from data presented in charts or tables.

 Diffusion
 Earthquakes 1 - Recording Station
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Effect of Temperature on Gender
 Pendulum Clock
 Real-Time Histogram
 Sight vs. Sound Reactions
 Time Estimation

E1.2A: Critique whether or not specific questions can be answered through scientific investigations.

 Diffusion
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Hearing: Frequency and Volume
 Pendulum Clock

E1.2h: Describe the distinctions between scientific theories, laws, hypotheses, and observations.

 Effect of Temperature on Gender

E1.2j: Apply science principles or scientific data to anticipate effects of technological design decisions.

 Pendulum Clock
 Trebuchet

E2: Students describe the interactions within and between Earth systems. Students will explain how both fluids (water cycle) and solids (rock cycle) move within Earth systems and how these movements form and change their environment. They will describe the relationship between physical process and human activities and use this understanding to demonstrate an ability to make wise decisions about land use.

E2.1B: Analyze the interactions between the major systems (geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere) that make up the Earth.

 Carbon Cycle

E2.1C: Explain, using specific examples, how a change in one system affects other Earth systems.

 Cell Energy Cycle

E2.2C: Describe natural processes in which heat transfer in the Earth occurs by conduction, convection, and radiation.

 Conduction and Convection
 Heat Absorption
 Heat Transfer by Conduction
 Herschel Experiment
 Radiation

E2.2f: Explain how elements exist in different compounds and states as they move from one reservoir to another.

 Cell Energy Cycle

E2.4B: Explain how the impact of human activities on the environment (e.g., deforestation, air pollution, coral reef destruction) can be understood through the analysis of interactions between the four Earth systems.

 Carbon Cycle
 Coral Reefs 2 - Biotic Factors

E3: Students explain how scientists study and model the interior of the Earth and its dynamic nature. They use the theory of plate tectonics, the unifying theory of geology, to explain a wide variety of Earth features and processes and how hazards resulting from these processes impact society.

E3.p1A: Explain the origin of Michigan landforms. Describe and identify surface features using maps and satellite images. (prerequisite)

 Building Topographic Maps

E3.p2B: Identify common igneous (granite, basalt, andesite, obsidian, pumice), metamorphic (schist, gneiss, marble, slate, quartzite), and sedimentary (sandstone, limestone, shale, conglomerate) rocks and describe the processes that change one kind of rock to another. (prerequisite)

 Rock Cycle

E3.p3A: Describe geologic, paleontologic, and paleoclimatalogic evidence that indicates Africa and South America were once part of a single continent.

 Building Pangaea

E3.p3B: Describe the three types of plate boundaries (divergent, convergent, and transform) and geographic features associated with them (e.g., continental rifts and mid-ocean ridges, volcanic and island arcs, deep-sea trenches, transform faults).

 Plate Tectonics

E3.p3C: Describe the three major types of volcanoes (shield volcano, stratovolcano, and cinder cones) and their relationship to the Ring of Fire.

 Plate Tectonics

E3.1A: Discriminate between igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks and describe the processes that change one kind of rock into another.

 Rock Classification
 Rock Cycle

E3.1B: Explain the relationship between the rock cycle and plate tectonics theory in regard to the origins of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.

 Rock Cycle

E3.2C: Describe the differences between oceanic and continental crust (including density, age, composition).

 Plate Tectonics

E3.3A: Explain how plate tectonics accounts for the features and processes (sea floor spreading, mid-ocean ridges, subduction zones, earthquakes and volcanoes, mountain ranges) that occur on or near the Earth's surface.

 Earthquakes 1 - Recording Station
 Plate Tectonics

E3.3d: Distinguish plate boundaries by the pattern of depth and magnitude of earthquakes.

 Plate Tectonics

E3.4A: Use the distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes to locate and determine the types of plate boundaries.

 Plate Tectonics

E3.4e: Explain how volcanoes change the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and other Earth systems.

 Plate Tectonics

E4: Students explain how the ocean and atmosphere move and transfer energy around the planet. They also explain how these movements affect climate and weather and how severe weather impacts society. Students explain how long term climatic changes (glaciers) have shaped the Michigan landscape. They also explain features and processes related to surface and ground- water and describe the sustainability of systems in terms of water quality and quantity.

E4.p1A: Describe that the water cycle includes evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, infiltration, surface runoff, groundwater, and absorption. (prerequisite)

 Water Cycle

E4.p2B: Describe the difference between weather and climate. (prerequisite)

 Coastal Winds and Clouds

E4.p2D: Describe relative humidity in terms of the moisture content of the air and the moisture capacity of the air and how these depend on the temperature. (prerequisite)

 Relative Humidity

E4.p2E: Describe conditions associated with frontal boundaries (cold, warm, stationary, and occluded). (prerequisite)

 Weather Maps

E4.p2G: Interpret a weather map and describe present weather conditions and predict changes in weather over 24 hours. (prerequisite)

 Hurricane Motion
 Weather Maps

E4.p2H: Explain the primary causes of seasons. (prerequisite)

 Seasons Around the World
 Seasons in 3D
 Seasons: Why do we have them?

E4.3A: Describe the various conditions of formation associated with severe weather (thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, waves, and drought).

 Hurricane Motion

E4.3B: Describe the damage resulting from, and the social impact of thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, and floods.

 Hurricane Motion

E4.3F: Describe how mountains, frontal wedging (including dry lines), convection, and convergence form clouds and precipitation.

 Coastal Winds and Clouds
 Weather Maps

E5: Students explain theories about how the Earth and universe formed and evolved over a long period of time. Students predict how human activities may influence the climate of the future.

E5.p1A: Describe the motions of various celestial bodies and some effects of those motions. (prerequisite)

 Comparing Earth and Venus

E5.p1B: Explain the primary cause of seasons. (prerequisite)

 Seasons Around the World
 Seasons in 3D
 Seasons: Why do we have them?

E5.1d: Differentiate between the cosmological and Doppler red shift.

 Doppler Shift
 Doppler Shift Advanced

E5.2e: Explain how the Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram can be used to deduce other parameters (distance).

 H-R Diagram

E5.2f: Explain how you can infer the temperature, life span, and mass of a star from its color. Use the H-R diagram to explain the life cycles of stars.

 H-R Diagram

E5.2h: Compare the evolution paths of low-, moderate-, and high-mass stars using the H-R diagram.

 H-R Diagram

E5.3B: Describe the process of radioactive decay and explain how radioactive elements are used to date the rocks that contain them.

 Half-life

E5.3e: Determine the approximate age of a sample, when given the half-life of a radioactive substance (in graph or tabular form) along with the ratio of daughter to parent substances present in the sample.

 Half-life

E5.4A: Explain the natural mechanism of the greenhouse effect, including comparisons of the major greenhouse gases (water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone).

 Carbon Cycle
 Greenhouse Effect

E5.4C: Analyze the empirical relationship between the emissions of carbon dioxide, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, and the average global temperature over the past 150 years.

 Greenhouse Effect

E5.4D: Based on evidence of observable changes in recent history and climate change models, explain the consequences of warmer oceans (including the results of increased evaporation, shoreline and estuarine impacts, oceanic algae growth, and coral bleaching) and changing climatic zones (including the adaptive capacity of the biosphere).

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors

P1: Students will understand the nature of science and demonstrate an ability to practice scientific reasoning by applying it to the design, execution, and evaluation of scientific investigations. Students will demonstrate their understanding that scientific knowledge is gathered through various forms of direct and indirect observations and the testing of this information by methods including, but not limited to, experimentation. They will be able to distinguish between types of scientific knowledge (e.g., hypotheses, laws, theories) and become aware of areas of active research in contrast to conclusions that are part of established scientific consensus. They will use their scientific knowledge to assess the costs, risks, and benefits of technological systems as they make personal choices and participate in public policy decisions. These insights will help them analyze the role science plays in society, technology, and potential career opportunities.

P1.1A: Generate new questions that can be investigated in the laboratory or field.

 Hearing: Frequency and Volume
 Pendulum Clock
 Sight vs. Sound Reactions

P1.1B: Evaluate the uncertainties or validity of scientific conclusions using an understanding of sources of measurement error, the challenges of controlling variables, accuracy of data analysis, logic of argument, logic of experimental design, and/or the dependence on underlying assumptions.

 Coral Reefs 2 - Biotic Factors
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Pendulum Clock
 Real-Time Histogram

P1.1C: Conduct scientific investigations using appropriate tools and techniques (e.g., selecting an instrument that measures the desired quantity-length, volume, weight, time interval, temperature-with the appropriate level of precision).

 Diffusion
 Hearing: Frequency and Volume

P1.1D: Identify patterns in data and relate them to theoretical models.

 Pendulum Clock

P1.1E: Describe a reason for a given conclusion using evidence from an investigation.

 Diffusion

P1.1f: Predict what would happen if the variables, methods, or timing of an investigation were changed.

 Diffusion
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Effect of Temperature on Gender
 Hearing: Frequency and Volume
 Pendulum Clock
 Seed Germination
 Sight vs. Sound Reactions

P1.1h: Design and conduct a systematic scientific investigation that tests a hypothesis. Draw conclusions from data presented in charts or tables.

 Diffusion
 Earthquakes 1 - Recording Station
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Effect of Temperature on Gender
 Pendulum Clock
 Real-Time Histogram
 Sight vs. Sound Reactions
 Time Estimation

P1.2A: Critique whether or not specific questions can be answered through scientific investigations.

 Diffusion
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Hearing: Frequency and Volume
 Pendulum Clock

P1.2h: Describe the distinctions between scientific theories, laws, hypotheses, and observations.

 Effect of Temperature on Gender

P1.2j: Apply science principles or scientific data to anticipate effects of technological design decisions.

 Pendulum Clock
 Trebuchet

P2: The universe is in a state of constant change. From small particles (electrons) to the large systems (galaxies) all things are in motion. Therefore, for students to understand the universe they must describe and represent various types of motion. Kinematics, the description of motion, always involves measurements of position and time. Students must describe the relationships between these quantities using mathematical statements, graphs, and motion maps. They use these representations as powerful tools to not only describe past motions but also predict future events.

P2.1A: Calculate the average speed of an object using the change of position and elapsed time.

 Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs

P2.1B: Represent the velocities for linear and circular motion using motion diagrams (arrows on strobe pictures).

 Uniform Circular Motion

P2.1C: Create line graphs using measured values of position and elapsed time.

 Distance-Time Graphs
 Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs
 Free Fall Tower
 Free-Fall Laboratory

P2.1D: Describe and analyze the motion that a position-time graph represents, given the graph.

 Distance-Time Graphs
 Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs
 Free Fall Tower
 Free-Fall Laboratory

P2.1E: Describe and classify various motions in a plane as one dimensional, two dimensional, circular, or periodic.

 Distance-Time Graphs
 Free Fall Tower
 Free-Fall Laboratory
 Golf Range
 Period of Mass on a Spring
 Period of a Pendulum
 Shoot the Monkey
 Simple Harmonic Motion
 Uniform Circular Motion

P2.1F: Distinguish between rotation and revolution and describe and contrast the two speeds of an object like the Earth.

 Gravity Pitch
 Orbital Motion - Kepler's Laws

P2.1g: Solve problems involving average speed and constant acceleration in one dimension.

 Atwood Machine
 Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs
 Free Fall Tower
 Free-Fall Laboratory

P2.1h: Identify the changes in speed and direction in everyday examples of circular (rotation and revolution), periodic, and projectile motions.

 Golf Range
 Shoot the Monkey
 Torque and Moment of Inertia
 Uniform Circular Motion

P2.2A: Distinguish between the variables of distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration.

 Free Fall Tower
 Free-Fall Laboratory
 Golf Range
 Measuring Motion
 Shoot the Monkey

P2.2B: Use the change of speed and elapsed time to calculate the average acceleration for linear motion.

 Free Fall Tower
 Free-Fall Laboratory

P2.2C: Describe and analyze the motion that a velocity-time graph represents, given the graph.

 Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs
 Free-Fall Laboratory

P2.2D: State that uniform circular motion involves acceleration without a change in speed.

 Uniform Circular Motion

P2.2e: Use the area under a velocity-time graph to calculate the distance traveled and the slope to calculate the acceleration.

 Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs
 Free-Fall Laboratory

P2.2g: Apply the independence of the vertical and horizontal initial velocities to solve projectile motion problems.

 Golf Range
 Shoot the Monkey

P3: Students identify interactions between objects either as being by direct contact (e.g., pushes or pulls, friction) or at a distance (e.g., gravity, electromagnetism), and to use forces to describe interactions between objects. They recognize that non-zero net forces always cause changes in motion (Newton's first law). These changes can be changes in speed, direction, or both. Students use Newton's second law to summarize relationships among and solve problems involving net forces, masses, and changes in motion (using standard metric units). They explain that whenever one object exerts a force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted back on it (Newton's third law).

P3.1A: Identify the force(s) acting between objects in "direct contact" or at a distance.

 Free Fall Tower
 Free-Fall Laboratory

P3.1c: Provide examples that illustrate the importance of the electric force in everyday life.

 Charge Launcher
 Coulomb Force (Static)
 Pith Ball Lab

P3.2A: Identify the magnitude and direction of everyday forces (e.g., wind, tension in ropes, pushes and pulls, weight).

 Coulomb Force (Static)
 Determining a Spring Constant
 Gravitational Force
 Pith Ball Lab

P3.2B: Compare work done in different situations.

 Ants on a Slant (Inclined Plane)
 Pulley Lab

P3.2C: Calculate the net force acting on an object.

 Atwood Machine

P3.2d: Calculate all the forces on an object on an inclined plane and describe the object's motion based on the forces using free-body diagrams.

 Inclined Plane - Simple Machine

P3.3A: Identify the action and reaction force from examples of forces in everyday situations (e.g., book on a table, walking across the floor, pushing open a door).

 Fan Cart Physics

P3.3b: Predict how the change in velocity of a small mass compares to the change in velocity of a large mass when the objects interact (e.g., collide).

 2D Collisions
 Air Track
 Fan Cart Physics

P3.3c: Explain the recoil of a projectile launcher in terms of forces and masses.

 Fan Cart Physics

P3.3d: Analyze why seat belts may be more important in autos than in buses.

 Air Track
 Fan Cart Physics

P3.4A: Predict the change in motion of an object acted on by several forces.

 Atwood Machine
 Fan Cart Physics

P3.4C: Solve problems involving force, mass, and acceleration in linear motion (Newton's second law).

 Atwood Machine
 Fan Cart Physics
 Free Fall Tower
 Free-Fall Laboratory

P3.4D: Identify the force(s) acting on objects moving with uniform circular motion (e.g., a car on a circular track, satellites in orbit).

 Gravity Pitch
 Orbital Motion - Kepler's Laws
 Uniform Circular Motion

P3.4e: Solve problems involving force, mass, and acceleration in two-dimensional projectile motion restricted to an initial horizontal velocity with no initial vertical velocity (e.g., ball rolling off a table).

 Atwood Machine
 Fan Cart Physics

P3.4f: Calculate the changes in velocity of a thrown or hit object during and after the time it is acted on by the force.

 Golf Range

P3.5a: Apply conservation of momentum to solve simple collision problems.

 2D Collisions
 Air Track

P3.6A: Explain earth-moon interactions (orbital motion) in terms of forces.

 Gravity Pitch
 Orbital Motion - Kepler's Laws

P3.6B: Predict how the gravitational force between objects changes when the distance between them changes.

 Gravitational Force
 Pith Ball Lab

P3.6d: Calculate force, masses, or distance, given any three of these quantities, by applying the Law of Universal Gravitation, given the value of G.

 Gravitational Force
 Pith Ball Lab

P3.7A: Predict how the electric force between charged objects varies when the distance between them and/or the magnitude of charges change.

 Charge Launcher
 Coulomb Force (Static)
 Pith Ball Lab

P3.7f: Determine the new electric force on charged objects after they touch and are then separated.

 Charge Launcher
 Coulomb Force (Static)
 Pith Ball Lab

P3.8b: Explain how the interaction of electric and magnetic forces is the basis for electric motors, generators, and the production of electromagnetic waves.

 Electromagnetic Induction

P4: Energy is a useful conceptual system for explaining how the universe works and accounting for changes in matter. Energy is not a "thing." Students develop several energy-related ideas: First, they keep track of energy during transfers and transformations, and account for changes using energy conservation. Second, they identify places where energy is apparently lost during a transformation process, but is actually spread around to the environment as thermal energy and therefore not easily recoverable. Third, they identify the means of energy transfers: collisions between particles, or waves.

P4.1B: Explain instances of energy transfer by waves and objects in everyday activities (e.g., why the ground gets warm during the day, how you hear a distant sound, why it hurts when you are hit by a baseball).

 Heat Absorption
 Radiation

P4.1c: Explain why work has a more precise scientific meaning than the meaning of work in everyday language.

 Ants on a Slant (Inclined Plane)
 Pulley Lab

P4.1d: Calculate the amount of work done on an object that is moved from one position to another.

 Ants on a Slant (Inclined Plane)
 Pulley Lab

P4.1e: Using the formula for work, derive a formula for change in potential energy of an object lifted a distance h.

 Pulley Lab

P4.2A: Account for and represent energy transfer and transformation in complex processes (interactions).

 Energy Conversion in a System

P4.2C: Explain how energy is conserved in common systems (e.g., light incident on a transparent material, light incident on a leaf, mechanical energy in a collision).

 2D Collisions
 Air Track
 Energy Conversion in a System
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Roller Coaster Physics
 Sled Wars

P4.3A: Identify the form of energy in given situations (e.g., moving objects, stretched springs, rocks on cliffs, energy in food).

 Air Track
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Potential Energy on Shelves
 Roller Coaster Physics
 Sled Wars

P4.3B: Describe the transformation between potential and kinetic energy in simple mechanical systems (e.g., pendulums, roller coasters, ski lifts).

 Energy Conversion in a System
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Roller Coaster Physics
 Sled Wars

P4.3d: Rank the amount of kinetic energy from highest to lowest of everyday examples of moving objects.

 Air Track
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Roller Coaster Physics
 Sled Wars

P4.3e: Calculate the changes in kinetic and potential energy in simple mechanical systems (e.g., pendulums, roller coasters, ski lifts) using the formulas for kinetic energy and potential energy.

 Air Track
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Roller Coaster Physics
 Sled Wars

P4.3f: Calculate the impact speed (ignoring air resistance) of an object dropped from a specific height or the maximum height reached by an object (ignoring air resistance), given the initial vertical velocity.

 Free Fall Tower
 Free-Fall Laboratory
 Golf Range
 Shoot the Monkey

P4.4A: Describe specific mechanical waves (e.g., on a demonstration spring, on the ocean) in terms of wavelength, amplitude, frequency, and speed.

 Longitudinal Waves
 Ripple Tank

P4.4B: Identify everyday examples of transverse and compression (longitudinal) waves.

 Longitudinal Waves

P4.4C: Compare and contrast transverse and compression (longitudinal) waves in terms of wavelength, amplitude, and frequency.

 Longitudinal Waves

P4.4e: Calculate the amount of energy transferred by transverse or compression waves of different amplitudes and frequencies (e.g., seismic waves).

 Heat Absorption

P4.5B: Explain why an object (e.g., fishing bobber) does not move forward as a wave passes under it.

 Longitudinal Waves

P4.5C: Provide evidence to support the claim that sound is energy transferred by a wave, not energy transferred by particles.

 Longitudinal Waves

P4.8B: Predict the path of reflected light from flat, curved, or rough surfaces (e.g., flat and curved mirrors, painted walls, paper).

 Laser Reflection
 Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

P4.8c: Describe how two wave pulses propagated from opposite ends of a demonstration spring interact as they meet.

 Longitudinal Waves
 Sound Beats and Sine Waves

P4.8d: List and analyze everyday examples that demonstrate the interference characteristics of waves (e.g., dead spots in an auditorium, whispering galleries, colors in a CD, beetle wings).

 Sound Beats and Sine Waves

P4.8e: Given an angle of incidence and indices of refraction of two materials, calculate the path of a light ray incident on the boundary (Snell's Law).

 Basic Prism
 Laser Reflection
 Refraction

P4.9A: Identify the principle involved when you see a transparent object (e.g., straw, piece of glass) in a clear liquid.

 Basic Prism
 Refraction

P4.9B: Explain how various materials reflect, absorb, or transmit light in different ways.

 Color Absorption
 Heat Absorption

P4.r9d: Describe evidence that supports the dual wave - particle nature of light. (recommended)

 Photoelectric Effect

P4.10C: Given diagrams of many different possible connections of electric circuit elements, identify complete circuits, open circuits, and short circuits and explain the reasons for the classification.

 Circuit Builder

P4.10D: Discriminate between voltage, resistance, and current as they apply to an electric circuit.

 Advanced Circuits
 Circuit Builder
 Circuits

P4.10g: Compare the currents, voltages, and power in parallel and series circuits.

 Advanced Circuits
 Circuit Builder
 Circuits

P4.10i: Compare the energy used in one day by common household appliances (e.g., refrigerator, lamps, hair dryer, toaster, televisions, music players).

 Household Energy Usage

P4.10j: Explain the difference between electric power and electric energy as used in bills from an electric company.

 Household Energy Usage

P4.12B: Describe possible problems caused by exposure to prolonged radioactive decay.

 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection

P4.12C: Explain how stars, including our Sun, produce huge amounts of energy (e.g., visible, infrared, ultraviolet light).

 Herschel Experiment
 Radiation

Correlation last revised: 8/8/2018

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this state's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.