MGSE9-12.N.CN: The Complex Number System

2.1: Perform arithmetic operations with complex numbers.

MGSE9-12.N.CN.1: Understand there is a complex number i such that i² = −1, and every complex number has the form a + bi where a and b are real numbers.

 Points in the Complex Plane
 Roots of a Quadratic

MGSE9-12.N.CN.3: Find the conjugate of a complex number; use the conjugate to find the quotient of complex numbers.

 Points in the Complex Plane
 Roots of a Quadratic

2.2: Use complex numbers in polynomial identities and equations.

MGSE9-12.N.CN.7: Solve quadratic equations with real coefficients that have complex solutions by (but not limited to) square roots, completing the square, and the quadratic formula.

 Points in the Complex Plane
 Roots of a Quadratic

MGSE9-12.N.CN.9: Use the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra to find all roots of a polynomial equation.

 Polynomials and Linear Factors

MGSE9-12.A.SSE: Seeing Structure in Expressions

3.1: Interpret the structure of expressions

MGSE9-12.A.SSE.1: Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context.

MGSE9-12.A.SSE.1a: Interpret parts of an expression, such as terms, factors, and coefficients, in context.

 Compound Interest
 Operations with Radical Expressions
 Simplifying Algebraic Expressions I
 Simplifying Algebraic Expressions II

MGSE9-12.A.SSE.1b: Given situations which utilize formulas or expressions with multiple terms and/or factors, interpret the meaning (in context) of individual terms or factors.

 Compound Interest
 Simplifying Algebraic Expressions I
 Simplifying Algebraic Expressions II

MGSE9-12.A.SSE.2: Use the structure of an expression to rewrite it in different equivalent forms.

 Dividing Exponential Expressions
 Equivalent Algebraic Expressions I
 Equivalent Algebraic Expressions II
 Exponents and Power Rules
 Modeling the Factorization of ax2+bx+c
 Modeling the Factorization of x2+bx+c
 Multiplying Exponential Expressions
 Simplifying Algebraic Expressions I
 Simplifying Algebraic Expressions II

3.2: Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems

MGSE9-12.A.SSE.3: Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression.

MGSE9-12.A.SSE.3a: Factor any quadratic expression to reveal the zeros of the function defined by the expression.

 Modeling the Factorization of x2+bx+c
 Quadratics in Factored Form

MGSE9-12.A.SSE.3c: Use the properties of exponents to transform expressions for exponential functions.

 Exponents and Power Rules

MGSE9-12.A.APR: Arithmetic with Polynomials and Rational Expressions

4.1: Perform arithmetic operations on polynomials

MGSE9-12.A.APR.1: Add, subtract, and multiply polynomials; understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers in that they are closed under these operations.

 Addition and Subtraction of Functions
 Addition of Polynomials
 Modeling the Factorization of x2+bx+c

4.2: Understand the relationship between zeros and factors of polynomials

MGSE9-12.A.APR.2: Know and apply the Remainder Theorem: For a polynomial 𝘱(𝘹) and a number 𝘢, the remainder on division by 𝘹 – 𝘢 is 𝘱(𝘢), so 𝘱(𝘢) = 0 if and only if (𝘹 – 𝘢) is a factor of 𝘱(𝘹).

 Dividing Polynomials Using Synthetic Division
 Polynomials and Linear Factors

MGSE9-12.A.APR.3: Identify zeros of polynomials when suitable factorizations are available, and use the zeros to construct a rough graph of the function defined by the polynomial.

 Polynomials and Linear Factors
 Quadratics in Factored Form

4.3: Use polynomial identities to solve problems

MGSE9-12.A.APR.5: Know and apply that the Binomial Theorem gives the expansion of (x + y)ⁿ in powers of x and y for a positive integer n, where x and y are any numbers, with coefficients determined using Pascal’s Triangle.

 Binomial Probabilities

MGSE9-12.A.CED: Creating Equations

5.1: Create equations that describe numbers or relationships

MGSE9-12.A.CED.1: Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear, quadratic, simple rational, and exponential functions

 Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities
 Arithmetic Sequences
 Exploring Linear Inequalities in One Variable
 Geometric Sequences
 Linear Inequalities in Two Variables
 Modeling One-Step Equations
 Modeling and Solving Two-Step Equations
 Solving Equations on the Number Line
 Solving Linear Inequalities in One Variable
 Solving Two-Step Equations
 Using Algebraic Equations

MGSE9-12.A.CED.2: Create linear, quadratic, and exponential equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. (The phrase “in two or more variables” refers to formulas like the compound interest formula, in which A = P(1 + r/n)nt has multiple variables.)

 Point-Slope Form of a Line
 Points, Lines, and Equations
 Solving Equations by Graphing Each Side
 Standard Form of a Line

MGSE9-12.A.CED.3: Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equation and/or inequalities, and interpret data points as possible (i.e. a solution) or not possible (i.e. a non-solution) under the established constraints.

 Linear Inequalities in Two Variables
 Linear Programming
 Solving Linear Systems (Standard Form)
 Systems of Linear Inequalities (Slope-intercept form)

MGSE9-12.A.CED.4: Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest using the same reasoning as in solving equations.

 Area of Triangles
 Solving Formulas for any Variable

MGSE9-12.A.REI: Reasoning with Equations and Inequalities

6.1: Understand solving equations as a process of reasoning and explain the reasoning

MGSE9-12.A.REI.2: Solve simple rational and radical equations in one variable, and give examples showing how extraneous solutions may arise.

 Radical Functions

6.2: Solve equations and inequalities in one variable

MGSE9-12.A.REI.4: Solve quadratic equations in one variable.

MGSE9-12.A.REI.4a: Use the method of completing the square to transform any quadratic equation in x into an equation of the form (x – p)² = q that has the same solutions. Derive the quadratic formula from ax² + bx + c = 0.

 Roots of a Quadratic

MGSE9-12.A.REI.4b: Solve quadratic equations by inspection (e.g., for x² = 49), taking square roots, factoring, completing the square, and the quadratic formula, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation.

 Modeling the Factorization of x2+bx+c
 Roots of a Quadratic

6.3: Represent and solve equations and inequalities graphically

MGSE9-12.A.REI.11: Using graphs, tables, or successive approximations, show that the solution to the equation f(x) = g(x) is the x-value where the y-values of f(x) and g(x) are the same.

 Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities
 Absolute Value with Linear Functions
 Circles
 Exponential Functions
 Parabolas
 Point-Slope Form of a Line
 Points, Lines, and Equations
 Quadratics in Polynomial Form
 Radical Functions
 Solving Equations on the Number Line
 Standard Form of a Line

MGSE9-12.F.IF: Interpreting Functions

7.1: Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context

MGSE9-12.F.IF.4: Using tables, graphs, and verbal descriptions, interpret the key characteristics of a function which models the relationship between two quantities. Sketch a graph showing key features including: intercepts; interval where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior.

 Absolute Value with Linear Functions
 Cat and Mouse (Modeling with Linear Systems)
 Exponential Functions
 Function Machines 3 (Functions and Problem Solving)
 General Form of a Rational Function
 Graphs of Polynomial Functions
 Introduction to Exponential Functions
 Linear Functions
 Logarithmic Functions
 Quadratics in Factored Form
 Quadratics in Polynomial Form
 Radical Functions
 Slope-Intercept Form of a Line

MGSE9-12.F.IF.5: Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes.

 General Form of a Rational Function
 Introduction to Functions
 Radical Functions
 Rational Functions

MGSE9-12.F.IF.6: Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph.

 Distance-Time Graphs
 Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs

7.2: Analyze functions using different representations

MGSE9-12.F.IF.7: Graph functions expressed algebraically and show key features of the graph both by hand and by using technology.

MGSE9-12.F.IF.7a: Graph quadratic functions and show intercepts, maxima, and minima (as determined by the function or by context).

 Absolute Value with Linear Functions
 Cat and Mouse (Modeling with Linear Systems)
 Exponential Functions
 Linear Functions
 Point-Slope Form of a Line
 Points, Lines, and Equations
 Slope-Intercept Form of a Line
 Standard Form of a Line

MGSE9-12.F.IF.7b: Graph square root, cube root, and piecewise-defined functions, including step functions and absolute value functions.

 Absolute Value with Linear Functions
 Radical Functions

MGSE9-12.F.IF.7c: Graph polynomial functions, identifying zeros when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior.

 Graphs of Polynomial Functions
 Polynomials and Linear Factors
 Quadratics in Factored Form
 Quadratics in Vertex Form
 Roots of a Quadratic
 Zap It! Game

MGSE9-12.F.IF.7d: Graph rational functions, identifying zeros and asymptotes when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior.

 General Form of a Rational Function
 Rational Functions

MGSE9-12.F.IF.8: Write a function defined by an expression in different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain different properties of the function.

MGSE9-12.F.IF.8a: Use the process of factoring and completing the square in a quadratic function to show zeros, extreme values, and symmetry of the graph, and interpret these in terms of a context.

 Factoring Special Products
 Modeling the Factorization of ax2+bx+c
 Modeling the Factorization of x2+bx+c

MGSE9-12.F.IF.8b: Use the properties of exponents to interpret expressions for exponential functions.

 Compound Interest
 Exponential Growth and Decay

MGSE9-12.F.BF: Building Functions

8.1: Build a function that models a relationship between two quantities

MGSE9-12.F.BF.1: Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities.

MGSE9-12.F.BF.1a: Determine an explicit expression and the recursive process (steps for calculation) from context.

 Arithmetic Sequences
 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences
 Geometric Sequences

MGSE9-12.F.BF.1b: Combine standard function types using arithmetic operations in contextual situations (Adding, subtracting, and multiplying functions of different types).

 Addition and Subtraction of Functions

8.2: Build new functions from existing functions

MGSE9-12.F.BF.3: Identify the effect on the graph of replacing 𝘧(𝘹) by 𝘧(𝘹) + 𝘬, 𝘬 𝘧(𝘹), 𝘧(𝘬𝘹), and 𝘧(𝘹 + 𝘬) for specific values of 𝘬 (both positive and negative); find the value of 𝘬 given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them.

 Absolute Value with Linear Functions
 Exponential Functions
 Introduction to Exponential Functions
 Rational Functions
 Translating and Scaling Functions
 Translating and Scaling Sine and Cosine Functions
 Translations
 Zap It! Game

MGSE9-12.F.BF.4: Find inverse functions.

MGSE9-12.F.BF.4b: Verify by composition that one function is the inverse of another.

 Logarithmic Functions

MGSE9-12.F.BF.4c: Read values of an inverse function from a graph or a table, given that the function has an inverse.

 Logarithmic Functions

MGSE9-12.F.BF.5: Understand the inverse relationship between exponents and logarithms and use this relationship to solve problems involving logarithms and exponents.

 Logarithmic Functions

MGSE9-12.F.LE: Linear, Quadratic, and Exponential Models

9.1: Construct and compare linear, quadratic, and exponential models and solve problems

MGSE9-12.F.LE.4: For exponential models, express as a logarithm the solution to 𝘢𝘣 to the 𝘤𝘵 power = 𝘥 where 𝘢, 𝘤, and 𝘥 are numbers and the base 𝘣 is 2, 10, or 𝘦; evaluate the logarithm using technology.

 Compound Interest

MGSE9-12.G.GPE: Expressing Geometric Properties with Equations

10.1: Translate between the geometric description and the equation for a conic section

MGSE9-12.G.GPE.1: Derive the equation of a circle of given center and radius using the Pythagorean Theorem; complete the square to find the center and radius of a circle given by an equation.

 Circles
 Distance Formula
 Pythagorean Theorem
 Pythagorean Theorem with a Geoboard

MGSE9-12.S.ID: Interpreting Categorical and Quantitative Data

12.1: Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables

MGSE9-12.S.ID.6: Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related.

MGSE9-12.S.ID.6a: Decide which type of function is most appropriate by observing graphed data, charted data, or by analysis of context to generate a viable (rough) function of best fit. Use this function to solve problems in context. Emphasize quadratic models.

 Correlation
 Determining a Spring Constant
 Least-Squares Best Fit Lines
 Solving Using Trend Lines
 Trends in Scatter Plots
 Zap It! Game

MGSE9-12.S.CP: Conditional Probability and the Rules of Probability

13.1: Understand independence and conditional probability and use them to interpret data

MGSE9-12.S.CP.1: Describe categories of events as subsets of a sample space using unions, intersections, or complements of other events (or, and, not).

 Independent and Dependent Events

MGSE9-12.S.CP.2: Understand that if two events A and B are independent, the probability of A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities, and that if the probability of two events A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities, the two events are independent.

 Independent and Dependent Events

MGSE9-12.S.CP.3: Understand the conditional probability of A given B as P (A and B)/P(B). Interpret independence of A and B in terms of conditional probability; that is, the conditional probability of A given B is the same as the probability of A, and the conditional probability of B given A is the same as the probability of B.

 Independent and Dependent Events

13.2: Use the rules of probability to compute probabilities of compound events in a uniform probability model

MGSE9-12.S.CP.6: Find the conditional probability of A given B as the fraction of B’s outcomes that also belong to A, and interpret the answer in context.

 Independent and Dependent Events

Correlation last revised: 1/19/2017

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