A: Characteristics of Functions

A.1: demonstrate an understanding of functions, their representations, and their inverses, and make connections between the algebraic and graphical representations of functions using transformations;

A.1.1: explain the meaning of the term function, and distinguish a function from a relation that is not a function, through investigation of linear and quadratic relations using a variety of representations (i.e., tables of values, mapping diagrams, graphs, function machines, equations) and strategies (e.g., identifying a one-to-one or many-to-one mapping; using the vertical-line test)

Addition and Subtraction of Functions
Arithmetic Sequences
Compound Interest
Linear Functions
Quadratics in Factored Form
Quadratics in Polynomial Form
Quadratics in Vertex Form
Roots of a Quadratic
Slope-Intercept Form of a Line
Translating and Scaling Functions
Zap It! Game

A.1.3: explain the meanings of the terms domain and range, through investigation using numeric, graphical, and algebraic representations of the functions f (x) = x, f (x) = x², f(x) = the square root of x, and f(x) = 1/x; describe the domain and range of a function appropriately (e.g., for y = x² +1, the domain is the set of real numbers, and the range is y is greater than or equal to 1); and explain any restrictions on the domain and range in contexts arising from real-world applications

General Form of a Rational Function
Rational Functions

A.1.4: relate the process of determining the inverse of a function to their understanding of reverse processes (e.g., applying inverse operations)

Logarithmic Functions

A.1.8: determine, through investigation using technology, the roles of the parameters a, k, d, and c in functions of the form y = af (k(x – d)) + c, and describe these roles in terms of transformations on the graphs of f(x) = x, f(x) = x , f(x) = the square root of x, and f(x) = 1/x (i.e., translations; reflections in the axes; vertical and horizontal stretches and compressions to and from the x- and y-axes)

Absolute Value with Linear Functions
Exponential Functions
Quadratics in Vertex Form
Rational Functions
Translations
Zap It! Game

A.1.9: sketch graphs of y = af(k(x – d)) + c by applying one or more transformations to the graphs of f(x) = x, f(x) = x², f(x) = the square root of x, and f(x) = 1/x, and state the domain and range of the transformed functions

Exponential Functions
General Form of a Rational Function
Rational Functions

A.2: determine the zeros and the maximum or minimum of a quadratic function, and solve problems involving quadratic functions, including problems arising from real-world applications;

A.2.2: determine the maximum or minimum value of a quadratic function whose equation is given in the form f (x) = ax2 + bx+ c, using an algebraic method (e.g., completing the square; factoring to determine the zeros and averaging the zeros)

Quadratics in Factored Form
Quadratics in Vertex Form
Zap It! Game

A.3: demonstrate an understanding of equivalence as it relates to simplifying polynomial, radical, and rational expressions.

A.3.2: verify, through investigation with and without technology, that (the square root of ab) = (the square root of a) x (the square root of b), a is greater than or equal to 0, b is greater than or equal to 0, and use this relationship to simplify radicals (e.g., the square root of 24) and radical expressions obtained by adding, subtracting, and multiplying [e.g., (2 + the square root of 6)(3 – the square root of 12)]

Operations with Radical Expressions
Simplifying Radical Expressions

A.3.4: determine if two given algebraic expressions are equivalent (i.e., by simplifying; by substituting values)

Dividing Exponential Expressions
Equivalent Algebraic Expressions I
Equivalent Algebraic Expressions II
Exponents and Power Rules
Multiplying Exponential Expressions
Simplifying Algebraic Expressions I
Simplifying Algebraic Expressions II

B: Exponential Functions

B.1: evaluate powers with rational exponents, simplify expressions containing exponents, and describe properties of exponential functions represented in a variety of ways;

B.1.3: simplify algebraic expressions containing integer and rational exponents [e.g., (x³) ÷ (x to the ½ power), ((x to the 6th power)y³) to the 1/3 power], and evaluate numeric expressions containing integer and rational exponents and rational bases [e.g., 2 to the –3 power, (–6)³, 4 to the ½ power, 1.01 to the 120th power]

Dividing Exponential Expressions
Multiplying Exponential Expressions
Simplifying Algebraic Expressions I
Simplifying Algebraic Expressions II

B.1.4: determine, through investigation, and describe key properties relating to domain and range, intercepts, increasing/decreasing intervals, and asymptotes (e.g., the domain is the set of real numbers; the range is the set of positive real numbers; the function either increases or decreases throughout its domain) for exponential functions represented in a variety of ways [e.g., tables of values, mapping diagrams, graphs, equations of the form f(x) = a to the x power (a > 0, a is not equal to 1), function machines]

Exponential Functions
Logarithmic Functions

B.2: make connections between the numeric, graphical, and algebraic representations of exponential functions;

B.2.1: distinguish exponential functions from linear and quadratic functions by making comparisons in a variety of ways (e.g., comparing rates of change using finite differences in tables of values; identifying a constant ratio in a table of values; inspecting graphs; comparing equations)

Exponential Functions

B.2.2: determine, through investigation using technology, the roles of the parameters a, k, d, and c in functions of the form y = af (k(x - d)) + c, and describe these roles in terms of transformations on the graph of f(x) = a to the x power (a > 0, a is not equal to 1) (i.e., translations; reflections in the axes; vertical and horizontal stretches and compressions to and from the x- and y-axes)

Compound Interest

B.2.3: sketch graphs of y = af(k(x – d)) + c by applying one or more transformations to the graph of f(x) = a to the x power (a > 0, a is not equal to 1), and state the domain and range of the transformed functions

Exponential Functions
Rational Functions

B.2.5: represent an exponential function with an equation, given its graph or its properties

Exponential Functions
Logarithmic Functions

B.3: identify and represent exponential functions, and solve problems involving exponential functions, including problems arising from real-world applications.

B.3.3: solve problems using given graphs or equations of exponential functions arising from a variety of real-world applications (e.g., radioactive decay, population growth, height of a bouncing ball, compound interest) by interpreting the graphs or by substituting values for the exponent into the equations

Introduction to Exponential Functions

C: Discrete Functions

C.1: demonstrate an understanding of recursive sequences, represent recursive sequences in a variety of ways, and make connections to Pascal’s triangle;

C.1.4: represent a sequence algebraically using a recursion formula, function notation, or the formula for the nth term [e.g., represent 2, 4, 8,16, 32, 64, … as t base 1 = 2; t base n = 2(t base (n–1), as f(n) = 2 to the n power, or as t base n = 2 to the n power, or represent ½, 2/3, 3/4, 4/5, 5/6, 6/7,... as t base 1 = ½; t base n = t base (n-1) + (1/(n(n + 1)), as f(n) = n/(n+1), or as t base n = n/(n + 1), where n is a natural number], and describe the information that can be obtained by inspecting each representation (e.g., function notation or the formula for the nth term may show the type of function; a recursion formula shows the relationship between terms)

Arithmetic Sequences
Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences
Geometric Sequences

C.1.5: determine, through investigation, recursive patterns in the Fibonacci sequence, in related sequences, and in Pascal’s triangle, and represent the patterns in a variety of ways (e.g., tables of values, algebraic notation)

Arithmetic Sequences
Geometric Sequences

C.2: demonstrate an understanding of the relationships involved in arithmetic and geometric sequences and series, and solve related problems;

C.2.1: identify sequences as arithmetic, geometric, or neither, given a numeric or algebraic representation

Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences
Finding Patterns

C.2.2: determine the formula for the general term of an arithmetic sequence [i.e., t base n = a + (n –1)d] or geometric sequence (i.e., t base n = a(r to the (n–1) power)), through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g., linking cubes, algebra tiles, diagrams, calculators) and strategies (e.g., patterning; connecting the steps in a numerical example to the steps in the algebraic development), and apply the formula to calculate any term in a sequence

Arithmetic Sequences
Geometric Sequences

C.2.4: solve problems involving arithmetic and geometric sequences and series, including those arising from real-world applications

Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences

D: Trigonometric Functions

D.1: determine the values of the trigonometric ratios for angles less than 360º; prove simple trigonometric identities; and solve problems using the primary trigonometric ratios, the sine law, and the cosine law;

D.1.1: determine the exact values of the sine, cosine, and tangent of the special angles: 0º, 30º, 45º, 60º, and 90º

Cosine Function
Sine Function
Sine, Cosine, and Tangent Ratios
Tangent Function

D.1.2: determine the values of the sine, cosine, and tangent of angles from 0º to 360º, through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g., dynamic geometry software, graphing tools) and strategies (e.g., applying the unit circle; examining angles related to special angles)

Sine, Cosine, and Tangent Ratios

D.1.5: prove simple trigonometric identities, using the Pythagorean identity sin²x + cos²x = 1; the quotient identity tanx = sinx/cosx; and the reciprocal identities secx = 1/cosx, cscx = 1/sinx, and cotx = 1/tanx

Simplifying Trigonometric Expressions

D.1.6: pose problems involving right triangles and oblique triangles in two-dimensional settings, and solve these and other such problems using the primary trigonometric ratios, the cosine law, and the sine law (including the ambiguous case)

Cosine Function
Sine Function
Sine, Cosine, and Tangent Ratios
Tangent Function

D.2: demonstrate an understanding of periodic relationships and sinusoidal functions, and make connections between the numeric, graphical, and algebraic representations of sinusoidal functions;

D.2.4: sketch the graphs of f(x) =sinx and f(x) =cosx for angle measures expressed in degrees, and determine and describe their key properties (i.e., cycle, domain, range, intercepts, amplitude, period, maximum and minimum values, increasing/decreasing intervals)

Cosine Function
Sine Function

D.2.6: determine the amplitude, period, phase shift, domain, and range of sinusoidal functions whose equations are given in the form f(x) = a sin(k(x – d)) + c or f(x) = a cos(k(x – d)) + c

Cosine Function
Sine Function
Translating and Scaling Sine and Cosine Functions

D.3: identify and represent sinusoidal functions, and solve problems involving sinusoidal functions, including problems arising from real-world applications.

D.3.5: pose problems based on applications involving a sinusoidal function, and solve these and other such problems by using a given graph or a graph generated with technology from a table of values or from its equation

Translating and Scaling Sine and Cosine Functions

Correlation last revised: 9/24/2019

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