1.2.1: develop and apply reasoning skills (e.g., recognition of relationships, generalization through inductive reasoning, use of counter-examples) to make mathematical conjectures, assess conjectures and justify conclusions, and plan and construct organized mathematical arguments;
1.7.1: communicate mathematical thinking orally, visually, and in writing, using mathematical vocabulary and a variety of appropriate representations, and observing mathematical conventions.
2.1.1: express repeated multiplication using exponential notation (e.g., 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 2⁴);
2.1.3: represent, compare, and order rational numbers (i.e., positive and negative fractions and decimals to thousandths);
2.1.4: translate between equivalent forms of a number (i.e., decimals, fractions, percents) (e.g., 3/4 = 0.75);
2.1.5: determine common factors and common multiples using the prime factorization of numbers (e.g., the prime factorization of 12 is 2 x 2 x 3; the prime factorization of 18 is 2 x 3 x 3; the greatest common factor of 12 and 18 is 2 x 3 or 6; the least common multiple of 12 and 18 is 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 or 36).
2.2.1: solve multi-step problems arising from real-life contexts and involving whole numbers and decimals, using a variety of tools (e.g., graphs, calculators) and strategies (e.g., estimation, algorithms);
2.2.3: use estimation when solving problems involving operations with whole numbers, decimals, percents, integers, and fractions, to help judge the reasonableness of a solution;
2.2.4: represent the multiplication and division of fractions, using a variety of tools and strategies (e.g., use an area model to represent 1/4 multiplied by 1/3);
2.2.6: represent the multiplication and division of integers, using a variety of tools [e.g., if black counters represent positive amounts and red counters represent negative amounts, you can model 3 x (–2) as three groups of two red counters];
2.2.7: solve problems involving operations with integers, using a variety of tools (e.g., two-colour counters, virtual manipulatives, number lines);
2.2.8: evaluate expressions that involve integers, including expressions that contain brackets and exponents, using order of operations;
2.2.10: estimate, and verify using a calculator, the positive square roots of whole numbers, and distinguish between whole numbers that have whole-number square roots (i.e., perfect square numbers) and those that do not (Sample problem: Explain why a square with an area of 20 cm² does not have a whole-number side length.).
2.3.1: identify and describe real-life situations involving two quantities that are directly proportional (e.g., the number of servings and the quantities in a recipe, mass and volume of a substance, circumference and diameter of a circle);
2.3.3: solve problems involving percent that arise from real-life contexts (e.g., discount, sales tax, simple interest) (Sample problem: In Ontario, people often pay a provincial sales tax [PST] of 8% and a federal sales tax [GST] of 7% when they make a purchase. Does it matter which tax is calculated first? Explain your reasoning.);
3.2.1: solve problems that require conversions involving metric units of area, volume, and capacity (i.e., square centimetres and square metres; cubic centimetres and cubic metres; millilitres and cubic centimetres) (Sample problem: What is the capacity of a cylindrical beaker with a radius of 5 cm and a height of 15 cm?);
3.2.3: determine, through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g., cans and string, dynamic geometry software) and strategies, the relationships for calculating the circumference and the area of a circle, and generalize to develop the formulas [i.e., Circumference of a circle = π x diameter; Area of a circle = π x (radius)²] (Sample problem: Use string to measure the circumferences and the diameters of a variety of cylindrical cans, and investigate the ratio of the circumference to the diameter.);
3.2.5: determine, through investigation using a variety of tools and strategies (e.g., generalizing from the volume relationship for right prisms, and verifying using the capacity of thin-walled cylindrical containers), the relationship between the area of the base and height and the volume of a cylinder, and generalize to develop the formula (i.e., Volume = area of base x height);
3.2.7: solve problems involving the surface area and the volume of cylinders, using a variety of strategies (Sample problem: Compare the volumes of the two cylinders that can be created by taping the top and bottom, or the other two sides, of a standard sheet of paper.).
4.1.1: sort and classify quadrilaterals by geometric properties, including those based on diagonals, through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g., concrete materials, dynamic geometry software) (Sample problem: Which quadrilaterals have diagonals that bisect each other perpendicularly?);
4.1.2: construct a circle, given its centre and radius, or its centre and a point on the circle, or three points on the circle;
4.2.1: determine, through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g., dynamic geometry software, concrete materials, geoboard), relationships among area, perimeter, corresponding side lengths, and corresponding angles of similar shapes (Sample problem: Construct three similar rectangles, using grid paper or a geoboard, and compare the perimeters and areas of the rectangles.);
4.2.2: determine, through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g., dynamic geometry software, concrete materials, protractor) and strategies (e.g., paper folding), the angle relationships for intersecting lines and for parallel lines and transversals, and the sum of the angles of a triangle;
4.2.3: solve angle-relationship problems involving triangles (e.g., finding interior angles or complementary angles), intersecting lines (e.g., finding supplementary angles or opposite angles), and parallel lines and transversals (e.g., finding alternate angles or corresponding angles);
4.2.5: solve problems involving right triangles geometrically, using the Pythagorean relationship;
4.3.1: graph the image of a point, or set of points, on the Cartesian coordinate plane after applying a transformation to the original point(s) (i.e., translation; reflection in the x-axis, the y-axis, or the angle bisector of the axes that passes through the first and third quadrants; rotation of 90°, 180°, or 270° about the origin);
4.3.2: identify, through investigation, real-world movements that are translations, reflections, and rotations.
5.1.3: determine a term, given its term number, in a linear pattern that is represented by a graph or an algebraic equation (Sample problem: Given the graph that represents the pattern 1, 3, 5, 7,…, find the 10th term. Given the algebraic equation that represents the pattern, t = 2n – 1, find the 100th term.).
5.2.1: describe different ways in which algebra can be used in real-life situations (e.g., the value of $5 bills and toonies placed in a envelope for fund raising can be represented by the equation v = 5f + 2t);
5.2.2: model linear relationships using tables of values, graphs, and equations (e.g., the sequence 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,… can be represented by the equation t = n + 1, where n represents the term number and t represents the term), through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g., algebra tiles, pattern blocks, connecting cubes, base ten materials) (Sample problem: Leah put $350 in a bank certificate that pays 4% simple interest each year. Make a table of values to show how much the bank certificate is worth after five years, using base ten materials to help you. Represent the relationship using an equation.);
5.2.3: translate statements describing mathematical relationships into algebraic expressions and equations (e.g., for a collection of triangles, the total number of sides is equal to three times the number of triangles or s = 3n);
6.1.1: collect data by conducting a survey or an experiment to do with themselves, their environment, issues in their school or community, or content from another subject, and record observations or measurements;
6.1.2: organize into intervals a set of data that is spread over a broad range (e.g., the age of respondents to a survey may range over 80 years and may be organized into ten-year intervals);
6.1.3: collect and organize categorical, discrete, or continuous primary data and secondary data (e.g., electronic data from websites such as E-Stat or Census At Schools), and display the data in charts, tables, and graphs (including histograms and scatter plots) that have appropriate titles, labels (e.g., appropriate units marked on the axes), and scales (e.g., with appropriate increments) that suit the range and distribution of the data, using a variety of tools (e.g., graph paper, spreadsheets, dynamic statistical software);
6.1.4: select an appropriate type of graph to represent a set of data, graph the data using technology, and justify the choice of graph (i.e., from types of graphs already studied, including histograms and scatter plots);
6.1.5: explain the relationship between a census, a representative sample, sample size, and a population (e.g., “I think that in most cases a larger sample size will be more representative of the entire population.”).
6.2.1: read, interpret, and draw conclusions from primary data (e.g., survey results, measurements, observations) and from secondary data (e.g., election data or temperature data from the newspaper, data from the Internet about lifestyles), presented in charts, tables, and graphs (including frequency tables with intervals, histograms, and scatter plots);
6.2.2: determine, through investigation, the appropriate measure of central tendency (i.e., mean, median, or mode) needed to compare sets of data (e.g., in hockey, compare heights or masses of players on defence with that of forwards);
6.2.4: compare two attributes or characteristics (e.g., height versus arm span), using a scatter plot, and determine whether or not the scatter plot suggests a relationship (Sample problem: Create a scatter plot to compare the lengths of the bases of several similar triangles with their areas.);
6.2.5: identify and describe trends, based on the rate of change of data from tables and graphs, using informal language (e.g., “The steep line going upward on this graph represents rapid growth. The steep line going downward on this other graph represents rapid decline.”);
6.2.6: make inferences and convincing arguments that are based on the analysis of charts, tables, and graphs (Sample problem: Use data to make a convincing argument that the environment is becoming increasingly polluted.);
6.3.1: compare, through investigation, the theoretical probability of an event (i.e., the ratio of the number of ways a favourable outcome can occur compared to the total number of possible outcomes) with experimental probability, and explain why they might differ (Sample problem: Toss a fair coin 10 times, record the results, and explain why you might not get the predicted result of 5 heads and 5 tails.);
6.3.2: determine, through investigation, the tendency of experimental probability to approach theoretical probability as the number of trials in an experiment increases, using class-generated data and technology-based simulation models (Sample problem: Compare the theoretical probability of getting a 6 when tossing a number cube with the experimental probabilities obtained after tossing a number cube once, 10 times, 100 times, and 1000 times.);
6.3.3: identify the complementary event for a given event, and calculate the theoretical probability that a given event will not occur (Sample problem: Bingo uses the numbers from 1 to 75. If the numbers are pulled at random, what is the probability that the first number is a multiple of 5? is not a multiple of 5?).
Correlation last revised: 9/24/2019