Voluntary State Curriculum
2.B.1: Explain how sedimentary rock is formed periodically, embedding plant and animal remains and leaving a record of the sequence in which the plants and animals appeared and disappeared.
2.B.1.a: Explain how sedimentary rock buried deep enough may be reformed by pressure and heat and these re-formed rock layers may be forced up again to become land surface and even mountains.
2.B.1.b: Cite evidence to confirm that thousands of layers of sedimentary rock reveal the long history of the changing surface of the Earth
2.B.1.c: Explain why some fossils found in the top layers of sedimentary rock are older then those found beneath in lower layers.
2.B.2: Recognize and explain that fossils found in layers of sedimentary rock provide evidence of changing life forms.
2.B.2.a: Recognize how different types of fossils are formed, such as petrified remains, imprints, molds and casts.
2.B.2.b: Recognize and explain that the fossil record of plants and animals describes changes in life forms over time.
2.D.1: Identify and describe the components of the universe.
2.D.1.b: Identify that our solar system is a component of the Milky Way Galaxy.
2.D.2: Identify and explain celestial phenomena using the regular and predictable motion of objects in the solar system.
2.D.2.a: Identify and describe the relationships among the period of revolution of a planet, the length of its solar year, and its distance from the sun.
2.D.2.b: Identify and explain the relationship between the rotation of a planet or moon on its axis and the length of the solar day for that celestial object.
2.D.2.c: Identify and explain the cause of the phases of the moon.
2.D.2.d: Describe how lunar and solar eclipses occur.
2.D.3: Recognize and explain the effects of the tilt of Earth's axis.
2.D.3.a: Recognize and describe that Earth's axis is tilted about 23¼ from vertical with respect to the plane of its orbit and points in the same direction during the year.
2.D.3.b: Recognize and describe that the tilt of Earth's axis causes
2.D.3.b.1: Changes in the angle of the sun in the sky during the year
2.D.3.b.2: Seasonal differences in the northern and southern latitudes
2.D.3.c: Recognize and describe how the tilt of Earth's axis affects the climate in Maryland.
2.D.4: Recognize and explain how the force of gravity causes the tides.
2.D.4.a: Identify and describe the cause of high and low tides.
2.E.1: Cite evidence to explain the relationship between the hydrosphere and atmosphere.
2.E.1.b: Recognize and describe the water cycle as the distribution and circulation of Earth's water through the glaciers, surface water, groundwater, oceans, and atmosphere.
2.E.1.c: Identify and describe how the temperature and precipitation in a geographic area are affected by surface features and changes in atmospheric and ocean content.
2.E.1.c.1: Relative location of mountains
2.E.1.c.2: Volcanic eruptions
2.E.1.c.3: Proximity to large bodies of water
2.E.1.c.4: Heat energy of ocean currents
2.E.2: Recognize and describe the various factors that affect climate.
2.E.2.a: Identify and describe how the temperature and precipitation of an area are affected by surface and ocean features.
2.E.2.a.1: Relative location of mountains
2.E.2.a.2: Proximity to large bodies of water
2.E.2.b: Recognize and describe the global effects of volcanic eruptions, greenhouse gases, and El Nino.
2.E.3: Identify and describe the atmospheric and hydrospheric conditions related to weather systems.
2.E.3.a: Identify and describe weather patterns associated with high and low pressure systems and frontal systems.
2.E.3.b: Identify and describe the atmospheric and hydrospheric conditions associated with the formation and development of hurricanes, tornadoes, and thunderstorms.
2.E.3.c: Identify and describe how various tools are used to collect weather data and forecast weather conditions.
3.D.1: Recognize and describe that evolutionary change in species over time occurs as a result of natural variation in organisms and environmental changes.
3.D.1.b: Recognize that adaptations may include variations in structures, behaviors, or physiology, such as spiny leaves on a cactus, birdcalls, and antibiotic resistant bacteria.
3.D.1.c: Recognize and describe that adaptation and speciation involve the selection of natural variations in a population.
3.D.1.d: Recognize and describe that extinction occurs when the adaptive traits of a population do not support its survival.
3.D.1.e: Recognize that evolution accounts for the diversity of species.
4.A.1: Provide evidence to explain how compounds are produced. (No electron transfer)
4.A.1.a: Describe how elements form compounds and molecules.
4.A.1.c: Based on data from investigations and research compare the properties of compounds with those of the elements from which they are made.
4.B.1: Provide evidence to support the fact that the idea of atoms explains conservation of matter.
4.B.1.a: Use appropriate tools to gather data and provide evidence that equal volumes of different substances usually have different masses.
4.B.1.b: Cite evidence from investigations that the total mass of a system remains the same throughout a chemical reaction because the number of atoms of each element remains the same.
4.B.1.c: Give reasons to justify the statement, " If the number of atoms stays the same no matter how the same atoms are rearranged, then their total mass stays the same."
4.C.1: Describe how the motion of atoms and molecules in solids, liquids, and gases changes as heat energy is increased or decreased.
4.C.1.a: Based on data from investigations and video technology, describe and give reasons for what happens to a sample of matter when heat energy is added to it (most substances expand).
4.C.1.b: Describe what the temperature of a solid, or a liquid, or a gas reveals about the motion of its atoms and molecules.
4.C.1.c: Formulate an explanation for the different characterisctics and behaviors of solids, liquids, and gases using an analysis of the data gathered on the motion and arrangement of atoms and molecules.
4.D.1: Compare compounds and mixtures based on data from investigations and research.
4.D.1.b: Use evidence from data gathered to explain why the components of compounds cannot be separated using physical properties.
4.D.2: Cite evidence and give examples of chemical properties of substances.
4.D.2.b: Use information gathered from investigations using indicators to classify materials as acidic, basic, or neutral.
4.D.3: Provide evidence to support the fact that common substances have the ability to change into new substances.
4.D.3.b: Use evidence from observations to identify and describe factors that influence reaction rates.
4.D.3.b.1: Change in temperature
4.D.3.c: Identify the reactants and products involved in a chemical reaction given a symbolic equation, a word equation, or a description of the reaction.
4.D.3.e: Provide examples to explain the difference between a physical change and a chemical change.
5.A.1: Develop an explanation of motion using the relationships among time, distance, velocity, and acceleration.
5.A.1.a: Observe, describe, and compare the motions of objects using position, speed, velocity, and the direction.
5.A.1.b: Based on data given or collected, graph and calculate average speed using distance and time.
5.A.1.c: Compare accelerated and constant motions using time, distance, and velocity.
5.A.1.d: Describe and calculate acceleration using change in the speed and time.
5.A.2: Identify and relate formal ideas (Newton's Laws) about the interaction of force and motion to real world experiences.
5.A.2.a: Investigate and explain the interaction of force and motion that causes objects that are at rest to move.
5.A.2.b: Demonstrate and explain, through a variety of examples, that moving objects will stay in motion at the same speed and in the same direction unless acted on by an unbalanced force.
5.A.2.c: Investigate and collect data from multiple trials, about the motion that explain the motion that results when the same force acts on objects of different mass; and when different amounts of force act on objects of the same mass.
5.A.2.d: Based on data collected and organized, explain qualitatively the relationship between net force applied to an object and its mass for a given acceleration.
5.A.2.e: Calculate the net force given the mass and acceleration.
5.A.3: Recognize and explain that every object exerts gravitational force on every other object.
5.A.3.a: Explain the difference between mass and weight.
5.A.3.a.1: Mass is a measure of inertia
5.A.3.a.2: Weight is a measure of the force of gravity.
5.A.3.b: Describe the relationship between the gravitational force and the masses of the attracting objects.
5.A.3.c: Describe the relationship between the gravitational force and the distance between the attracting objects.
5.A.3.e: Recognize that gravity is the force that holds planets, moons, and satellites in their orbits.
5.A.4: Recognize and explain that energy can neither be created nor destroyed; rather it changes form or is transferred through the action of forces.
5.A.4.a: Observe and describe the relationship between the distance an object is moved by a force and the change in its potential energy or kinetic energy, such as in a slingshot, in mechanical toys, the position of an object and its potential energy..
5.A.4.b: Identify the relationship between the amount of energy transferred (work) to the product of the applied force and the distance moved in the direction of that force.
5.A.4.c: Identify and describe that simple machines (levers and inclined planes) may reduce the amount of effort required to do work.
5.A.4.c.1: Calculate input and output work using force and distance
5.A.4.c.2: Demonstrate that input work is always greater than output work
5.B.1: Describe and cite evidence that heat can be transferred by conduction, convection and radiation.
5.B.1.a: Based on observable phenomena, identify and describe examples of heat being transferred through conduction and through convection.
5.B.2: Identify and explain that heat energy is a product of the conversion of one form of energy to another.
5.B.2.a: Identify and describe the various forms of energy that are transformed in order for systems (living and non-living) to operate.
5.B.2.a.1: Chemical - Flashlight-Light
5.B.2.a.2: Mechanical - Pulleys-Motion
5.B.2.a.3: Solar/Radiant - Solar calculator Mechanical
5.B.2.a.4: Chemical - Plant cells
5.B.2.b: Explain that some heat energy is always lost from a system during energy transformations.
6.B.1: Recognize and explain how human activities can accelerate or magnify many naturally occurring changes.
6.B.1.a: Based on data from research identify and describe how natural processes change the environment.
6.B.1.a.1: Cyclic climate change
6.B.1.a.3: Population cycles
6.B.1.b: Identify and describe how human activities produce changes in natural processes:
6.B.1.b.1: Climate change
6.B.1.b.2: Loss of habitat
6.B.1.b.4: Cycling of matter
Correlation last revised: 10/22/2009