E: Earth and Space Science

E.I: Content Standards

E.I.1: Matter and Energy in the Earth System

E.I.1.A: The entire Earth system and its various cycles are driven by energy. Earth has both internal and external sources of energy. Two fundamental energy concepts included in the Earth system are gravity and electromagnetism.

E.I.1.A.1.44: Provide examples of how the unequal heating of Earth and the Coriolis effect influence global circulation patterns, and show how they impact Massachusetts weather and climate (e.g., global winds, convection cells, land/sea breezes, mountain/valley breezes).

 Seasons Around the World
 Seasons in 3D

E.I.1.A.1.55: Explain how the revolution of Earth around the Sun and the inclination of Earth on its axis cause Earth's seasonal variations (equinoxes and solstices).

 Seasons Around the World
 Seasons in 3D
 Seasons: Why do we have them?

E.I.1.A.1.66: Describe the various conditions associated with frontal boundaries and cyclonic storms (e.g., thunderstorms, winter storms [nor'easters], hurricanes, tornadoes) and their impact on human affairs, including storm preparations.

 Hurricane Motion
 Weather Maps

E.I.3: Earth Processes and Cycles

E.I.3.A: Earth is a dynamic interconnected system. The evolution of Earth has been driven by interactions between the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. Over geologic time, the internal motions of Earth have continuously altered the topography and geography of the continents and ocean basins by both constructive and destructive processes.

E.I.3.A.3.22: Describe the carbon cycle.

 Carbon Cycle
 Cell Energy Cycle

E.I.3.A.3.44: Explain how water flows into and through a watershed. Explain the role of aquifers, wells, porosity, permeability, water table, and runoff.

 Porosity

E.I.3.A.3.55: Describe the processes of the hydrologic cycle, including evaporation, condensation, precipitation, surface runoff and groundwater percolation, infiltration, and transpiration.

 Porosity

E.I.3.A.3.66: Describe the rock cycle, and the processes that are responsible for the formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Compare the physical properties of these rock types and the physical properties of common rock-forming minerals.

 Rock Classification

E.I.3.A.3.77: Describe the absolute and relative dating methods used to measure geologic time, such as index fossils, radioactive dating, law of superposition, and crosscutting relationships.

 Half-life

E.I.3.A.3.88: Trace the development of a lithospheric plate from its growth at a divergent boundary (mid-ocean ridge) to its destruction at a convergent boundary (subduction zone). Recognize that alternating magnetic polarity is recorded in rock at mid-ocean ridges.

 Plate Tectonics

E.I.3.A.3.1010: Relate earthquakes, volcanic activity, tsunamis, mountain building, and tectonic uplift to plate movements.

 Earthquakes 1 - Recording Station
 Plate Tectonics

E.I.3.A.3.1111: Explain how seismic data are used to reveal Earth's interior structure and to locate earthquake epicenters.

 Earthquakes 1 - Recording Station
 Earthquakes 2 - Determination of Epicenter

E.I.4: The Origin and Evolution of the Universe

E.I.4.A: The origin of the universe, between 14 and 15 billion years ago, still remains one of the greatest questions in science. Gravity influences the formation and life cycles of galaxies, including our own Milky Way Galaxy; stars; planetary systems; and residual material left from the creation of the solar system.

E.I.4.A.4.11: Explain the Big Bang Theory and discuss the evidence that supports it, such as background radiation, and relativistic Doppler effect (i.e., "red shift").

 Doppler Shift
 Doppler Shift Advanced

E.I.4.A.4.22: Describe the influence of gravity and inertia on the rotation and revolution of orbiting bodies. Explain the Sun-Earth-moon relationships (e.g., day, year, solar/lunar eclipses, tides).

 Tides

E.II: Scientific Inquiry Skills Standards

E.II.SIS1: Make observations, raise questions, and formulate hypotheses.

E.II.SIS1.2: Pose questions and form hypotheses based on personal observations, scientific articles, experiments, and knowledge.

 Diffusion
 Effect of Temperature on Gender
 Seed Germination
 Sight vs. Sound Reactions

E.II.SIS2: Design and conduct scientific investigations.

E.II.SIS2.1: Articulate and explain the major concepts being investigated and the purpose of an investigation.

 Diffusion

E.II.SIS2.3: Identify independent and dependent variables.

 Diffusion
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Pendulum Clock

E.II.SIS2.4: Write procedures that are clear and replicable.

 Diffusion
 Pendulum Clock
 Seed Germination

E.II.SIS2.6: Properly use instruments, equipment, and materials (e.g., scales, probeware, meter sticks, microscopes, computers) including set-up, calibration (if required), technique, maintenance, and storage.

 Estimating Population Size

E.II.SIS3: Analyze and interpret results of scientific investigations.

E.II.SIS3.5: Present relationships between and among variables in appropriate forms.

E.II.SIS3.5.1: Represent data and relationships between variables in charts and graphs.

 Determining a Spring Constant

E.II.SIS3.3: Use results of an experiment to develop a conclusion to an investigation that addresses the initial questions and supports or refutes the stated hypothesis.

 Diffusion
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Effect of Temperature on Gender
 Pendulum Clock
 Sight vs. Sound Reactions

E.II.SIS3.4: State questions raised by an experiment that may require further investigation.

 Pendulum Clock
 Sight vs. Sound Reactions

E.II.SIS4: Communicate and apply the results of scientific investigations.

E.II.SIS4.2: Review information, explain statistical analysis, and summarize data collected and analyzed as the result of an investigation.

 Diffusion
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Pendulum Clock

E.III: Mathematical Skills

E.III.1: Construct and use tables and graphs to interpret data sets.

 Distance-Time Graphs
 Effect of Temperature on Gender
 Identifying Nutrients
 Seasons Around the World

E.III.2: Solve simple algebraic expressions.

 Estimating Population Size

E.III.7: Use scientific notation, where appropriate.

 Unit Conversions 2 - Scientific Notation and Significant Digits

E.III.8: Use ratio and proportion to solve problems.

 Estimating Population Size

E.III.9: The following skills are not detailed in the Mathematics Framework, but are necessary for a solid understanding in this course:

E.III.9.3: Use the Celsius and Kelvin scales.

 Temperature and Particle Motion

B: Biology

B.I: Content Standards

B.I.1: The Chemistry of Life

B.I.1.A: Chemical elements form organic molecules that interact to perform the basic functions of life.

B.I.1.A.1.22: Describe the basic molecular structures and primary functions of the four major categories of organic molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids).

 RNA and Protein Synthesis

B.I.2: Cell Biology

B.I.2.A: Cells have specific structures and functions that make them distinctive. Processes in a cell can be classified broadly as growth, maintenance, and reproduction.

B.I.2.A.2.11: Relate cell parts/organelles (plasma membrane, nuclear envelope, nucleus, nucleolus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosome, ribosome, vacuole, cell wall, chloroplast, cytoskeleton, centriole, cilium, flagellum, pseudopod) to their functions. Explain the role of cell membranes as a highly selective barrier (diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, and active transport).

 Cell Energy Cycle
 Cell Structure
 Osmosis
 Paramecium Homeostasis
 RNA and Protein Synthesis

B.I.2.A.2.33: Use cellular evidence (such as cell structure, cell number, and cell reproduction) and modes of nutrition to describe six kingdoms (Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia).

 Cell Structure
 Paramecium Homeostasis

B.I.2.A.2.44: Identify the reactants, products, and basic purposes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Explain the interrelated nature of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cells of photosynthetic organisms.

 Cell Energy Cycle
 Photosynthesis Lab

B.I.2.A.2.66: Describe the cell cycle and the process of mitosis. Explain the role of mitosis in the formation of new cells, and its importance in maintaining chromosome number during asexual reproduction.

 Cell Division

B.I.2.A.2.88: Compare and contrast a virus and a cell in terms of genetic material and reproduction.

 Virus Lytic Cycle

B.I.3: Genetics

B.I.3.A: Genes allow for the storage and transmission of genetic information. They are a set of instructions encoded in the nucleotide sequence of each organism. Genes code for the specific sequences of amino acids that comprise the proteins that are characteristic of that organism.

B.I.3.A.3.11: Describe the basic structure (double helix, sugar/phosphate backbone, linked by complementary nucleotide pairs) of DNA, and describe its function in genetic inheritance.

 Building DNA
 DNA Analysis
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)
 RNA and Protein Synthesis

B.I.3.A.3.22: Describe the basic process of DNA replication and how it relates to the transmission and conservation of the genetic code. Explain the basic processes of transcription and translation, and how they result in the expression of genes. Distinguish among the end products of replication, transcription, and translation.

 Building DNA
 RNA and Protein Synthesis

B.I.3.A.3.33: Explain how mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may or may not result in phenotypic change in an organism. Explain how mutations in gametes may result in phenotypic changes in offspring.

 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection

B.I.3.A.3.44: Distinguish among observed inheritance patterns caused by several types of genetic traits (dominant, recessive, incomplete dominance, codominant, sex-linked, polygenic, and multiple alleles).

 Chicken Genetics
 Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
 Microevolution
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

B.I.3.A.3.66: Use a Punnett Square to determine the probabilities for genotype and phenotype combinations in monohybrid crosses.

 Chicken Genetics
 Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
 Microevolution
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

B.I.4: Anatomy and Physiology

B.I.4.A: There is a relationship between the organization of cells into tissues, and tissues into organs. The structure and function of organs determine their relationships within body systems of an organism. Homeostasis allows the body to perform its normal functions.

B.I.4.A.4.44: Explain how the nervous system (brain, spinal cord, sensory neurons, motor neurons) mediates communication between different parts of the body and the body's interactions with the environment. Identify the basic unit of the nervous system, the neuron, and explain generally how it works.

 Human Homeostasis

B.I.4.A.4.66: Recognize that the sexual reproductive system allows organisms to produce offspring that receive half of their genetic information from their mother and half from their father and that sexually produced offspring resemble, but are not identical to, either of their parents.

 Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

B.I.4.A.4.88: Recognize that the body's systems interact to maintain homeostasis. Describe the basic function of a physiological feedback loop.

 Human Homeostasis

B.I.5: Evolution and Biodiversity

B.I.5.A: Evolution is the result of genetic changes that occur in constantly changing environments. Over many generations, changes in the genetic make-up of populations may affect biodiversity through speciation and extinction.

B.I.5.A.5.11: Explain how evolution is demonstrated by evidence from the fossil record, comparative anatomy, genetics, molecular biology, and examples of natural selection.

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection
 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection
 Human Evolution - Skull Analysis
 Microevolution
 Rainfall and Bird Beaks

B.I.5.A.5.22: Describe species as reproductively distinct groups of organisms. Recognize that species are further classified into a hierarchical taxonomic system (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species) based on morphological, behavioral, and molecular similarities. Describe the role that geographic isolation can play in speciation.

 Dichotomous Keys
 Human Evolution - Skull Analysis

B.I.5.A.5.33: Explain how evolution through natural selection can result in changes in biodiversity through the increase or decrease of genetic diversity from a population.

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection
 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection
 Natural Selection
 Rainfall and Bird Beaks

B.I.6: Ecology

B.I.6.A: Ecology is the interaction among organisms and between organisms and their environment.

B.I.6.A.6.11: Explain how birth, death, immigration, and emigration influence population size.

 Food Chain

B.I.6.A.6.22: Analyze changes in population size and biodiversity (speciation and extinction) that result from the following: natural causes, changes in climate, human activity, and the introduction of invasive, non-native species.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Coral Reefs 2 - Biotic Factors
 Pond Ecosystem
 Rabbit Population by Season

B.I.6.A.6.33: Use a food web to identify and distinguish producers, consumers, and decomposers, and explain the transfer of energy through trophic levels. Describe how relationships among organisms (predation, parasitism, competition, commensalism, and mutualism) add to the complexity of biological communities.

 Food Chain
 Forest Ecosystem

B.I.6.A.6.44: Explain how water, carbon, and nitrogen cycle between abiotic resources and organic matter in an ecosystem and how oxygen cycles through photosynthesis and respiration.

 Cell Energy Cycle
 Photosynthesis Lab
 Pond Ecosystem

B.II: Scientific Inquiry Skills Standards

B.II.SIS1: Make observations, raise questions, and formulate hypotheses.

B.II.SIS1.2: Pose questions and form hypotheses based on personal observations, scientific articles, experiments, and knowledge.

 Diffusion
 Effect of Temperature on Gender
 Seed Germination
 Sight vs. Sound Reactions

B.II.SIS2: Design and conduct scientific investigations.

B.II.SIS2.1: Articulate and explain the major concepts being investigated and the purpose of an investigation.

 Diffusion

B.II.SIS2.3: Identify independent and dependent variables.

 Diffusion
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Pendulum Clock

B.II.SIS2.4: Write procedures that are clear and replicable.

 Diffusion
 Pendulum Clock
 Seed Germination

B.II.SIS2.6: Properly use instruments, equipment, and materials (such as scales, probeware, meter sticks, microscopes, computers, etc.) including: set-up, calibration (if required), technique, maintenance, and storage.

 Estimating Population Size

B.II.SIS3: Analyze and interpret results of scientific investigations.

B.II.SIS3.1: Present relationships between variables in appropriate forms.

B.II.SIS3.1.1: Represent data and relationships between variables in charts and graphs.

 Determining a Spring Constant

B.II.SIS3.1.2: Use appropriate technology (such as graphing software, etc.) and other tools.

 Triple Beam Balance

B.II.SIS3.4: Use results of an experiment to develop a conclusion to an investigation that addresses the initial questions and supports or refutes the stated hypothesis.

 Diffusion
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Effect of Temperature on Gender
 Pendulum Clock
 Sight vs. Sound Reactions

B.II.SIS3.5: State questions raised by an experiment that may require further investigation.

 Pendulum Clock
 Sight vs. Sound Reactions

B.II.SIS4: Communicate and apply the results of scientific investigations.

B.II.SIS4.2: Review information, explain statistical analysis, and summarize data collected and analyzed from an investigation.

 Diffusion
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Pendulum Clock

B.III: Mathematical Skills

B.III.1: Construct and use tables and graphs to interpret data sets.

 Distance-Time Graphs
 Effect of Temperature on Gender
 Identifying Nutrients
 Seasons Around the World

B.III.2: Solve simple algebraic expressions.

 Estimating Population Size

B.III.5: Convert within a unit (such as, centimeters to meters).

 Stoichiometry
 Unit Conversions

B.III.7: Use scientific notation, where appropriate.

 Unit Conversions 2 - Scientific Notation and Significant Digits

B.III.8: Use ratio and proportion in the solution of problems.

 Estimating Population Size

B.III.9: The following skills are not detailed in the Mathematics Framework, but are necessary for a solid understanding in this course:

B.III.9.1: Determine the correct number of significant figures.

 Unit Conversions 2 - Scientific Notation and Significant Digits

C: Chemistry

C.I: Content Standards

C.I.1: Properties of Matter

C.I.1.A: Physical and chemical properties reflect the nature of the interactions between molecules or atoms and can be used to classify and describe matter.

C.I.1.A.1.11: Identify and explain physical properties (such as density, melting point, boiling point, conductivity, and malleability) and chemical properties (such as the ability to form new substances). Distinguish between chemical and physical changes.

 Chemical Changes
 Circuit Builder
 Density Experiment: Slice and Dice
 Density Laboratory

C.I.1.A.1.33: Describe the three normal states of matter (solid, liquid, gas) in terms of energy, particle motion, and phase transitions.

 Phase Changes
 Temperature and Particle Motion

C.I.2: Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry

C.I.2.A: Atomic models are used to explain atoms and help us understand the interaction of elements and compounds observed on a macroscopic scale. Nuclear chemistry deals with radioactivity, nuclear processes, and nuclear properties. Nuclear reactions produce tremendous amounts of energy and the formation of the elements.

C.I.2.A.2.11: Recognize discoveries from Dalton (atomic theory), Thomson (the electron), Rutherford (the nucleus), and Bohr (planetary model of atom) and understand how these discoveries lead to the modern theory.

 Bohr Model of Hydrogen
 Bohr Model: Introduction

C.I.2.A.2.33: Interpret and apply the laws of conservation of mass, constant composition (definite proportions), and multiple proportions.

 Chemical Equations
 Limiting Reactants

C.I.2.A.2.44: Write the electron configurations for the first twenty elements of the periodic table.

 Electron Configuration

C.I.2.A.2.55: Identify the three main types of radioactive decay (alpha, beta, and gamma) and compare their properties (composition, mass, charge, and penetrating power).

 Nuclear Decay

C.I.2.A.2.66: Describe the process of radioactive decay by using nuclear equations and explain the concept of half-life for an isotope, for example, C-14 is a powerful tool in determining the age of objects.

 Half-life
 Nuclear Decay

C.I.3: Periodicity

C.I.3.A: Repeating (periodic) patterns of physical and chemical properties occur among elements that define families with similar properties. The periodic table displays this repeating pattern, which is related to an atom's outermost electrons.

C.I.3.A.3.11: Explain the relationship of an element's position on the periodic table to its atomic number. Identify families (groups) and periods on the periodic table.

 Electron Configuration
 Element Builder
 Ionic Bonds

C.I.3.A.3.33: Relate the position of an element on the periodic table to its electron configuration and compare its reactivity with other elements in the table.

 Electron Configuration

C.I.3.A.3.44: Identify trends on the periodic table (ionization energy, electronegativity, and relative size of atoms and ions).

 Electron Configuration

C.I.4: Chemical Bonding

C.I.4.A: Atoms bond with each other by transferring or sharing valence electrons to form compounds.

C.I.4.A.4.11: Explain how atoms combine to form compounds through both ionic and covalent bonding. Predict chemical formulas based on the number of valence electrons.

 Covalent Bonds
 Ionic Bonds

C.I.4.A.4.22: Draw Lewis dot structures for simple molecules and ionic compounds.

 Covalent Bonds
 Ionic Bonds

C.I.5: Chemical Reactions and Stoichiometry

C.I.5.A: In a chemical reaction, one or more reactants are transformed into one or more new products. Chemical equations represent the reaction and must be balanced. The conservation of atoms in a chemical reaction leads to the ability to calculate the amount of products formed and reactants used (stoichiometry).

C.I.5.A.5.11: Balance chemical equations by applying the laws of conservation of mass and constant composition (definite proportions).

 Balancing Chemical Equations
 Chemical Equations
 Limiting Reactants
 Stoichiometry

C.I.5.A.5.22: Classify chemical reactions as synthesis (combination), decomposition, single displacement, double displacement, and combustion.

 Balancing Chemical Equations
 Chemical Equations
 Dehydration Synthesis
 Equilibrium and Concentration

C.I.5.A.5.33: Use the mole concept to determine the number of particles and the molar mass of elements and compounds.

 Chemical Equations
 Stoichiometry

C.I.5.A.5.44: Determine percent compositions, empirical formulas, and molecular formulas.

 Chemical Equations

C.I.5.A.5.55: Calculate the mass-to-mass stoichiometry for a chemical reaction.

 Chemical Equations
 Limiting Reactants
 Stoichiometry

C.I.5.A.5.66: Calculate percent yield in a chemical reaction.

 Limiting Reactants

C.I.6: States of Matter, Kinetic Molecular Theory, and Thermochemistry

C.I.6.A: Gas particles move independently of each other and are far apart. Their behavior can be modeled by the kinetic molecular theory. In liquids and solids, unlike gases, the particles are close to each other. The driving forces of chemical reactions are energy and entropy. The reorganization of atoms in chemical reactions results in the release or absorption of heat energy.

C.I.6.A.6.11: Using the kinetic molecular theory, explain the behavior of gases and the relationship between pressure and volume (Boyle's law), volume and temperature (Charles's law), pressure and temperature (Gay-Lussac's law), and the number of particles in a gas sample (Avogadro's hypothesis). Use the combined gas law to determine changes in pressure, volume, and temperature.

 Boyle's Law and Charles' Law

C.I.6.A.6.33: Using the kinetic molecular theory, describe and contrast the properties of gases, liquids, and solids. Explain, at the molecular level, the behavior of matter as it undergoes phase transitions.

 Phase Changes
 Temperature and Particle Motion

C.I.6.A.6.44: Describe the law of conservation of energy. Explain the difference between an endothermic process and an exothermic process.

 Air Track
 Chemical Changes
 Energy Conversion in a System
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Roller Coaster Physics

C.I.7: Solutions, Rates of Reaction, and Equilibrium

C.I.7.A: Solids, liquids, and gases dissolve to form solutions. Rates of reaction and chemical equilibrium are dynamic processes that are significant in many systems (biological, ecological, and geological).

C.I.7.A.7.44: Compare and contrast qualitatively the properties of solutions and pure solvents (colligative properties such as boiling point and freezing point).

 Freezing Point of Salt Water

C.I.7.A.7.55: Identify the factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction (temperature, mixing, concentration, particle size, surface area, and catalyst).

 Collision Theory

C.I.7.A.7.66: Predict the shift in equilibrium when the system is subjected to a stress (LeChatelier's principle) and identify the factors that can cause a shift in equilibrium (concentration, pressure, volume, temperature).

 Diffusion
 Equilibrium and Concentration
 Equilibrium and Pressure

C.I.8: Acids and Bases and Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

C.I.8.A: Acids and bases are important in numerous chemical processes that occur around us, from industrial procedures to biological ones, from the laboratory to the environment. Oxidation-reduction reactions occur when one substance transfers electrons to another substance and constitutes a major class of chemical reactions.

C.I.8.A.8.11: Define the Arrhenius theory of acids and bases in terms of the presence of hydronium and hydroxide ions in water and the Bronsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases in terms of proton donor and acceptor.

 pH Analysis
 pH Analysis: Quad Color Indicator

C.I.8.A.8.22: Relate hydrogen ion concentrations to the pH scale, and to acidic, basic, and neutral solutions. Compare and contrast the strength of various common acids and bases such as vinegar, baking soda, soap, and citrus juice.

 pH Analysis
 pH Analysis: Quad Color Indicator

C.II: Scientific Inquiry Skills Standards

C.II.SIS1: Make observations, raise questions, and formulate hypotheses.

C.II.SIS1.2: Pose questions and form hypotheses based on personal observations, scientific articles, experiments, and knowledge.

 Diffusion
 Effect of Temperature on Gender
 Seed Germination
 Sight vs. Sound Reactions

C.II.SIS2: Design and conduct scientific investigations.

C.II.SIS2.1: Articulate and explain the major concepts being investigated and the purpose of an investigation.

 Diffusion

C.II.SIS2.3: Identify independent and dependent variables.

 Diffusion
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Pendulum Clock

C.II.SIS2.4: Write procedures that are clear and replicable.

 Diffusion
 Pendulum Clock
 Seed Germination

C.II.SIS2.6: Properly use instruments, equipment, and materials (such as scales, probeware, meter sticks, microscopes, computers, etc.) including: set-up, calibration (if required), technique, maintenance, and storage.

 Estimating Population Size

C.II.SIS3: Analyze and interpret results of scientific investigations.

C.II.SIS3.A: Present relationships between variables in appropriate forms.

C.II.SIS3.A.1: Represent data and relationships between variables in charts and graphs.

 Determining a Spring Constant

C.II.SIS3.3: Use results of an experiment to develop a conclusion to an investigation that addresses the initial questions and supports or refutes the stated hypothesis.

 Diffusion
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Effect of Temperature on Gender
 Pendulum Clock
 Sight vs. Sound Reactions

C.II.SIS3.4: State questions raised by an experiment that may require further investigation.

 Pendulum Clock
 Sight vs. Sound Reactions

C.II.SIS4: Communicate and apply the results of scientific investigations.

C.II.SIS4.2: Review information, explain statistical analysis, and summarize data collected and analyzed from an investigation.

 Diffusion
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Pendulum Clock

C.III: Mathematical Skills

C.III.1: Construct and use tables and graphs to interpret data sets.

 Distance-Time Graphs
 Effect of Temperature on Gender
 Identifying Nutrients
 Seasons Around the World

C.III.2: Solve simple algebraic expressions.

 Estimating Population Size

C.III.5: Convert within a unit (such as, centimeters to meters).

 Stoichiometry
 Unit Conversions

C.III.7: Use scientific notation, where appropriate.

 Unit Conversions 2 - Scientific Notation and Significant Digits

C.III.8: Use ratio and proportion in the solution of problems.

 Estimating Population Size

C.III.9: The following skills are not detailed in the Mathematics Framework, but are necessary for a solid understanding in this course:

C.III.9.1: Determine the correct number of significant figures.

 Unit Conversions 2 - Scientific Notation and Significant Digits

C.III.9.4: Use Celsius and Kelvin scales.

 Temperature and Particle Motion

P: Introductory Physics

P.I: Content Standards

P.I.1: Motion and Forces

P.I.1.A: Newton's laws of motion and gravitation describe and predict the motion of most objects.

P.I.1.A.1.11: Compare and contrast vector quantities (such as, displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, and linear momentum) and scalar quantities (such as, distance, speed, energy, mass, and work).

 Golf Range
 Shoot the Monkey

P.I.1.A.1.22: Distinguish between displacement, distance, velocity, speed, and acceleration. Solve problems involving displacement, distance, velocity, speed, and constant acceleration.

 Atwood Machine
 Free-Fall Laboratory
 Golf Range
 Shoot the Monkey

P.I.1.A.1.33: Create and interpret graphs of 1-dimensional motion, such as position vs. time, distance vs. time, speed vs. time, velocity vs. time, and acceleration vs. time where acceleration is constant.

 Distance-Time Graphs
 Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs
 Free-Fall Laboratory

P.I.1.A.1.44: Interpret and apply Newton's three laws of motion.

 Atwood Machine
 Fan Cart Physics

P.I.1.A.1.55: Use a free-body force diagram to show forces acting on a system consisting of a pair of interacting objects. For a diagram with only co-linear forces, determine the net force acting on a system and between the objects.

 Atwood Machine
 Inclined Plane - Simple Machine
 Pith Ball Lab

P.I.1.A.1.66: Distinguish qualitatively between static and kinetic friction, and describe their effects on the motion of objects.

 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

P.I.1.A.1.77: Describe Newton's law of universal gravitation in terms of the attraction between two objects, their masses, and the distance between them.

 Gravitational Force
 Pith Ball Lab

P.I.1.A.1.88: Describe conceptually the forces involved in circular motion.

 Uniform Circular Motion

P.I.2: Conservation of Energy and Momentum

P.I.2.A: The laws of conservation of energy and momentum provide alternate approaches to predict and describe the movement of objects.

P.I.2.A.2.11: Interpret and provide examples that illustrate the law of conservation of energy.

 Air Track
 Energy Conversion in a System
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Roller Coaster Physics

P.I.2.A.2.22: Interpret and provide examples of how energy can be converted from gravitational potential energy to kinetic energy and vice versa.

 Energy Conversion in a System
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Roller Coaster Physics

P.I.2.A.2.33: Describe both qualitatively and quantitatively how work can be expressed as a change in mechanical energy.

 Pulley Lab

P.I.2.A.2.55: Interpret and provide examples that linear momentum is the product of mass and velocity and is always conserved (law of conservation of momentum). Calculate the momentum of an object.

 2D Collisions
 Air Track
 Roller Coaster Physics

P.I.3: Heat and Heat Transfer

P.I.3.A: Heat is energy that is transferred between objects or regions that are at different temperatures by the processes of convection, conduction, and radiation.

P.I.3.A.3.11: Explain how heat energy is transferred by convection, conduction, and/or radiation.

 Herschel Experiment

P.I.3.A.3.33: Describe the relationship between average molecular kinetic energy and temperature. Recognize that energy is absorbed when a substance changes from a solid to a liquid to a gas, and that energy is released when a substance changes from a gas to a liquid to a solid. Explain the relationships between evaporation, condensation, cooling, and warming.

 Phase Changes

P.I.3.A.3.44: Explain the relationship among temperature change in a substance for a given amount of heat transferred, the amount (mass) of the substance, and the specific heat of the substance.

 Calorimetry Lab
 Energy Conversion in a System

P.I.4: Waves

P.I.4.A: Waves carry energy from place to place without the transfer of matter.

P.I.4.A.4.11: Describe the measurable properties of waves (velocity, frequency, wavelength, amplitude, and period) and explain the relationships among them. Recognize examples of simple harmonic motion.

 Longitudinal Waves
 Period of Mass on a Spring
 Period of a Pendulum
 Refraction
 Ripple Tank
 Simple Harmonic Motion

P.I.4.A.4.33: Distinguish between the two types of mechanical waves, transverse and longitudinal.

 Longitudinal Waves

P.I.4.A.4.44: Describe qualitatively the basic principles of reflection and refraction of waves.

 Basic Prism
 Refraction
 Ripple Tank

P.I.4.A.4.66: Describe the apparent change in frequency of waves due to the motion of a source or a receiver (the Doppler effect).

 Doppler Shift
 Doppler Shift Advanced

P.I.5: Electromagnetism

P.I.5.A: Stationary and moving charged particles result in the phenomena known as electricity and magnetism.

P.I.5.A.5.22: Develop a qualitative and quantitative understanding of current, voltage, resistance, and the connection between them (Ohm's law).

 Advanced Circuits
 Circuit Builder
 Circuits

P.I.5.A.5.33: Analyze simple arrangements of electrical components in both serial and parallel circuits. Recognize symbols and understand the functions of common circuit elements (battery, connecting wire, switch, fuse, and resistance) in a schematic diagram.

 Advanced Circuits
 Circuit Builder
 Circuits

P.I.5.A.5.44: Describe conceptually the attractive or repulsive forces between objects relative to their charges and the distance between them (Coulomb's law).

 Coulomb Force (Static)
 Pith Ball Lab

P.I.5.A.5.66: Recognize that moving electric charges produce magnetic forces and moving magnets produce electric forces. Recognize that the interplay of electric and magnetic forces is the basis for electric motors, generators, and other technologies.

 Electromagnetic Induction
 Magnetic Induction

P.I.6: Electromagnetic Radiation

P.I.6.A: Oscillating electric or magnetic fields can generate electromagnetic waves over a wide spectrum.

P.I.6.A.6.22: Describe the electromagnetic spectrum in terms of frequency and wavelength and identify the location of radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet), ultraviolet rays, x-rays, and gamma rays on the spectrum.

 Herschel Experiment

P.II: Scientific Inquiry Skills Standards

P.II.SIS1: Make observations, raise questions, and formulate hypotheses.

P.II.SIS1.2: Pose questions and form hypotheses based on personal observations, scientific articles, experiments, and knowledge.

 Diffusion
 Effect of Temperature on Gender
 Seed Germination
 Sight vs. Sound Reactions

P.II.SIS2: Design and conduct scientific investigations.

P.II.SIS2.1: Articulate and explain the major concepts being investigated and the purpose of an investigation.

 Diffusion

P.II.SIS2.3: Identify independent and dependent variables.

 Diffusion
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Pendulum Clock

P.II.SIS2.4: Write procedures that are clear and replicable.

 Diffusion
 Pendulum Clock
 Seed Germination

P.II.SIS2.6: Properly use instruments, equipment, and materials (such as scales, probeware, meter sticks, microscopes, computers, etc.) including: set-up, calibration (if required), technique, maintenance, and storage.

 Estimating Population Size

P.II.SIS3: Analyze and interpret results of scientific investigations.

P.II.SIS3.A: Present relationships between variables in appropriate forms.

P.II.SIS3.A.1: Represent data and relationships between variables in charts and graphs.

 Determining a Spring Constant

P.II.SIS3.3: Use results of an experiment to develop a conclusion to an investigation that addresses the initial questions and supports or refutes the stated hypothesis.

 Diffusion
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Effect of Temperature on Gender
 Pendulum Clock
 Sight vs. Sound Reactions

P.II.SIS3.4: State questions raised by an experiment that may require further investigation.

 Pendulum Clock
 Sight vs. Sound Reactions

P.II.SIS4: Communicate and apply the results of scientific investigations.

P.II.SIS4.2: Review information, explain statistical analysis, and summarize data collected and analyzed from an investigation.

 Diffusion
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Pendulum Clock

P.III: Mathematical Skills

P.III.1: Construct and use tables and graphs to interpret data sets.

 Distance-Time Graphs
 Effect of Temperature on Gender
 Identifying Nutrients
 Seasons Around the World

P.III.2: Solve simple algebraic expressions.

 Estimating Population Size

P.III.5: Convert within a unit (such as, centimeters to meters).

 Stoichiometry
 Unit Conversions

P.III.7: Use scientific notation, where appropriate. Use ratio and proportion in the solution of problems.

 Estimating Population Size
 Unit Conversions 2 - Scientific Notation and Significant Digits

P.III.8: The following skills are not detailed in the Mathematics Framework, but are necessary for a solid understanding in this course:

P.III.8.1: Determine the correct number of significant figures.

 Unit Conversions 2 - Scientific Notation and Significant Digits

P.III.8.3: Use appropriate metric/standard international (SI) units of measurement for mass (kg); length (m); time (s); force (N); speed (m/s); acceleration (m*s-2); frequency (Hz); work and energy (J); power (W); momentum (kg*m/s); electric current (A); electric potential difference/voltage (V); and electric resistance (omega).

 Pulley Lab

P.III.8.4: Use Celsius and Kelvin scales.

 Temperature and Particle Motion

T: Technology/Engineering

T.I: Content Standards

T.I.1: Engineering Design

T.I.1.A: Engineering design involves practical problem solving, research, development, and invention/innovation and requires designing, drawing, building, testing, and redesigning. Students should demonstrate the ability to use the engineering design process to solve a problem or meet a challenge.

T.I.1.A.1.11: Identify and explain the steps of the engineering design process. The design process steps are identify the problem; research the problem; develop possible solutions; select the best possible solution(s); construct prototypes and/or models; test and evaluate; communicate the solutions; and redesign.

 Trebuchet

T.I.1.A.1.22: Understand that the engineering design process is used in the solution of problems and the advancement of society. Identify and explain examples of technologies, objects, and processes that have been modified to advance society.

 Trebuchet

T.I.5: Energy and Power Technologies-Electrical Systems

T.I.5.A: Electrical systems generate, transfer, and distribute electricity. Students should demonstrate the ability to use the engineering design process to solve a problem or meet a challenge in electrical systems.

T.I.5.A.5.11: Explain how to measure and calculate voltage, current, resistance, and power consumption in a series circuit and in a parallel circuit. Identify the instruments used to measure voltage, current, power consumption, and resistance.

 Circuit Builder

T.I.5.A.5.22: Identify and explain the components of a circuit including sources, conductors, circuit breakers, fuses, controllers, and loads. Examples of some controllers are switches, relays, diodes, and variable resistors.

 Advanced Circuits
 Circuit Builder
 Circuits

T.I.5.A.5.33: Explain the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance in a simple circuit using Ohm's law.

 Advanced Circuits
 Circuits

T.II: Steps of the Engineering Design Process

T.II.1: Steps of the Design Process

T.II.1.2: Research the need or problem

T.II.1.2.1: Examine current state of the issue and current solutions

 Trebuchet

T.II.1.3: Develop possible solution(s)

T.II.1.3.1: Brainstorm possible solutions

 Trebuchet

T.II.1.3.2: Draw on mathematics and science

 Trebuchet

T.II.1.3.4: Refine the possible solutions

 Trebuchet

T.II.1.4: Select the best possible solution(s)

T.II.1.4.1: Determine which solution(s) best meet(s) the original requirements

 Trebuchet

T.II.1.5: Construct one or more prototypes and/or models

T.II.1.5.1: Model the selected solution(s) in two and three dimensions

 Trebuchet

T.II.1.6: Test and evaluate the solution(s)

T.II.1.6.1: Does it work?

 Trebuchet

T.II.1.6.2: Does it meet the original design constraints?

 Trebuchet

T.II.1.8: Redesign

T.II.1.8.1: Modify the solution(s) based on information gathered during the tests and presentation

 Trebuchet

T.III: Mathematical Skills

T.III.1: Construct and use tables and graphs to interpret data sets.

 Distance-Time Graphs
 Effect of Temperature on Gender
 Identifying Nutrients
 Seasons Around the World

T.III.2: Solve simple algebraic expressions.

 Estimating Population Size

T.III.6: Convert within a unit (such as, centimeters to meters and inches to feet).

 Stoichiometry
 Unit Conversions

T.III.8: Use scientific notation, where appropriate.

 Unit Conversions 2 - Scientific Notation and Significant Digits

T.III.9: Use ratio and proportion in the solution of problems.

 Estimating Population Size

T.III.10: The following skills are not detailed in the Mathematics Framework, but are necessary for a solid understanding in this course:

T.III.10.1: Determine the correct number of significant figures.

 Unit Conversions 2 - Scientific Notation and Significant Digits

T.III.10.3: Use appropriate metric/standard international (SI) units of measurement for mass (kg); length (m); time (s); power (W); electric current (A); electric potential difference/voltage (V); and electric resistance (omega)

 Household Energy Usage

Correlation last revised: 4/4/2018

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this state's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.