### PI: Science Processes and Inquiry

#### PI.1: Observing is the first action taken by the learner to acquire new information about an object or event. Opportunities for observation are developed through the use of a variety of scientific tools. Measurement allows observations to be quantified. The student will accomplish these objectives to meet this process standard.

PI.1.2: Use appropriate tools with accuracy and precision (e.g., metric ruler, graduated cylinder, thermometer, balance, spring scale, stopwatch, probeware, graphing calculators, digital cameras, computer simulations) when measuring objects and/or events.

PI.1.3: Use appropriate International Systems of Units (SI) (i.e., meters, liters, degrees Celsius, and seconds) and SI prefixes (i.e., micro-, milli-, centi-, and kilo-) when measuring mass volume and temperature.

#### PI.2: Classifying establishes order. Objects and events are classified based on similarities, differences, and interrelationships. The student will accomplish these objectives to meet this process standard.

PI.2.1: Using observable properties, place an object or event (i.e., chemical versus physical, charge, electron level, and reaction types) into a classification system.

PI.2.2: Identify properties by which a classification system is based.

#### PI.3: Understanding experimental design requires that students recognize the components of a valid experiment. The student will accomplish these objectives to meet this process standard.

PI.3.2: Identify the independent variables, dependent variables, controlled variables, and control in an experiment.

PI.3.3: Use mathematics to show relationships within a given set of observations (i.e., conservation of mass and stoichiometry).

PI.3.4: Identify a hypothesis for a given problem in chemistry investigations.

#### PI.4: Interpreting is the process of recognizing patterns in collected data by making inferences, predictions, or conclusions. Communicating is the process of describing, recording, and reporting experimental procedures and results to others. Communication may be oral, written, or mathematical and includes organizing ideas, using appropriate vocabulary, graphs, other visual representations, and mathematical equations. The student will accomplish these objectives to meet this process standard.

PI.4.3: Interpret data tables, line, bard, trend, and/or circle graphs from existing science research or student experiments.

PI.4.4: Determine if results of chemical science investigations support or do not support hypotheses.

PI.4.5: Evaluate experimental data to draw the most logical conclusion.

PI.4.8: Identify and/or create an appropriate graph or chart from collected data, tables, or written description.

PI.4.8.a: Translate quantitative information expressed in words into visual form (e.g., a table or chart).

PI.4.8.b: Translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., a table, chart, or equation) into words.

#### PI.5: Modeling is the active process of forming a mental or physical representation from data, patterns, or relationships to facilitate understanding and enhance prediction. The student will accomplish these objectives to meet this process standard.

PI.5.2: Select predictions based on models (e.g., electron configuration, bonding, compound formation), and when appropriate, apply mathematical reasoning to make accurate predictions.

PI.5.3: Compare a given model to the physical world.

#### PI.6: In order for inquiry to occur, students must have the opportunity to make observations, pose questions, formulate testable hypotheses, carry out experiments, and make conclusions based on evidence. The student will accomplish these objectives to meet this process standard.

PI.6.2: Design and conduct scientific investigations in which variables are identified and controlled.

PI.6.4: Inquiries should lead to the formulation of explanations or models (physical, conceptual, and mathematical). In answering questions, students should engage in discussions (based on scientific knowledge, the use of logic, and evidence from the investigation) and arguments that encourage the revision of their explanations, leading to further inquiry.

### 1: All matter is made up of atoms. Its structure is made up of repeating patterns and has characteristic properties. The student will engage in investigations that integrate the process standards and lead to the discovery of the following objectives:

#### 1.4: A compound is formed when two or more kinds of atoms bind together chemically.

1.4.a: Atoms interact with one another by transferring (ionic) or sharing (covalent) valence electrons.

1.4.b: Valence electrons govern the chemical properties and reactivity of the element.

### 3: Total energy is conserved in a closed system. The student will engage in investigations that integrate the process and inquiry standards and lead to the discovery of the following objectives:

#### 3.4: As energy varies in a closed system containing a gas, the parameters (i.e., volume, temperature, and pressure) are governed by specific laws (i.e., Avogadro?s Law, Boyle?s Law, Charles? Law, Dalton?s Law, Ideal Gas Law).

Correlation last revised: 5/21/2018

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this state's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.