PI: Science Processes and Inquiry

PI.1: Observing is the first action taken by the learner to acquire new information about an object or event. Opportunities for observation are developed through the use of a variety of scientific tools. Measurement allows observations to be quantified. The student will accomplish these objectives to meet this process standard.

PI.1.2: Use appropriate tools with accuracy and precision (e.g., metric ruler, graduated cylinder, thermometer, balance, spring scale, stopwatch, probeware, graphing calculators, digital cameras, computer simulations) when measuring objects and/or events.

 Triple Beam Balance

PI.1.3: Use appropriate International Systems of Units (SI) (i.e., meters, liters, degrees Celsius, and seconds) and SI prefixes (i.e., micro-, milli-, centi-, and kilo-) when measuring mass volume and temperature.

 Triple Beam Balance

PI.2: Classifying establishes order. Objects and events are classified based on similarities, differences, and interrelationships. The student will accomplish these objectives to meet this process standard.

PI.2.1: Using observable properties, place an object or event (i.e., chemical versus physical, charge, electron level, and reaction types) into a classification system.

 Dichotomous Keys

PI.2.2: Identify properties by which a classification system is based.

 Dichotomous Keys

PI.3: Understanding experimental design requires that students recognize the components of a valid experiment. The student will accomplish these objectives to meet this process standard.

PI.3.2: Identify the independent variables, dependent variables, controlled variables, and control in an experiment.

 Diffusion
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Pendulum Clock
 Seed Germination

PI.3.3: Use mathematics to show relationships within a given set of observations (i.e., conservation of mass and stoichiometry).

 Pendulum Clock

PI.3.4: Identify a hypothesis for a given problem in chemistry investigations.

 Pendulum Clock

PI.4: Interpreting is the process of recognizing patterns in collected data by making inferences, predictions, or conclusions. Communicating is the process of describing, recording, and reporting experimental procedures and results to others. Communication may be oral, written, or mathematical and includes organizing ideas, using appropriate vocabulary, graphs, other visual representations, and mathematical equations. The student will accomplish these objectives to meet this process standard.

PI.4.3: Interpret data tables, line, bard, trend, and/or circle graphs from existing science research or student experiments.

 Distance-Time Graphs
 Effect of Temperature on Gender
 Identifying Nutrients

PI.4.4: Determine if results of chemical science investigations support or do not support hypotheses.

 Diffusion
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Effect of Temperature on Gender
 Pendulum Clock

PI.4.5: Evaluate experimental data to draw the most logical conclusion.

 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Pendulum Clock

PI.4.8: Identify and/or create an appropriate graph or chart from collected data, tables, or written description.

PI.4.8.a: Translate quantitative information expressed in words into visual form (e.g., a table or chart).

 Earthquakes 1 - Recording Station

PI.4.8.b: Translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., a table, chart, or equation) into words.

 Earthquakes 1 - Recording Station

PI.5: Modeling is the active process of forming a mental or physical representation from data, patterns, or relationships to facilitate understanding and enhance prediction. The student will accomplish these objectives to meet this process standard.

PI.5.2: Select predictions based on models (e.g., electron configuration, bonding, compound formation), and when appropriate, apply mathematical reasoning to make accurate predictions.

 Covalent Bonds
 Electron Configuration
 Ionic Bonds

PI.5.3: Compare a given model to the physical world.

 Determining a Spring Constant

PI.6: In order for inquiry to occur, students must have the opportunity to make observations, pose questions, formulate testable hypotheses, carry out experiments, and make conclusions based on evidence. The student will accomplish these objectives to meet this process standard.

PI.6.2: Design and conduct scientific investigations in which variables are identified and controlled.

 Diffusion
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Pendulum Clock
 Real-Time Histogram
 Sight vs. Sound Reactions

PI.6.4: Inquiries should lead to the formulation of explanations or models (physical, conceptual, and mathematical). In answering questions, students should engage in discussions (based on scientific knowledge, the use of logic, and evidence from the investigation) and arguments that encourage the revision of their explanations, leading to further inquiry.

 Diffusion
 Effect of Environment on New Life Form
 Pendulum Clock

1: All matter is made up of atoms. Its structure is made up of repeating patterns and has characteristic properties. The student will engage in investigations that integrate the process standards and lead to the discovery of the following objectives:

1.1: Matter is made of atoms which are in constant motion. Atoms are composed of subatomic particles (e.g., protons, neutrons, electrons, quarks).

 Element Builder

1.2: Atoms interact with one another by transferring or sharing outer electrons that are farthest from the nucleus. These outer electrons govern the chemical properties of the element.

 Covalent Bonds
 Electron Configuration
 Ionic Bonds

1.4: A compound is formed when two or more kinds of atoms bind together chemically.

1.4.a: Atoms interact with one another by transferring (ionic) or sharing (covalent) valence electrons.

 Covalent Bonds
 Ionic Bonds

1.4.b: Valence electrons govern the chemical properties and reactivity of the element.

 Electron Configuration

2: A chemical reaction is a reaction in which one or more substances are changed into different substances. A chemical change cannot be reversed by physical means. The student will engage in investigations that integrate the process standards and lead to the discovery of the following objectives:

2.1: Chemical substances react in definite molar weight proportions and mass is conserved. Balanced chemical equations are used to determine molar ratios.

 Chemical Equations

2.2: Chemical reactions can be classified (e.g., synthesis/combination, decomposition, single displacement, double displacement, combustion, oxidation/reduction, acid/base). Reaction classification aids in the prediction of products.

 Balancing Chemical Equations
 Chemical Changes
 Chemical Equations
 Dehydration Synthesis
 Equilibrium and Concentration

2.3: The rate of a chemical reaction is affected by the concentration and temperature of reactants and presence of a catalyst.

 Collision Theory

3: Total energy is conserved in a closed system. The student will engage in investigations that integrate the process and inquiry standards and lead to the discovery of the following objectives:

3.1: Matter can be found in four phases (i.e., solid, liquid, gas, plasma). Phase change occurs when heat energy is absorbed or released from the system.

 Phase Changes

3.4: As energy varies in a closed system containing a gas, the parameters (i.e., volume, temperature, and pressure) are governed by specific laws (i.e., Avogadro?s Law, Boyle?s Law, Charles? Law, Dalton?s Law, Ideal Gas Law).

 Boyle's Law and Charles' Law

Correlation last revised: 1/19/2017

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this state's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.