H.C.1A: The practices of science and engineering support the development of science concepts, develop the habits of mind that are necessary for scientific thinking, and allow students to engage in science in ways that are similar to those used by scientists and engineers.
H.C.1A.1: Ask questions to
H.C.1A.1.3: extend the results of investigations or challenge scientific arguments or claims.
H.C.1A.2: Develop, use, and refine models to
H.C.1A.2.1: understand or represent phenomena, processes, and relationships,
H.C.1A.2.2: test devices or solutions, or
H.C.1A.3: Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to answer questions, test hypotheses, and develop explanations:
H.C.1A.3.2: identify materials, procedures, and variables,
H.C.1A.3.3: use appropriate laboratory equipment, technology, and techniques to collect qualitative and quantitative data, and
H.C.1A.3.4: record and represent data in an appropriate form. Use appropriate safety procedures.
H.C.1A.4: Analyze and interpret data from informational texts and data collected from investigations using a range of methods (such as tabulation, graphing, or statistical analysis) to
H.C.1A.4.1: reveal patterns and construct meaning,
H.C.1A.5: Use mathematical and computational thinking to
H.C.1A.5.1: use and manipulate appropriate metric units,
H.C.1A.5.2: express relationships between variables for models and investigations, and
H.C.1A.6: Construct explanations of phenomena using
H.C.1A.6.1: primary or secondary scientific evidence and models,
H.C.1A.6.2: conclusions from scientific investigations,
H.C.1A.6.4: data communicated in graphs, tables, or diagrams.
H.C.1A.8: Obtain and evaluate scientific information to
H.C.1A.8.A: Communicate using the conventions and expectations of scientific writing or oral presentations by
H.C.1A.8.A.2: reporting the results of student experimental investigations.
H.C.1B: Technology is any modification to the natural world created to fulfill the wants and needs of humans. The engineering design process involves a series of iterative steps used to solve a problem and often leads to the development of a new or improved technology.
H.C.1B.1: Construct devices or design solutions using scientific knowledge to solve specific problems or needs:
H.C.1B.1.4: build and test devices or solutions,
H.C.1B.1.5: determine if the devices or solutions solved the problem and refine the design if needed, and
H.C.2A: The existence of atoms can be used to explain the structure and behavior of matter. Each atom consists of a charged nucleus, consisting of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons. The interactions of these electrons between and within atoms are the primary factors that determine the chemical properties of matter. In a neutral atom the number of protons is the same as the number of electrons.
H.C.2A.2: Use the Bohr and quantum mechanical models of atomic structure to exemplify how electrons are distributed in atoms.
H.C.2A.3: Analyze and interpret absorption and emission spectra to support explanations that electrons have discrete energy levels.
H.C.2B: In nuclear fusion, lighter nuclei combine to form more stable heavier nuclei and in nuclear fission heavier nuclei are split to form lighter nuclei. The energies in fission and fusion reactions exceed the energies in usual chemical reactions.
H.C.2B.1: Obtain and communicate information to compare alpha, beta, and gamma radiation in terms of mass, charge, penetrating power, and their practical applications (including medical benefits and associated risks).
H.C.2B.2: Develop models to exemplify radioactive decay and use the models to explain the concept of half-life and its use in determining the age of materials (such as radiocarbon dating or the use of radioisotopes to date rocks).
H.C.3A: Elements are made up of only one kind of atom. With increasing atomic number, a predictable pattern for the addition of electrons exists. This pattern is the basis for the arrangement of elements in the periodic table. The chemical properties of an element are determined by an element's electron configuration. Elements can react to form chemical compounds/molecules that have unique properties determined by the kinds of atoms combined to make up the compound/molecule. Essentially, the ways in which electrons are involved in bonds determines whether ionic or covalent bonds are formed. Compounds have characteristic shapes that are determined by the type and number of bonds formed.
H.C.3A.1: Construct explanations for the formation of molecular compounds via sharing of electrons and for the formation of ionic compounds via transfer of electrons.
H.C.3A.2: Use the periodic table to write and interpret the formulas and names of chemical compounds (including binary ionic compounds, binary covalent compounds, and straight-chain alkanes up to six carbons).
H.C.3A.3: Analyze and interpret data to predict the type of bonding (ionic or covalent) and the shape of simple compounds by using the Lewis dot structures and oxidation numbers.
H.C.3A.4: Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to generate data on the properties of substances and analyze the data to infer the types of bonds (including ionic, polar covalent, and nonpolar covalent) in simple compounds.
H.C.4A: Matter can exist as a solid, liquid, or gas, and in very high-energy states, as plasma. In general terms, for a given chemical, the particles making up the solid are at a lower energy state than the liquid phase, which is at a lower energy state than the gaseous phase. The changes from one state of matter into another are energy dependent. The behaviors of gases are dependent on the factors of pressure, volume, and temperature.
H.C.4A.1: Develop and use models to explain the arrangement and movement of the particles in solids, liquids, gases, and plasma as well as the relative strengths of their intermolecular forces.
H.C.4A.2: Analyze and interpret heating curve graphs to explain that changes from one state of matter to another are energy dependent.
H.C.4A.3: Conduct controlled scientific investigations and use models to explain the behaviors of gases (including the proportional relationships among pressure, volume, and temperature).
H.C.5A: Solutions can exist in any of three physical states: gas, liquid, or solid. Solution concentrations can be expressed by specifying the relative amounts of solute and solvent. The nature of the solute, the solvent, the temperature, and the pressure can affect solubility. Solutes can affect such solvent properties as freezing point, boiling point, and vapor pressure. Acids, bases, and salts have characteristic properties. Several definitions of acids and bases are used in chemistry.
H.C.5A.2: Analyze and interpret data to explain the effects of temperature and pressure on the solubility of solutes in a given amount of solvent.
H.C.6A: A chemical reaction occurs when elements and/or compounds interact, resulting in a rearrangement of the atoms of these elements and/or compounds to produce substances with unique properties. Mass is conserved in chemical reactions. Reactions tend to proceed in a direction that favors lower energies. Chemical reactions can be categorized using knowledge about the reactants to predict products. Chemical reactions are quantifiable. When stress is applied to a chemical system that is in equilibrium, the system will shift in a direction that reduces that stress.
H.C.6A.2: Use Le Châtelier's principle to predict shifts in chemical equilibria resulting from changes in concentration, pressure, and temperature.
H.C.6A.3: Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to produce mathematical evidence that mass is conserved in chemical reactions.
H.C.6A.4: Use mathematical and computational thinking to predict the amounts of reactants required and products produced in specific chemical reactions.
H.C.7A: The first law of thermodynamics states that the amount of energy in the universe is constant. An energy diagram is used to represent changes in the energy of the reactants and products in a chemical reaction. Enthalpy refers to the heat content that is present in an atom, ion, or compound. While some chemical reactions occur spontaneously, other reactions may require that activation energy be lowered in order for the reaction to occur.
H.C.7A.3: Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the effects of temperature, surface area, stirring, concentration of reactants, and the presence of various catalysts on the rate of chemical reactions.
H.C.7A.4: Develop and use models to explain the relationships between collision frequency, the energy of collisions, the orientation of molecules, activation energy, and the rates of chemical reactions.
Correlation last revised: 4/4/2018