Programme of Study
WS.2.1: ask questions and develop a line of enquiry based on observations of the real world, alongside prior knowledge and experience
WS.2.3: select, plan and carry out the most appropriate types of scientific enquiries to test predictions, including identifying independent, dependent and control variables, where appropriate
WS.2.5: make and record observations and measurements using a range of methods for different investigations; and evaluate the reliability of methods and suggest possible improvements
WS.2.6: apply sampling techniques.
WS.3.1: apply mathematical concepts and calculate results
WS.3.2: present observations and data using appropriate methods, including tables and graphs
WS.3.3: interpret observations and data, including identifying patterns and using observations, measurements and data to draw conclusions
WS.3.6: identify further questions arising from their results.
B.1.A: Cells and organisation
B.1.A.2: the functions of the cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, vacuole, mitochondria and chloroplasts
B.1.A.3: the similarities and differences between plant and animal cells
B.1.A.4: the role of diffusion in the movement of materials in and between cells
B.1.C: Nutrition and digestion
B.1.C.1: content of a healthy human diet: carbohydrates, lipids (fats and oils), proteins, vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre and water, and why each is needed
B.1.C.4: the tissues and organs of the human digestive system, including adaptations to function and how the digestive system digests food (enzymes simply as biological catalysts)
B.1.C.5: the importance of bacteria in the human digestive system roots.
B.1.E.2: reproduction in plants, including flower structure, wind and insect pollination, fertilisation, seed and fruit formation and dispersal, including quantitative investigation of some dispersal mechanisms.
B.2.A.1: the reactants in, and products of, photosynthesis, and a word summary for photosynthesis
B.2.A.2: the dependence of almost all life on Earth on the ability of photosynthetic organisms, such as plants and algae, to use sunlight in photosynthesis to build organic molecules that are an essential energy store and to maintain levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
B.2.B: Cellular respiration
B.2.B.1: aerobic and anaerobic respiration in living organisms, including the breakdown of organic molecules to enable all the other chemical processes necessary for life
B.2.B.4: the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration in terms of the reactants, the products formed and the implications for the organism.
B.3.A: Relationships in an ecosystem
B.3.A.1: the interdependence of organisms in an ecosystem, including food webs and insect pollinated crops
B.4.A: Inheritance, chromosomes, DNA and genes
B.4.A.1: heredity as the process by which genetic information is transmitted from one generation to the next
B.4.A.2: a simple model of chromosomes, genes and DNA in heredity, including the part played by Watson, Crick, Wilkins and Franklin in the development of the DNA model
B.4.A.3: differences between species
B.4.A.7: the importance of maintaining biodiversity and the use of gene banks to preserve hereditary material.
C.1.1: the properties of the different states of matter (solid, liquid and gas) in terms of the particle model, including gas pressure
C.1.2: changes of state in terms of the particle model.
C.2.3: chemical symbols and formulae for elements and compounds
C.4.1: chemical reactions as the rearrangement of atoms
C.4.2: representing chemical reactions using formulae and using equations
C.4.3: combustion, thermal decomposition, oxidation and displacement reactions
C.4.5: the pH scale for measuring acidity/alkalinity; and indicators
C.5.1: energy changes on changes of state (qualitative)
C.5.2: exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions (qualitative).
C.6.3: the Periodic Table: periods and groups; metals and non-metals
C.8.3: the rock cycle and the formation of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks
C.8.5: the carbon cycle
C.8.7: the production of carbon dioxide by human activity and the impact on climate.
P.1.A: Calculation of fuel uses and costs in the domestic context
P.1.A.2: comparing power ratings of appliances in watts (W, kW)
P.1.B: Energy changes and transfers
P.1.B.1: simple machines give bigger force but at the expense of smaller movement (and vice versa): product of force and displacement unchanged
P.1.B.2: heating and thermal equilibrium: temperature difference between two objects leading to energy transfer from the hotter to the cooler one, through contact (conduction) or radiation; such transfers tending to reduce the temperature difference: use of insulators
P.1.B.3: other processes that involve energy transfer: changing motion, dropping an object, completing an electrical circuit, stretching a spring, metabolism of food, burning fuels.
P.1.C: Changes in systems
P.1.C.1: energy as a quantity that can be quantified and calculated; the total energy has the same value before and after a change
P.2.A: Describing motion
P.2.A.1: speed and the quantitative relationship between average speed, distance and time (speed = distance ÷ time)
P.2.A.2: the representation of a journey on a distance-time graph
P.2.A.3: relative motion: trains and cars passing one another.
P.2.B.4: forces: associated with deforming objects; stretching and squashing - springs; with rubbing and friction between surfaces, with pushing things out of the way; resistance to motion of air and water
P.2.B.7: work done and energy changes on deformation
P.2.B.8: non-contact forces: gravity forces acting at a distance on Earth and in space, forces between magnets and forces due to static electricity.
P.2.E: Forces and motion
P.2.E.1: forces being needed to cause objects to stop or start moving, or to change their speed or direction of motion (qualitative only)
P.3.A: Observed waves
P.3.A.1: waves on water as undulations which travel through water with transverse motion; these waves can be reflected, and add or cancel - superposition.
P.3.B: Sound waves
P.3.B.1: frequencies of sound waves, measured in hertz (Hz); echoes, reflection and absorption of sound
P.3.B.2: sound needs a medium to travel, the speed of sound in air, in water, in solids
P.3.B.3: sound produced by vibrations of objects, in loud speakers, detected by their effects on microphone diaphragm and the ear drum; sound waves are longitudinal
P.3.C: Energy and waves
P.3.C.1: pressure waves transferring energy; use for cleaning and physiotherapy by ultra-sound; waves transferring information for conversion to electrical signals by microphone.
P.3.D: Light waves
P.3.D.3: the transmission of light through materials: absorption, diffuse scattering and specular reflection at a surface
P.3.D.4: use of ray model to explain imaging in mirrors, the pinhole camera, the refraction of light and action of convex lens in focusing (qualitative); the human eye
P.3.D.6: colours and the different frequencies of light, white light and prisms (qualitative only); differential colour effects in absorption and diffuse reflection.
P.4.A: Current electricity
P.4.A.1: electric current, measured in amperes, in circuits, series and parallel circuits, currents add where branches meet and current as flow of charge
P.4.A.3: differences in resistance between conducting and insulating components (quantitative).
P.4.B: Static electricity
P.4.B.1: separation of positive or negative charges when objects are rubbed together: transfer of electrons, forces between charged objects
P.4.C.1: magnetic poles, attraction and repulsion
P.4.C.4: the magnetic effect of a current, electromagnets, D.C. motors (principles only).
P.5.A: Physical changes
P.5.A.4: diffusion in liquids and gases driven by differences in concentration
P.5.A.5: the difference between chemical and physical changes.
P.5.B: Particle model
P.5.B.1: the differences in arrangements, in motion and in closeness of particles explaining changes of state, shape and density, the anomaly of ice-water transition
P.5.B.2: atoms and molecules as particles.
P.5.C: Energy in matter
P.5.C.1: changes with temperature in motion and spacing of particles
P.5.D: Space physics
P.5.D.3: the seasons and the Earth's tilt, day length at different times of year, in different hemispheres
Correlation last revised: 9/16/2020