2A.1.1: understands atoms, the fundamental organizational unit of matter, are composed of subatomic particles. Chemists are primarily interested in the protons, electrons, and neutrons found in the atom.
2A.1.2: understands isotopes are atoms with the same atomic number (same number of protons) but different numbers of neutrons. The nuclei of some atoms are radioactive isotopes that spontaneously decay, releasing radioactive energy.
2A.2.1: understands chemists use kinetic and potential energy to explain the physical and chemical properties of matter on earth that may exist in any of these three states: solids, liquids, and gases.
2A.2.2: understands the periodic table lists elements according to increasing atomic number. This table organizes physical and chemical trends by groups, periods, and sub-categories.
2A.2.3: understands chemical bonds result when valence electrons are transferred or shared between atoms. Breaking a chemical bond requires energy. Formation of a chemical bond releases energy. Ionic compounds result from atoms transferring electrons. Molecular compounds result from atoms sharing electrons. For example, carbon atoms can bond to each other in chains, rings, and branching networks. Branched network and metallic solids also result from bonding.
2A.3.1: understands a chemical reaction occurs when one or more substances (reactants) react to form a different chemical substance(s) (products). There are different types of chemical reactions all of which demonstrate the Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy.
2A.3.2: understands how to perform mathematical calculations regarding the Law of Conservation of Matter, i.e., through stoichiometric relationships.
2B.1.1: understands Newton's Laws and the variables of time, position, velocity, and acceleration can be used to describe the position and motion of particles.
2B.1.2: understands physicists use conservation laws to analyze the motion of objects.
2B.2.1: understands matter has energy. Mass and energy can be interchanged. The total energy in the universe is constant, but the type of energy may vary.
2B.2.2: understands the first law of thermodynamics states the total internal energy of a substance (the sum of all the kinetic and potential energies of its constituent molecules) will change only if heat is exchanged with the environment or work is done on or by the substance. In any physical interaction, the total energy in the universe is conserved.
2B.2.3: understands the second law of thermodynamics that states the entropy of the universe is increasing.
2B.3.2: understands waves have energy and can transfer energy when they interact with matter.
2B.3.3: The student understand interference - how waves interact with other waves.
2B.3.4: The student will understand the principles of reflection and refraction.
2B.3.6: The student understands basic electrostatics and circuits.
3.1.1: understands cells are composed of a variety of specialized structures that carry out specific functions.
3.1.2: understands cell functions involve specific chemical reactions.
3.1.3: understands cells function and replicate as a result of information stored in DNA and RNA molecules.
3.1.4: understands some plant cells contain chloroplasts, which are the sites of photosynthesis.
3.2.1: understands living organisms contain DNA or RNA as their genetic material, which provides the instructions that specify the characteristics of organisms.
3.2.2: understands organisms usually have a characteristic number of chromosomes; one pair of these may determine the sex of individuals.
3.2.3: understands hereditary information is contained in genes, located in the chromosomes of each cell.
3.2.4: understands gametes carry the genetic information to the next generation.
3.2.5: understands expressed mutations occur in DNA at very low rates.
3.3.1: understands biological evolution, descent with modification, is a scientific explanation for the history of the diversification of organisms from common ancestors
3.3.2: understands populations of organisms adapt to environmental challenges and changes as a result of natural selection, genetic drift, and various mechanisms of genetic change.
3.3.3: understands biological evolution is used to explain the earth's present day biodiversity: the number, variety and variability of organisms.
3.3.4: understands organisms vary widely within and between populations. Variation allows for natural selection to occur.
3.3.5: understands the primary mechanism acting on variation is natural selection.
3.4.1: understands atoms and molecules on the earth cycle among the living and nonliving components of the biosphere.
3.4.2: understands energy is received, transformed and expended in ecosystems.
3.4.3: understands the distribution and abundance of organisms and populations in ecosystems are limited by the carrying capacity.
3.4.4: understands organisms cooperate and compete in complex, interdependent relationships
3.4.5: understands human beings live within and impact ecosystems.
3.5.2: understands the sun is the primary source of energy for life through the process of photosynthesis.
3.5.3: understands food molecules contain biochemical energy, which is then available for cellular respiration.
3.5.4: understands the structure and function of an organism serve to acquire, transform, transport, release, and eliminate the matter and energy used to sustain the organism.
3.6.1: understands animals have behavioral responses to internal changes and to external stimuli.
3.6.3: understands behaviors are often adaptive when viewed in terms of survival and reproductive success.
3.7.1: understands differences in structure and function among organisms and can identify the characteristics of relevant life forms.
3.7.2: understands that homeostasis is the dynamic regulation and balance of an organisms internal environment to maintain conditions suitable for survival.
3.7.5: understands taxonomy is the systematic way in which organism are placed into a hierarchical classification system, according to their physical and genetic characteristics and their evolutionary history.
4.1.1: understands constructive and destructive processes, including weathering, erosion and deposition, dynamically reshape the surface of the earth.
4.1.2: understands the theory of Plate Tectonics explains that internal energy drives the earth's ever changing structure.
4.1.3: The ultimate source of atmospheric and oceanic energy comes from the sun. Energy flow drives global climate and weather. Climate and weather are influenced by geographic features, cloud cover, and the earth's rotation.
4.1.4: Understands the processes of water cycling through surface water (oceans, lakes, streams, glaciers), ground water (aquifers), and the atmosphere. (hydrological cycle)
4.3.1: understands gravitational attraction of objects in the solar system keeps solar system objects in orbit.
4.3.2: understands the relationship between the earth, moon, and sun explains the seasons, tides and moon phases.
4.3.3: understands the relative sizes and distances of objects in the solar system.
4.3.4: understands the sun, earth, and other objects in the solar system formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas.
4.4.1: understands stellar evolution.
Correlation last revised: 10/24/2008