B.1.1: Recognize that and explain how the many cells in an individual can be very different from one another, even though they are all descended from a single cell and thus have essentially identical genetic instructions. Understand that different parts of the genetic instructions are used in different types of cells and are influenced by the cell’s environment and past history.
B.1.2: Explain that every cell is covered by a membrane that controls what can enter and leave the cell. Recognize that in all but quite primitive cells, a complex network of proteins provides organization and shape. In addition, understand that flagella and/or cilia may allow some Protista, some Monera, and some animal cells to move.
B.1.3: Know and describe that within the cell are specialized parts for the transport of materials, energy capture and release, protein building, waste disposal, information feedback, and movement. In addition to these basic cellular functions common to all cells, understand that most cells in multicellular organisms perform some special functions that others do not.
B.1.4: Understand and describe that the work of the cell is carried out by the many different types of molecules it assembles, such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids.
B.1.5: Demonstrate that most cells function best within a narrow range of temperature and acidity. Note that extreme changes may harm cells, modifying the structure of their protein molecules and therefore, some possible functions.
B.1.6: Show that a living cell is composed mainly of a small number of chemical elements – carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, and sulfur. Recognize that carbon can join to other carbon atoms in chains and rings to form large and complex molecules.
B.1.7: Explain that complex interactions among the different kinds of molecules in the cell cause distinct cycles of activities, such as growth and division. Note that cell behavior can also be affected by molecules from other parts of the organism, such as hormones.
B.1.8: Understand and describe that all growth and development is a consequence of an increase in cell number, cell size, and/or cell products. Explain that cellular differentiation results from gene expression and/or environmental influence. Differentiate between mitosis and meiosis.
B.1.9: Recognize and describe that both living and non-living things are composed of compounds, which are themselves made up of elements joined by energy-containing bonds, such as those in ATP.
B.1.11: Describe that through biogenesis all organisms begin their life cycles as a single cell and that in multicellular organisms, successive generations of embryonic cells form by cell division.
B.1.13: Explain that some structures in the modern eukaryotic cell developed from early prokaryotes, such as mitochondria, and in plants, chloroplasts.
B.1.14: Recognize and explain that communication and/or interaction are required between cells to coordinate their diverse activities.
B.1.15: Understand and explain that, in biological systems, structure and function must be considered together.
B.1.16: Explain how higher levels of organization result from specific complexing and interactions of smaller units and that their maintenance requires a constant input of energy as well as new material.
B.1.18: Explain that the regulatory and behavioral responses of an organism to external stimuli occur in order to maintain both short- and long-term equilibrium.
B.1.19: Recognize and describe that metabolism consists of the production, modification, transport, and exchange of materials that are required for the maintenance of life.
B.1.21: Understand and explain that the information passed from parents to offspring is transmitted by means of genes which are coded in DNA molecules.
B.1.22: Understand and explain the genetic basis for Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment.
B.1.23: Understand that and describe how inserting, deleting, or substituting DNA segments can alter a gene. Recognize that an altered gene may be passed on to every cell that develops from it, and that the resulting features may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring’s success in its environment.
B.1.29: Understand that and explain how the actions of genes, patterns of inheritance, and the reproduction of cells and organisms account for the continuity of life, and give examples of how inherited characteristics can be observed at molecular and whole-organism levels – in structure, chemistry, or behavior.
B.1.31: Describe how natural selection provides the following mechanism for evolution: Some variation in heritable characteristics exists within every species, and some of these characteristics give individuals an advantage over others in surviving and reproducing. Understand that the advantaged offspring, in turn, are more likely than others to survive and reproduce. Also understand that the proportion of individuals in the population that have advantageous characteristics will increase.
B.1.32: Explain how natural selection leads to organisms that are well suited for survival in particular environments, and discuss how natural selection provides scientific explanation for the history of life on Earth as depicted in the fossil record and in the similarities evident within the diversity of existing organisms.
B.1.33: Describe how life on Earth is thought to have begun as simple, one-celled organisms about 4 billion years ago. Note that during the first 2 billion years, only single-cell microorganisms existed, but once cells with nuclei developed about a billion years ago, increasingly complex multicellular organisms evolved.
B.1.34: Explain that evolution builds on what already exists, so the more variety there is, the more there can be in the future. Recognize, however, that evolution does not necessitate long-term progress in some set direction.
B.1.37: Explain that the amount of life any environment can support is limited by the available energy, water, oxygen, and minerals, and by the ability of ecosystems to recycle the residue of dead organic materials. Recognize, therefore, that human activities and technology can change the flow and reduce the fertility of the land.
B.1.39: Describe how ecosystems can be reasonably stable over hundreds or thousands of years. Understand that if a disaster such as flood or fire occurs, the damaged ecosystem is likely to recover in stages that eventually result in a system similar to the original one.
B.1.40: Understand and explain that like many complex systems, ecosystems tend to have cyclic fluctuations around a state of rough equilibrium. However, also understand that ecosystems can always change with climate changes or when one or more new species appear as a result of migration or local evolution.
B.1.41: Recognize that and describe how human beings are part of Earth’s ecosystems. Note that human activities can, deliberately or inadvertently, alter the equilibrium in ecosystems.
B.1.42: Realize and explain that at times, the environmental conditions are such that plants and marine organisms grow faster than decomposers can recycle them back to the environment. Understand that layers of energy-rich organic material thus laid down have been gradually turned into great coal beds and oil pools by the pressure of the overlying earth. Further understand that by burning these fossil fuels, people are passing most of the stored energy back into the environment as heat and releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide.
B.1.44: Describe the flow of matter, nutrients, and energy within ecosystems.
B.1.45: Recognize that and describe how the physical or chemical environment may influence the rate, extent, and nature of the way organisms develop within ecosystems.
B.1.46: Recognize and describe that a great diversity of species increases the chance that at least some living things will survive in the face of large changes in the environment.
B.1.47: Explain, with examples, that ecology studies the varieties and interactions of living things across space while evolution studies the varieties and interactions of living things across time.
B.2.1: Explain that prior to the studies of Charles Darwin, the most widespread belief was that all known species were created at the same time and remained unchanged throughout history. Note that some scientists at the time believed that features an individual acquired during a lifetime could be passed on to its offspring, and the species could thereby gradually change to fit an environment better.
B.2.2: Explain that Darwin argued that only biologically inherited characteristics could be passed on to offspring. Note that some of these characteristics were advantageous in surviving and reproducing. Understand that the offspring would also inherit and pass on those advantages, and over generations the aggregation of these inherited advantages would lead to a new species.
B.2.3: Describe that the quick success of Darwin’s book Origin of Species, published in 1859, came from the clear and understandable argument it made, including the comparison of natural selection to the selective breeding of animals in wide use at the time, and from the massive array of biological and fossil evidence it assembled to support the argument.
B.2.4: Explain that after the publication of Origin of Species, biological evolution was supported by the rediscovery of the genetics experiments of an Austrian monk, Gregor Mendel, by the identification of genes and how they are sorted in reproduction, and by the discovery that the genetic code found in DNA is the same for almost all organisms.
C.1.1: Differentiate between pure substances and mixtures based on physical properties such as density, melting point, boiling point, and solubility.
C.1.2: Determine the properties and quantities of matter such as mass, volume, temperature, density, melting point, boiling point, conductivity, solubility, color, numbers of moles, and pH (calculate pH from the hydrogen-ion concentration), and designate these properties as either extensive or intensive.
C.1.5: Describe solutions in appropriate concentration units (be able to calculate these units) such as molarity, percent by mass or volume, parts per million (ppm), or parts per billion (ppb).
C.1.6: Predict formulas of stable ionic compounds based on charge balance of stable ions.
C.1.8: Use formulas and laboratory investigations to classify substances as metal or nonmetal, ionic or molecular, acid or base, and organic or inorganic.
C.1.9: Describe chemical reactions with balanced chemical equations.
C.1.13: Use the principle of conservation of mass to make calculations related to chemical reactions. Calculate the masses of reactants and products in a chemical reaction from the mass of one of the reactants or products and the relevant atomic masses.
C.1.14: Use Avogadro’s law to make mass-volume calculations for simple chemical reactions.
C.1.15: Given a chemical equation, calculate the mass, gas volume, and/or number of moles needed to produce a given gas volume, mass, and/or number of moles of product.
C.1.17: Perform calculations that demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between molarity, volume, and number of moles of a solute in a solution.
C.1.20: Predict how a reaction rate will be quantitatively affected by changes of concentration.
C.1.21: Predict how changes in temperature, surface area, and the use of catalysts will qualitatively affect the rate of a reaction.
C.1.22: Use oxidation states to recognize electron transfer reactions and identify the substance(s) losing and gaining electrons in an electron transfer reaction.
C.1.23: Write a rate law for a chemical equation using experimental data.
C.1.26: Describe physical changes and properties of matter through sketches and descriptions of the involved materials.
C.1.28: Explain that chemical bonds between atoms in molecules, such as H2, CH4, NH3, C2H4, N2, Cl2, and many large biological molecules are covalent.
C.1.30: Perform calculations that demonstrate an understanding of the gas laws. Apply the gas laws to relations between pressure, temperature, and volume of any amount of an ideal gas or any mixture of ideal gases.
C.1.31: Use kinetic molecular theory to explain changes in gas volumes, pressure, and temperature (Solve problems using pV=nRT).
C.1.32: Describe the possible subatomic particles within an atom or ion.
C.1.33: Use an element’s location in the Periodic Table to determine its number of valence electrons, and predict what stable ion or ions an element is likely to form in reacting with other specified elements.
C.1.34: Use the Periodic Table to compare attractions that atoms have for their electrons and explain periodic properties, such as atomic size, based on these attractions.
C.1.35: Infer and explain physical properties of substances, such as melting points, boiling points, and solubility, based on the strength of molecular attractions.
C.1.36: Describe the nature of ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds, and give examples of how they contribute to the formation of various types of compounds.
C.1.37: Describe that spectral lines are the result of transitions of electrons between energy levels and that these lines correspond to photons with a frequency related to the energy spacing between levels by using Planck’s relationship (E=hv).
C.1.38: Distinguish between the concepts of temperature and heat.
C.1.39: Solve problems involving heat flow and temperature changes, using known values of specific heat and latent heat of phase change.
C.1.41: Describe the role of light, heat, and electrical energies in physical, chemical, and nuclear changes.
C.1.43: Calculate the amount of radioactive substance remaining after an integral number of half-lives have passed.
C.2.1: Explain that Antoine Lavoisier invented a whole new field of science based on a theory of materials, physical laws, and quantitative methods, with the conservation of matter at its core. Recognize that he persuaded a generation of scientists that his approach accounted for the experimental results better than other chemical systems.
C.2.3: Explain that John Dalton’s modernization of the ancient Greek ideas of element, atom, compound, and molecule strengthened the new chemistry by providing physical explanations for reactions that could be expressed in quantitative terms.
C.2.7: Describe how the discovery of the structure of DNA by James D. Watson and Francis Crick made it possible to interpret the genetic code on the basis of a sequence of “letters”.
ES.1.2: Differentiate between the different types of stars found on the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram. Compare and contrast the evolution of stars of different masses. Understand and discuss the basics of the fusion processes that are the source of energy of stars.
ES.1.3: Compare and contrast the differences in size, temperature, and age between our sun and other stars.
ES.1.7: Describe the characteristics and motions of the various kinds of objects in our solar system, including planets, satellites, comets, and asteroids. Explain that Kepler’s laws determine the orbits of the planets.
ES.1.9: Recognize and explain that the concept of conservation of energy is at the heart of advances in fields as diverse as the study of nuclear particles and the study of the origin of the universe.
ES.1.10: Recognize and describe that the earth sciences address planet-wide interacting systems, including the oceans, the air, the solid earth, and life on Earth, as well as interactions with the Solar System.
ES.1.12: Describe the role of photosynthetic plants in changing Earth’s atmosphere.
ES.1.13: Explain the importance of heat transfer between and within the atmosphere, land masses, and oceans.
ES.1.19: Identify and discuss the effects of gravity on the waters of Earth. Include both the flow of streams and the movement of tides.
ES.1.21: Identify the various processes that are involved in the water cycle.
ES.1.22: Compare the properties of rocks and minerals and their uses.
ES.1.23: Explain motions, transformations, and locations of materials in Earth’s lithosphere and interior. For example, describe the movement of the plates that make up the crust of the earth and the resulting formation of earthquakes, volcanoes, trenches, and mountains.
ES.1.24: Understand and discuss continental drift, sea-floor spreading, and plate tectonics. Include evidence that supports the movement of the plates, such as magnetic stripes on the ocean floor, fossil evidence on separate continents, and the continuity of geological features.
ES.1.26: Differentiate among the processes of weathering, erosion, transportation of materials, deposition, and soil formation.
ES.1.27: Illustrate the various processes that are involved in the rock cycle, and discuss how the total amount of material stays the same through formation, weathering, sedimentation, and reformation.
ES.1.28: Discuss geologic evidence, including fossils and radioactive dating, in relation to Earth’s past.
ES.2.2: Understand that and describe how in the sixteenth century the Polish astronomer Nicholas Copernicus suggested that all those same motions outlined by Ptolemy could be explained by imagining that Earth was turning on its axis once a day and orbiting around the sun once a year. Note that this explanation was rejected by nearly everyone because it violated common sense and required the universe to be unbelievably large. Also understand that Copernicus’s ideas flew in the face of belief, universally held at the time, that Earth was at the center of the universe.
ES.2.7: Explain that the theory of plate tectonics was finally accepted by the scientific community in the 1960s when further evidence had accumulated in support of it. Understand that the theory was seen to provide an explanation for a diverse array of seemingly unrelated phenomena, and there was a scientifically sound physical explanation of how such movement could occur.
Env.1.1: Know and describe how ecosystems can be reasonably stable over hundreds or thousands of years. Consider as an example the ecosystem of the Great Plains prior to the advent of the horse in Native American Plains societies, from then until the advent of agriculture, and well into the present.
Env.1.2: Understand and describe that if a disaster occurs — such as flood or fire — the damaged ecosystem is likely to recover in stages that eventually result in a system similar to the original one.
Env.1.3: Understand and explain that ecosystems have cyclic fluctuations such as seasonal changes or changes in population, as a result of migrations.
Env.1.5: Explain how the size and rate of growth of the human population in any location is affected by economic, political, religious, technological, and environmental factors, some of which are influenced by the size and rate of growth of the population.
Env.1.7: Recognize and explain that in evolutionary change, the present arises from the materials of the past and in ways that can be explained, such as the formation of soil from rocks and dead organic matter.
Env.1.8: Recognize and describe the difference between systems in equilibrium and systems in disequilibrium.
Env.1.10: Identify and measure biological, chemical, and physical factors within an ecosystem.
Env.1.12: Explain the process of succession, both primary and secondary, in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.
Env.1.13: Understand and describe how layers of energy-rich organic material have been gradually turned into great coal beds and oil pools by the pressure of the overlying earth. Recognize that by burning these fossil fuels, people are passing stored energy back into the environment as heat and releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide.
Env.1.14: Recognize and explain that the amount of life any environment can support is limited by the available energy, water, oxygen, and minerals, and by the ability of ecosystems to recycle organic materials from the remains of dead organisms.
Env.1.18: Illustrate the flow of energy through various trophic levels of food chains and food webs within an ecosystem. Describe how each link in a food web stores some energy in newly made structures and how much of the energy is dissipated into the environment as heat. Understand that a continual input of energy from sunlight is needed to keep the process going.
Env.1.20: Demonstrate how resources, such as food supply, influence populations.
Env.1.26: Identify specific tools and technologies used to adapt and alter environments and natural resources in order to meet human physical and cultural needs.
Env.1.29: Recognize and describe important environmental legislation, such as the Clean Air Act and the Clean Water Act.
Env.1.33: Identify natural Earth hazards, such as earthquakes and hurricanes, and identify the regions in which they occur as well as the short-term and long-term effects on the environment and on people.
Env.1.34: Differentiate between natural pollution and pollution caused by humans and give examples of each.
Env.2.1: Explain that Rachael Carson’s book, Silent Spring, explained how pesticides were causing serious pollution and killing many organisms. Understand that it was the first time anyone had publicly shown how poisons affect anything in nature. Note in particular that the book detailed how the pesticide DDT had gotten into the food chain. Understand that as a result of Silent Spring, there are now hundreds of national, state, and local laws that regulate pesticides.
CP.1.1: Understand and explain that atoms have a positive nucleus (consisting of relatively massive positive protons and neutral neutrons) surrounded by negative electrons of much smaller mass, some of which may be lost, gained, or shared when interacting with other atoms.
CP.1.2: Realize that and explain how a neutral atom’s atomic number and mass number can be used to determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons that make up an atom.
CP.1.3: Understand, and give examples to show, that isotopes of the same element have the same numbers of protons and electrons but differ in the numbers of neutrons.
CP.1.5: Distinguish among chemical and physical changes in matter by identifying characteristics of these changes.
CP.1.6: Understand and explain how an atom can acquire an unbalanced electrical charge by gaining or losing electrons.
CP.1.8: Know and explain that the nucleus of a radioactive isotope is unstable and may spontaneously decay, emitting particles and/or electromagnetic radiation.
CP.1.9: Show how the predictability of the nuclei decay rate allows radioactivity to be used for estimating the age of materials that contain radioactive substances.
CP.1.10: Understand that the Periodic Table is a listing of elements arranged by increasing atomic number, and use it to predict whether a selected atom would gain, lose, or share electrons as it interacts with other selected atoms.
CP.1.11: Understand and give examples to show that an enormous variety of biological, chemical, and physical phenomena can be explained by changes in the arrangement and motion of atoms and molecules.
CP.1.12: Realize and explain that because mass is conserved in chemical reactions, balanced chemical equations must be used to show that atoms are conserved.
CP.1.13: Explain that the rate of reactions among atoms and molecules depends on how often they encounter one another, which is in turn affected by the concentrations, pressures, and temperatures of the reacting materials.
CP.1.14: Understand and explain that catalysts are highly effective in encouraging the interaction of other atoms and molecules.
CP.1.15: Understand and explain that whenever the amount of energy in one place or form diminishes, the amount in other places or forms increases by the same amount.
CP.1.16: Explain that heat energy in a material consists of the disordered motions of its atoms or molecules.
CP.1.17: Know and explain that transformations of energy usually transform some energy into the form of heat, which dissipates by radiation or conduction into cooler surroundings.
CP.1.20: Realize and explain that the energy in a system is the sum of both potential energy and kinetic energy.
CP.1.21: Understand and explain that the change in motion of an object (acceleration) is proportional to the net force applied to the object and inversely proportional to the object’s mass. (a=F/m)
CP.1.23: Understand and explain that the motion of an object is described by its position, velocity, and acceleration.
CP.1.24: Recognize and explain that waves are described by their velocity, wavelength, frequency or period, and amplitude.
CP.1.25: Understand and explain that waves can superpose on one another, bend around corners, reflect off surfaces, be absorbed by materials they enter, and change direction when entering a new material.
CP.1.27: Recognize and describe that gravitational force is an attraction between masses and that the strength of the force is proportional to the masses and decreases rapidly as the square of the distance between the masses increases. (F=G times m base 1 times m base 2/r squared)
CP.1.28: Realize and explain that electromagnetic forces acting within and between atoms are vastly stronger than the gravitational forces acting between atoms.
CP.1.29: Understand and explain that at the atomic level, electric forces between oppositely charged electrons and protons hold atoms and molecules together and thus, are involved in all chemical reactions.
CP.1.30: Understand and explain that in materials, there are usually equal proportions of positive and negative charges, making the materials as a whole electrically neutral. However, also know that a very small excess or deficit of negative charges will produce noticeable electric forces.
CP.2.1: Explain that Antoine Lavoisier invented a whole new field of science based on a theory of materials, physical laws, and quantitative methods, with the conservation of matter at its core. Recognize that he persuaded a generation of scientists that his approach accounted for the experimental results better than other chemical systems.
CP.2.3: Explain that John Dalton’s modernization of the ancient Greek ideas of element, atom, compound, and molecule strengthened the new chemistry by providing physical explanations for reactions that could be expressed in quantitative terms.
CP.2.4: Explain that Isaac Newton created a unified view of force and motion in which motion everywhere in the universe can be explained by the same few rules. Note that his mathematical analysis of gravitational force and motion showed that planetary orbits had to be the very ellipses that Johannes Kepler had demonstrated two generations earlier.
CP.2.5: Describe that Newton’s system was based on the concepts of mass, force, and acceleration, his three laws of motion relating them, and a physical law stating that the force of gravity between any two objects in the universe depends only upon their masses and the distance between them.
CP.2.6: Explain that the Newtonian model made it possible to account for such diverse phenomena as tides, the orbits of the planets and moons, the motion of falling objects, and Earth’s equatorial bulge.
CP.2.10: Explain that Marie and Pierre Curie made radium available to researchers all over the world, increasing the study of radioactivity and leading to the realization that one kind of atom may change into another kind, and so must be made up of smaller parts. Note that these parts were demonstrated by Ernest Rutherford, Niels Bohr, and other scientists to be a small, dense nucleus that contains protons and neutrons and is surrounded by a cloud of electrons.
CP.2.12: Describe that later, Austrian and German scientists showed that when uranium is struck by neutrons, it splits into two nearly equal parts plus one or two extra neutrons. Note that Lise Meitner, an Austrian physicist, was the first to point out that if these fragments added up to less mass than the original uranium nucleus, then Einstein’s special relativity theory predicted that a large amount of energy would be released. Also note that Enrico Fermi, an Italian working with colleagues in the United States, showed that the extra neutrons trigger more fissions and so create a sustained chain reaction in which a prodigious amount of energy is given off.
P.1.2: Measure or determine the physical quantities including mass, charge, pressure, volume, temperature, and density of an object or unknown sample.
P.1.3: Describe and apply the kinetic molecular theory to the states of matter.
P.1.4: Employ correct units in describing common physical quantities.
P.1.5: Use appropriate vector and scalar quantities to solve kinematics and dynamics problems in one and two dimensions.
P.1.6: Describe and measure motion in terms of position, time, and the derived quantities of velocity and acceleration.
P.1.7: Use Newton’s Laws (e.g., F = ma) together with the kinematic equations to predict the motion of an object.
P.1.8: Describe the nature of centripetal force and centripetal acceleration (including the formula a = v squared/r), and use these ideas to predict the motion of an object.
P.1.9: Use the conservation of energy and conservation of momentum laws to predict, both conceptually and quantitatively, the results of the interactions between objects.
P.1.10: Demonstrate an understanding of the inverse square nature of gravitational and electrostatic forces.
P.1.11: Recognize energy in its different manifestations such as kinetic (KE = ½ mv squared), gravitational potential (PE = mgh), thermal, chemical, nuclear, electromagnetic, or mechanical.
P.1.12: Use the law of conservation of energy to predict the outcome(s) of an energy transformation.
P.1.13: Use the concepts of temperature, thermal energy, transfer of thermal energy, and the mechanical equivalent of heat to predict the results of an energy transfer.
P.1.14: Explain the relation between energy (E) and power (P). Explain the definition of the unit of power, the watt.
P.1.15: Distinguish between the concepts of momentum (using the formula p = mv) and energy.
P.1.16: Describe circumstances under which each conservation law may be used.
P.1.17: Describe the interaction between stationary charges using Coulomb’s Law. Know that the force on a charged particle in an electrical field is qE, where E is the electric field at the position of the particle, and q is the charge of the particle.
P.1.18: Explain the concepts of electrical charge, electrical current, electrical potential, electric field, and magnetic field. Use the definitions of the coulomb, the ampere, the volt, the volt/meter, and the tesla.
P.1.19: Analyze simple arrangements of electrical components in series and parallel circuits. Know that any resistive element in a DC circuit dissipates energy, which heats the resistor. Calculate the power (rate of energy dissipation), using the formula Power = IV = I2R.
P.1.21: Explain the operation of electric generators and motors in terms of Ampere’s law and Faraday’s law.
P.1.22: Describe waves in terms of their fundamental characteristics of velocity, wavelength, frequency or period, and amplitude. Know that radio waves, light, and X-rays are different wavelength bands in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves, whose speed in a vacuum is approximately 3 X 10 to the 8th m/s (186,000 miles/second).
P.1.23: Use the principle of superposition to describe the interference effects arising from propagation of several waves through the same medium.
P.1.24: Use the concepts of reflection, refraction, polarization, transmission, and absorption to predict the motion of waves moving through space and matter.
P.1.25: Use the concepts of wave motion to predict conceptually and quantitatively the various properties of a simple optical system.
P.1.26: Identify electromagnetic radiation as a wave phenomenon after observing refraction, reflection, and polarization of such radiation.
P.1.27: Understand that the temperature of an object is proportional to the average kinetic energy of the molecules in it and that the thermal energy is the sum of all the microscopic potential and kinetic energies.
P.1.28: Describe the Laws of Thermodynamics, understanding that energy is conserved, heat does not move from a cooler object to a hotter one without the application of external energy, and that there is a lowest temperature, called absolute zero. Use these laws in calculations of the behavior of simple systems.
P.1.29: Describe the nuclear model of the atom in terms of mass and spatial relationships of the electrons, protons, and neutrons.
P.1.30: Explain that the nucleus, although it contains nearly all of the mass of the atom, occupies less than the proportion of the solar system occupied by the sun. Explain that the mass of a neutron or a proton is about 2,000 times greater than the mass of an electron.
P.1.32: Using the concept of binding energy per nucleon, explain why a massive nucleus that fissions into two medium-mass nuclei emits energy in the process.
P.1.34: Understand and explain the properties of radioactive materials, including half-life, types of emissions, and the relative penetrative powers of each type.
P.1.35: Describe sources and uses of radioactivity and nuclear energy.
P.2.1: Explain that Isaac Newton created a unified view of force and motion in which motion everywhere in the universe can be explained by the same few rules. Note that his mathematical analysis of gravitational force and motion showed that planetary orbits had to be the very ellipses that Johannes Kepler had proposed two generations earlier.
P.2.2: Describe how Newton’s system was based on the concepts of mass, force, and acceleration; his three laws of motion relating to them; and a physical law stating that the force of gravity between any two objects in the universe depends only upon their masses and the distance between them.
P.2.3: Explain that the Newtonian model made it possible to account for such diverse phenomena as tides, the orbits of the planets and moons, the motion of falling objects, and Earth’s equatorial bulge.
P.2.8: Explain that Marie and Pierre Curie made radium available to researchers all over the world, increasing the study of radioactivity and leading to the realization that one kind of atom may change into another kind, and so must be made up of smaller parts. Note that these parts were demonstrated by Rutherford, Geiger, and Marsden to be small, dense nuclei that contain protons and neutrons and are surrounded by clouds of electrons.
P.2.10: Describe how later, Austrian and German scientists showed that when uranium is struck by neutrons, it splits into two nearly equal parts plus two or three extra neutrons. Note that Lise Meitner, an Austrian physicist, was the first to point out that if these fragments added up to less mass than the original uranium nucleus, then Einstein’s special relativity theory predicted that a large amount of energy would be released. Also note that Enrico Fermi, an Italian working with colleagues in the United States, showed that the extra neutrons trigger more fissions and so create a sustained chain reaction in which a prodigious amount of energy is given off.
Correlation last revised: 12/3/2009