8.2.3: Use proportional reasoning to solve problems.
8.2.10: Identify and criticize the reasoning in arguments in which fact and opinion are intermingled or the conclusions do not follow logically from the evidence given, an analogy is not apt, no mention is made of whether the control group is very much like the experimental group, or all members of a group are implied to have nearly identical characteristics that differ from those of other groups.
8.3.3: Explain that the solid crust of Earth, including both the continents and the ocean basins, consists of separate plates that ride on a denser, hot, gradually deformable layer of earth. Understand that the crust sections move very slowly, pressing against one another in some places, pulling apart in other places. Further understand that ocean-floor plates may slide under continental plates, sinking deep into Earth, and that the surface layers of these plates may fold, forming mountain ranges.
8.3.4: Explain that earthquakes often occur along the boundaries between colliding plates, and molten rock from below creates pressure that is released by volcanic eruptions, helping to build up mountains. Understand that under the ocean basins, molten rock may well up between separating plates to create new ocean floor. Further understand that volcanic activity along the ocean floor may form undersea mountains, which can thrust above the ocean’s surface to become islands.
8.3.5: Explain that everything on or anywhere near Earth is pulled toward Earth’s center by a gravitational force.
8.3.8: Explain that all matter is made up of atoms which are far too small to see directly through an optical microscope. Understand that the atoms of any element are similar but are different from atoms of other elements. Further understand that atoms may stick together in well defined molecules or may be packed together in large arrays. Also understand that different arrangements of atoms into groups comprise all substances.
8.3.9: Demonstrate, using drawings and models, the movement of atoms in a solid, liquid, and gaseous state. Explain that atoms and molecules are perpetually in motion.
8.3.10: Explain that increased temperature means that atoms have a greater average energy of motion and that most gases expand when heated.
8.3.11: Describe how groups of elements can be classified based on similar properties, including highly reactive metals, less reactive metals, highly reactive non-metals, less reactive non-metals, and some almost completely non-reactive gases.
8.3.12: Explain that no matter how substances within a closed system interact with one another, or how they combine or break apart, the total mass of the system remains the same. Understand that the atomic theory explains the conservation of matter: if the number of atoms stays the same no matter how they are rearranged, then their total mass stays the same.
8.3.13: Explain that energy cannot be created or destroyed but only changed from one form into another.
8.3.14: Describe how heat can be transferred through materials by the collision of atoms, or across space by radiation, or if the material is fluid, by convection currents that are set up in it that aid the transfer of heat.
8.3.16: Explain that every object exerts gravitational force on every other object and that the force depends on how much mass the objects have and how far apart they are.
8.3.17: Explain that the sun’s gravitational pull holds Earth and the other planets in their orbits, just as the planets’ gravitational pull keeps their moons in orbit around them.
8.3.19: Investigate and compare series and parallel circuits.
8.4.1: Differentiate between inherited traits, such as hair color or flower color, and acquired skills, such as manners.
8.4.4: Describe how matter is transferred from one organism to another repeatedly and between organisms and their physical environment.
8.4.5: Explain that energy can be transferred from one form to another in living things.
8.4.8: Describe how environmental conditions affect the survival of individual organisms and how entire species may prosper in spite of the poor survivability or bad fortune of individuals.
8.4.9: Recognize and describe that fossil evidence is consistent with the idea that human beings evolved from earlier species.
8.5.1: Understand and explain that a number must be written with an appropriate number of significant figures (determined by the measurements from which the number is derived).
8.5.2: Show that an equation containing a variable may be true for just one value of the variable.
8.5.3: Demonstrate that mathematical statements can be used to describe how one quantity changes when another changes.
8.5.9: Compare the mean, median, and mode of a data set.
8.7.7: Illustrate how things, such as seasons or body temperature, occur in cycles.
Content correlation last revised: 12/3/2009