End of Course Specifications: Benchmarks
SC.912.N.1: The Practice of Science
SC.912.N.1.1: Define a problem based on a specific body of knowledge, for example: biology, chemistry, physics, and earth/space science, and do the following: 1) pose questions about the natural world; 2) conduct systematic observations; 3) examine books and other sources of information to see what is already known; 4) review what is known in light of empirical evidence; 5) plan investigations; 6) use tools to gather, analyze, and represent data (this includes the use of measurement in metric and other systems, and also generation and interpretation of graphical representations of data, including data tables and graphs); 7) pose answers, explanations, or descriptions of events; 8) generate explanations that explicate or describe natural phenomena (inferences); 9) use appropriate evidence and reasoning to justify these explanations to others; 10) communicate results of scientific investigations; and 11) evaluate the merits of the explanations produced by others.
SC.912.N.1.3: Recognize that the strength or usefulness of a scientific claim is evaluated through scientific argumentation, which depends on critical and logical thinking, and the active consideration of alternative scientific explanations to explain the data presented.
SC.912.N.1.6: Describe how scientific inferences are drawn from scientific observations and provide examples from the content being studied.
SC.912.E.7.1: Analyze the movement of matter and energy through the different biogeochemical cycles, including water and carbon.
SC.912.L.14: Organization and Development of Living Organisms
SC.912.L.14.1: Describe the scientific theory of cells (cell theory) and relate the history of its discovery to the process of science.
SC.912.L.14.2: Relate structure to function for the components of plant and animal cells. Explain the role of cell membranes as a highly selective barrier (passive and active transport).
SC.912.L.14.3: Compare and contrast the general structures of plant and animal cells. Compare and contrast the general structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
SC.912.L.14.6: Explain the significance of genetic factors, environmental factors, and pathogenic agents to health from the perspectives of both individual and public health
SC.912.L.14.7: Relate the structure of each of the major plant organs and tissues to physiological processes.
SC.912.L.14.36: Describe the factors affecting blood flow through the cardiovascular system.
SC.912.L.14.52: Explain the basic functions of the human immune system, including specific and nonspecific immune response, vaccines, and antibiotics.
SC.912.L.15: Diversity and Evolution of Living Organisms
SC.912.L.15.1: Explain how the scientific theory of evolution is supported by the fossil record, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, biogeography, molecular biology, and observed evolutionary change.
SC.912.L.15.4: Describe how and why organisms are hierarchically classified and based on evolutionary relationships
SC.912.L.15.5: Explain the reasons for changes in how organisms are classified
SC.912.L.15.10: Identify basic trends in hominid evolution from early ancestors six million years ago to modern humans, including brain size, jaw size, language, and manufacture of tools.
SC.912.L.15.13: Describe the conditions required for natural selection, including: overproduction of offspring, inherited variation, and the struggle to survive, which result in differential reproductive success.
SC.912.L.15.15: Describe how mutation and genetic recombination increase genetic variation.
SC.912.L.16: Heredity and Reproduction
SC.912.L.16.1: Use Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment to analyze patterns of inheritance.
SC.912.L.16.2: Discuss observed inheritance patterns caused by various modes of inheritance, including dominant, recessive, codominant, sex-linked, polygenic, and multiple alleles
SC.912.L.16.3: Describe the basic process of DNA replication and how it relates to the transmission and conservation of the genetic information.
SC.912.L.16.4: Explain how mutations in the DNA sequence may or may not result in phenotypic change. Explain how mutations in gametes may result in phenotypic changes in offspring.
SC.912.L.16.5: Explain the basic processes of transcription and translation, and how they result in the expression of genes.
SC.912.L.16.8: Explain the relationship between mutation, cell cycle, and uncontrolled cell growth potentially resulting in cancer.
SC.912.L.16.9: Explain how and why the genetic code is universal and is common to almost all organisms.
SC.912.L.16.10: Evaluate the impact of biotechnology on the individual, society and the environment, including medical and ethical issues.
SC.912.L.16.14: Describe the cell cycle, including the process of mitosis. Explain the role of mitosis in the formation of new cells and its importance in maintaining chromosome number during asexual reproduction.
SC.912.L.17.2: Explain the general distribution of life in aquatic systems as a function of chemistry, geography, light, depth, salinity, and temperature.
SC.912.L.17.4: Describe changes in ecosystems resulting from seasonal variations, climate change, and succession.
SC.912.L.17.5: Analyze how population size is determined by births, deaths, immigration, emigration, and limiting factors (biotic and abiotic) that determine carrying capacity.
SC.912.L.17.8: Recognize the consequences of the losses of biodiversity due to catastrophic events, climate changes, human activity, and the introduction of invasive, non-native species.
SC.912.L.17.9: Use a food web to identify and distinguish producers, consumers, and decomposers. Explain the pathway of energy transfer through trophic levels and the reduction of available energy at successive trophic levels.
SC.912.L.17.11: Evaluate the costs and benefits of renewable and nonrenewable resources, such as water, energy, fossil fuels, wildlife, and forests.
SC.912.L.17.13: Discuss the need for adequate monitoring of environmental parameters when making policy decisions.
SC.912.L.17.20: Predict the impact of individuals on environmental systems and examine how human lifestyles affect sustainability.
SC.912.L.18: Matter and Energy Transformations
SC.912.L.18.1: Describe the basic molecular structures and primary functions of the four major categories of biological macromolecules.
SC.912.L.18.7: Identify the reactants, products, and basic functions of photosynthesis.
SC.912.L.18.8: Identify the reactants, products, and basic functions of aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration.
SC.912.L.18.9: Explain the interrelated nature of photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
SC.912.L.18.10: Connect the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to energy transfers within a cell.
SC.912.L.18.11: Explain the role of enzymes as catalysts that lower the activation energy of biochemical reactions. Identify factors, such as pH and temperature, and their effect on enzyme activity.
HE.912.C.1: Comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention to enhance health
HE.912.C.1.3: Evaluate how environment and personal health are interrelated.
HE.912.C.1.4: Analyze how heredity and family history can impact personal health.
HE.912.C.1.8: Analyze strategies for prevention, detection, and treatment of communicable and chronic diseases.
MA.912.S.1: Formulating Questions
MA.912.S.1.2: Determine appropriate and consistent standards of measurement for the data to be collected in a survey or experiment.
MA.912.S.3: Summarizing Data (Descriptive Statistics)
MA.912.S.3.2: Collect, organize, and analyze data sets, determine the best format for the data, and present visual summaries from the following: bar graphs; line graphs; stem and leaf plots; circle graphs; histograms; box and whisker plots; scatter plots; and cumulative frequency (ogive) graphs.
Correlation last revised: 1/20/2017