1.9-12 SYS.D: Systems can be changing or in equilibrium.
1.9-12 SYS.D.1: Analyze whether or not a system (e.g., population) is changing or in equilibrium.
1.9-12 SYS.D.2: Determine whether a state of equilibrium is static or dynamic (e.g., inflows equal outflows).
2.9-12 INQ.A: Scientists generate and evaluate questions to investigate the natural world.
2.9-12 INQ.A.1: Generate and evaluate a question that can be answered through a scientific investigation. Critique questions generated by others and explain whether or not the questions are scientific.
2.9-12 INQ.B: Scientific progress requires the use of various methods appropriate for answering different kinds of research questions, a thoughtful plan for gathering data needed to answer the question, and care in collecting, analyzing, and displaying the data.
2.9-12 INQ.B.1: Plan and conduct a scientific investigation, choosing a method appropriate to the question being asked.
2.9-12 INQ.C: Conclusions must be logical, based on evidence, and consistent with prior established knowledge.
2.9-12 INQ.C.1: Draw conclusions supported by evidence from the investigation and consistent with established scientific knowledge.
2.9-12 INQ.E: The essence of scientific investigation involves the development of a theory or conceptual model that can generate testable predictions.
2.9-12 INQ.E.1: Formulate one or more hypotheses based on a model or theory of a causal relationship. Demonstrate creativity and critical thinking to formulate and evaluate the hypotheses.
2.9-12 INQ.F: Science is a human endeavor that involves logical reasoning and creativity and entails the testing, revision, and occasional discarding of theories as new evidence comes to light.
2.9-12 INQ.F.1: Evaluate an investigation to determine if it was a valid means of answering the question, and whether or not the results were reliable.
2.9-12 INQ.G: Public communication among scientists is an essential aspect of research. Scientists evaluate the validity of one another?s investigations, check the reliability of results, and explain inconsistencies in findings.
2.9-12 INQ.G.1: Participate in a scientific discussion about one?s own investigations and those performed by others.
2.9-12 INQ.G.2: Respond to questions and criticisms, and if appropriate, revise explanations based on these discussions.
3.9-12 APP.A: Science affects society and cultures by influencing the way many people think about themselves, others, and the environment. Society also affects science by its prevailing views about what is important to study and by deciding what research will be funded.
3.9-12 APP.A.2: List questions that scientists investigate that are stimulated by the needs of society (e.g., medical research, global climate change).
3.9-12 APP.C: Choosing the best solution involves comparing alternatives with respect to criteria and constraints, then building and testing a model or other representation of the final design.
3.9-12 APP.C.1: Choose the best solution for a problem, create a model or drawing of the final design, and devise a way to test it. Redesign the solution, if necessary, then present it to peers.
3.9-12 APP.D: The ability to solve problems is greatly enhanced by use of mathematics and information technologies.
3.9-12 APP.D.1: Use proportional reasoning, functions, graphing, and estimation to solve problems.
4.9-11 ES1.B: The Big Bang theory of the origin of the universe is based on evidence (e.g., red shift) that all galaxies are rushing apart from one another. As space expanded and matter began to cool, gravitational attraction pulled clumps of matter together, forming the stars and galaxies, clouds of gas and dust, and planetary systems that we see today. If we were to run time backwards, the universe gets constantly smaller, shrinking to almost zero size 13.7 billion years ago.
4.9-11 ES1.B.1: Cite evidence that supports the "Big Bang theory" (e.g., red shift of galaxies or 3K background radiation).
4.9-11 ES2.A: Global climate differences result from the uneven heating of Earth?s surface by the Sun. Seasonal climate variations are due to the tilt of Earth?s axis with respect to the plane of Earth?s nearly circular orbit around the Sun.
4.9-11 ES2.A.1: Explain that Earth is warmer near the equator and cooler near the poles due to the uneven heating of Earth by the Sun.
4.9-11 ES2.A.2: Explain that it?s warmer in summer and colder in winter for people in Washington State because the intensity of sunlight is greater and the days are longer in summer than in winter. Connect these seasonal changes in sunlight to the tilt of Earth?s axis with respect to the plane of its orbit around the Sun.
4.9-11 ES2.B: Climate is determined by energy transfer from the sun at and near Earth's surface. This energy transfer is influenced by dynamic processes such as cloud cover and Earth's rotation, as well as static conditions such as proximity to mountain ranges and the ocean. Human activities, such as burning of fossil fuels, also affect the global climate.
4.9-11 ES2.B.1: Explain the factors that affect climate in different parts of Washington state.
4.9-11 ES2.C: Earth is a system that contains essentially a fixed amount of each stable chemical element existing in different chemical forms. Each element on Earth moves among reservoirs in the solid Earth, oceans, atmosphere, and organisms as part of biogeochemical cycles driven by energy from Earth?s interior and from the Sun.
4.9-11 ES2.C.1: Describe the different forms taken by carbon and nitrogen, and the reservoirs where they are found.
4.9-11 ES2.D: The Earth does not have infinite resources; increasing human consumption impacts the natural processes that renew some resources and it depletes other resources including those that cannot be renewed.
4.9-11 ES2.D.2: Explain how human use of natural resources stress natural processes and link that use to a possible long term consequence.
4.9-11 ES3.A: Interactions among the solid Earth, the oceans, the atmosphere, and organisms have resulted in the ongoing evolution of the Earth system. We can observe changes such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions on a human time scale, but many processes such as mountain building and plate movements take place over hundreds of millions of years.
4.9-11 ES3.A.1: Interpret current rock formations of the Pacific Northwest as evidence of past geologic events. Consider which Earth processes that may have caused these rock formations (e.g., erosion, deposition, and scraping of terrain by glaciers, floods, volcanic eruptions, and tsunami).
4.9-11 ES3.B: Geologic time can be estimated by several methods (e.g., counting tree rings, observing rock sequences, using fossils to correlate sequences at various locations, and using the known decay rates of radioactive isotopes present in rocks to measure the time since the rock was formed).
4.9-11 ES3.B.1: Explain how decay rates of radioactive materials in rock layers are used to establish the timing of geologic events.
4.9-11 LS1.A: Carbon-containing compounds are the building blocks of life. Photosynthesis is the process that plant cells use to combine the energy of sunlight with molecules of carbon dioxide and water to produce energy-rich compounds that contain carbon (food) and release oxygen.
4.9-11 LS1.A.1: Explain how plant cells use photosynthesis to produce their own food. Use the following equation to illustrate how plants rearrange atoms during photosynthesis: 6CO2+6H2O+light energy -> C6H12O6+6O2.
4.9-11 LS1.A.2: Explain the importance of photosynthesis for both plants and animals, including humans.
4.9-11 LS1.B: The gradual combustion of carbon-containing compounds within cells, called cellular respiration, provides the primary energy source of living organisms; the combustion of carbon by burning of fossil fuels provides the primary energy source for most of modern society.
4.9-11 LS1.B.1: Explain how the process of cellular respiration is similar to the burning of fossil fuels (e.g., both processes involve combustion of carbon-containing compounds to transform chemical energy to a different form of energy).
4.9-11 LS1.C: Cells contain specialized parts for determining essential functions such as regulation of cellular activities, energy capture and release, formation of proteins, waste disposal, the transfer of information, and movement.
4.9-11 LS1.C.1: Draw, label, and describe the functions of components of essential structures within cells (e.g., cellular membrane, nucleus, chromosome, chloroplast, mitochondrion, ribosome).
4.9-11 LS1.D: The cell is surrounded by a membrane that separates the interior of the cell from the outside world and determines which substances may enter and which may leave the cell.
4.9-11 LS1.D.1: Describe the structure of the cell membrane and how the membrane regulates the flow of materials into and out of the cell.
4.9-11 LS1.E: The genetic information responsible for inherited characteristics is encoded in the DNA molecules in chromosomes. DNA is composed of four subunits (A,T,C,G). The sequence of subunits in a gene specifies the amino acids needed to make a protein. Proteins express inherited traits (e.g., eye color, hair texture) and carry out most cell function.
4.9-11 LS1.E.2: Illustrate the process by which gene sequences are copied to produce proteins.
4.9-11 LS1.F: All of the functions of the cell are based on chemical reactions. Food molecules are broken down to provide the energy and the chemical constituents needed to synthesize other molecules. Breakdown and synthesis are made possible by proteins called enzymes. Some of these enzymes enable the cell to store energy in special chemicals, such as ATP, that are needed to drive the many other chemical reactions in a cell.
4.9-11 LS1.F.2: Describe the role that enzymes play in the breakdown of food molecules and synthesis of the many different molecules needed for cell structure and function.
4.9-11 LS1.H: Genes are carried on chromosomes. Animal cells contain two copies of each chromosome with genetic information that regulate body structure and functions. Most cells divide by a process called mitosis, in which the genetic information is copied so that each new cell contains exact copies of the original chromosomes.
4.9-11 LS1.H.1: Describe and model the process of mitosis, in which one cell divides, producing two cells, each with copies of both chromosomes from each pair in the original cell.
4.9-11 LS1.I: Egg and sperm cells are formed by a process called meiosis in which each resulting cell contains only one representative chromosome from each pair found in the original cell. Recombination of genetic information during meiosis scrambles the genetic information, allowing for new genetic combinations and characteristics in the offspring. Fertilization restores the original number of chromosome pairs and reshuffles the genetic information, allowing for variation among offspring.
4.9-11 LS1.I.4: Predict the outcome of specific genetic crosses involving two characteristics.
4.9-11 LS2.A: Matter cycles and energy flows through living and nonliving components in ecosystems. The transfer of matter and energy is important for maintaining the health and sustainability of an ecosystem.
4.9-11 LS2.A.1: Explain how plants and animals cycle carbon and nitrogen within an ecosystem.
4.9-11 LS2.A.2: Explain how matter cycles and energy flows in ecosystems, resulting in the formation of differing chemical compounds and heat.
4.9-11 LS2.B: Living organisms have the capacity to produce very large populations. Population density is the number of individuals of a particular population living in a given amount of space.
4.9-11 LS2.B.1: Evaluate the conditions necessary for rapid population growth (e.g., given adequate living and nonliving resources and no disease or predators, populations of an organism increase at rapid rates).
4.9-11 LS2.B.2: Given ecosystem data, calculate the population density of an organism.
4.9-11 LS2.E: Interrelationships of organisms may generate ecosystems that are stable for hundreds or thousands of years. Biodiversity refers to the different kinds of organisms in specific ecosystems or on the planet as a whole.
4.9-11 LS2.E.1: Compare the biodiversity of organisms in different types of ecosystems (e.g., rain forest, grassland, desert) noting the interdependencies and interrelationships among the organisms in these different ecosystems.
4.9-11 LS3.A: Biological evolution is due to: (1) genetic variability of offspring due to mutations and genetic recombination, (2) the potential for a species to increase its numbers, (3) a finite supply of resources, and (4) natural selection by the environment for those offspring better able to survive and produce offspring.
4.9-11 LS3.A.1: Explain biological evolution as the consequence of the interactions of four factors: population growth, inherited variability of offspring, a finite supply of resources, and natural selection by the environment of offspring better able to survive and reproduce.
4.9-11 LS3.B: Random changes in the genetic makeup of cells and organisms (mutations) can cause changes in their physical characteristics or behaviors. If the genetic mutations occur in eggs or sperm cells, the changes will be inherited by offspring. While many of these changes will be harmful, a small minority may allow the offspring to better survive and reproduce.
4.9-11 LS3.B.1: Describe the molecular process by which organisms pass on physical and behavioral traits to offspring, as well as the environmental and genetic factors that cause minor differences (variations) in offspring or occasional "mistakes" in the copying of genetic material that can be inherited by future generations (mutations).
4.9-11 LS3.C: The great diversity of organisms is the result of more than 3.5 billion years of evolution that has filled available ecosystem niches on Earth with life forms.
4.9-11 LS3.C.1: Explain how the millions of different species alive today are related by descent from a common ancestor.
4.9-11 LS3.D: The fossil record and anatomical and molecular similarities observed among diverse species of living organisms provide evidence of biological evolution.
4.9-11 LS3.D.1: Using the fossil record and anatomical and/or molecular (DNA) similarities as evidence, formulate a logical argument for biological evolution as an explanation for the development of a representative species (e.g., birds, horses, elephants, whales).
4.9-11 LS3.E: Biological classifications are based on how organisms are related, reflecting their evolutionary history. Scientists infer relationships from physiological traits, genetic information, and the ability of two organisms to produce fertile offspring.
4.9-11 LS3.E.1: Classify organisms, using similarities and differences in physical and functional characteristics.
4.9-11 PS1.A: Average velocity is defined as a change in position with respect to time. Velocity includes both speed and direction.
4.9-11 PS1.A.1: Calculate the average velocity of a moving object, given the object?s change in position and time (v = (x subscript 2 - x subscript 1)/(t subscript 2 - t subscript 1)).
4.9-11 PS1.A.2: Explain how two objects moving at the same speed can have different velocities.
4.9-11 PS1.B: Average acceleration is defined as a change in velocity with respect to time. Acceleration indicates a change in speed and/or a change in direction.
4.9-11 PS1.B.1: Calculate the average acceleration of an object, given the object?s change in velocity with respect to time (a = (v subscript 2 - v subscript 1)/(t subscript 2 - t subscript 1)).
4.9-11 PS1.C: An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion at constant velocity will continue at the same velocity unless acted on by an unbalanced force (Newton?s First Law of Motion, the Law of Inertia).
4.9-11 PS1.C.1: Given specific scenarios, compare the motion of an object acted on by balanced forces with the motion of an object acted on by unbalanced forces.
4.9-11 PS1.D: A net force will cause an object to accelerate or change direction. A less massive object will speed up more quickly than a more massive object subjected to the same force (Newton?s Second Law of Motion, F=ma).
4.9-11 PS1.D.1: Predict how objects of different masses will accelerate when subjected to the same force.
4.9-11 PS1.D.2: Calculate the acceleration of an object, given the object?s mass and the net force on the object, using Newton?s Second Law of Motion (F=ma).
4.9-11 PS1.E: Whenever one object exerts a force on another object, a force of equal magnitude is exerted on the first object in the opposite direction (Newton?s Third Law of Motion).
4.9-11 PS1.E.1: Illustrate with everyday examples that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction (e.g., a person exerts the same force on the Earth as the Earth exerts on the person).
4.9-11 PS1.F: Gravitation is a universal attractive force by which objects with mass attract one another. The gravitational force between two objects is proportional to their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the objects (Newton?s Law of Universal Gravitation).
4.9-11 PS1.F.1: Predict how the gravitational force between two bodies would differ for bodies of different masses or different distances apart.
4.9-11 PS1.H: Electricity and magnetism are two aspects of a single electromagnetic force. Moving electric charges produce magnetic forces, and moving magnets produce electric forces.
4.9-11 PS1.H.1: Demonstrate and explain that an electric current flowing in a wire will create a magnetic field around the wire (electromagnetic effect).
4.9-11 PS1.H.2: Demonstrate and explain that moving a magnet near a wire will cause an electric current to flow in the wire (the generator effect).
4.9-11 PS2.A: Atoms are composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons. The nucleus of an atom takes up very little of the atom?s volume but makes up almost all of the mass. The nucleus contains protons and neutrons, which are much more massive than the electrons surrounding the nucleus. Protons have a positive charge, electrons are negative in charge, and neutrons have no net charge.
4.9-11 PS2.A.1: Describe the relative charges, masses, and locations of the protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom of an element.
4.9-11 PS2.C: When elements are listed in order according to the number of protons, repeating patterns of physical and chemical properties identify families of elements with similar properties. This Periodic Table is a consequence of the repeating pattern of outermost electrons.
4.9-11 PS2.C.1: Given the number of protons, identify the element using a Periodic Table.
4.9-11 PS2.C.2: Explain the arrangement of the elements on the Periodic Table, including the significant relationships among elements in a given column or row.
4.9-11 PS2.D: Ions are produced when atoms or molecules lose or gain electrons, thereby gaining a positive or negative electrical charge. Ions of opposite charge are attracted to each other, forming ionic bonds. Chemical formulas for ionic compounds represent the proportion of ion of each element in the ionic crystal.
4.9-11 PS2.D.1: Explain how ions and ionic bonds are formed (e.g., sodium atoms lose an electron and chlorine atoms gain an electron, then the charged ions are attracted to each other and form bonds).
4.9-11 PS2.D.2: Explain the meaning of a chemical formula for an ionic crystal (e.g., NaCl).
4.9-11 PS2.E: Molecular compounds are composed of two or more elements bonded together in a fixed proportion by sharing electrons between atoms, forming covalent bonds. Such compounds consist of well-defined molecules. Formulas of covalent compounds represent the types and number of atoms of each element in each molecule.
4.9-11 PS2.E.1: Give examples to illustrate that molecules are groups of two or more atoms bonded together (e.g., a molecule of water is formed when one oxygen atom shares electrons with two hydrogen atoms).
4.9-11 PS2.E.2: Explain the meaning of a chemical formula for a molecule (e.g., CH4 or H2O).
4.9-11 PS2.F: All forms of life are composed of large molecules that contain carbon. Carbon atoms bond to one another and other elements by sharing electrons, forming covalent bonds. Stable molecules of carbon have four covalent bonds per carbon atom.
4.9-11 PS2.F.1: Demonstrate how carbon atoms form four covalent bonds to make large molecules. Identify the functions of these molecules (e.g., plant and animal tissue, polymers, sources of food and nutrition, fossil fuels).
4.9-11 PS2.G: Chemical reactions change the arrangement of atoms in the molecules of substances. Chemical reactions release or acquire energy from their surroundings and result in the formation of new substances.
4.9-11 PS2.G.1: Describe at least three chemical reactions of particular importance to humans (e.g., burning of fossil fuels, photosynthesis, rusting of metals).
4.9-11 PS2.G.2: Use a chemical equation to illustrate how the atoms in molecules are arranged before and after a reaction.
4.9-11 PS2.G.3: Give examples of chemical reactions that either release or acquire energy and result in the formation of new substances (e.g., burning of fossil fuels releases large amounts of energy in the form of heat).
4.9-11 PS2.H: Solutions are mixtures in which particles of one substance are evenly distributed through another substance. Liquids are limited in the amount of dissolved solid or gas that they can contain. Aqueous solutions can be described by relative quantities of the dissolved substances and acidity or alkalinity (pH).
4.9-11 PS2.H.1: Give examples of common solutions. Explain the differences among the processes of dissolving, melting, and reacting.
4.9-11 PS2.H.2: Predict the result of adding increased amounts of a substance to an aqueous solution, in concentration and pH.
4.9-11 PS2.I: The rate of a physical or chemical change may be affected by factors such as temperature, surface area, and pressure.
4.9-11 PS2.I.1: Predict the effect of a change in temperature, surface area, or pressure on the rate of a given physical or chemical change.
4.9-11 PS2.J: The number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom determines the isotope of the element. Radioactive isotopes are unstable and emit particles and/or radiation. Though the timing of a single nuclear decay is unpredictable, a large group of nuclei decay at a predictable rate, making it possible to estimate the age of materials that contain radioactive isotopes.
4.9-11 PS2.J.1: Given the atomic number and atomic mass number of an isotope, students draw and label a model of the isotope?s atomic structure (number of protons, neutrons, and electrons).
4.9-11 PS2.J.2: Given data from a sample, use a decay curve for a radioactive isotope to find the age of the sample. Explain how the decay curve is derived.
4.9-11 PS3.A: Although energy can be transferred from one object to another and can be transformed from one form of energy to another form, the total energy in a closed system remains the same. The concept of conservation of energy, applies to all physical and chemical changes.
4.9-11 PS3.A.1: Describe a situation in which energy is transferred from one place to another and explain how energy is conserved.
4.9-11 PS3.A.2: Describe a situation in which energy is transformed from one form to another and explain how energy is conserved.
4.9-11 PS3.B: Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. The kinetic energy of an object is defined by the equation: Ek = ½ mv².
4.9-11 PS3.B.1: Calculate the kinetic energy of an object, given the object?s mass and velocity.
4.9-11 PS3.C: Gravitational potential energy is due to the separation of mutually attracting masses. Transformations can occur between gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy, but the total amount of energy remains constant.
4.9-11 PS3.C.1: Give an example in which gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy are changed from one to the other (e.g., a child on a swing illustrates the alternating transformation of kinetic and gravitational potential energy).
4.9-11 PS3.D: Waves (including sound, seismic, light, and water waves) transfer energy when they interact with matter. Waves can have different wavelengths, frequencies, and amplitudes, and travel at different speeds.
4.9-11 PS3.D.1: Demonstrate how energy can be transmitted by sending waves along a spring or rope. Characterize physical waves by frequency, wavelength, amplitude, and speed.
4.9-11 PS3.D.2: Apply these properties to the pitch and volume of sound waves and to the wavelength and magnitude of water waves.
4.9-11 PS3.E: Electromagnetic waves differ from physical waves because they do not require a medium and they all travel at the same speed in a vacuum. This is the maximum speed that any object or wave can travel. Forms of electromagnetic waves include X-rays, ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, and radio.
4.9-11 PS3.E.1: Illustrate the electromagnetic spectrum with a labeled diagram, showing how regions of the spectrum differ regarding wavelength, frequency, and energy, and how they are used (e.g., infrared in heat lamps, microwaves for heating foods, X-rays for medical imaging).
Correlation last revised: 1/20/2017