2.6-8 INQ.A: Scientific inquiry involves asking and answering questions and comparing the answer with what scientists already know about the world.
2.6-8 INQ.A.1: Generate a question that can be answered through scientific investigation. This may involve refining or refocusing a broad and ill-defined question.
2.6-8 INQ.B: Different kinds of questions suggest different kinds of scientific investigations.
2.6-8 INQ.B.1: Plan and conduct a scientific investigation (e.g., field study, systematic observation, controlled experiment, model, or simulation) that is appropriate for the question being asked.
2.6-8 INQ.B.2: Propose a hypothesis, give a reason for the hypothesis, and explain how the planned investigation will test the hypothesis.
2.6-8 INQ.C: Collecting, analyzing, and displaying data are essential aspects of all investigations.
2.6-8 INQ.C.1: Communicate results using pictures, tables, charts, diagrams, graphic displays, and text that are clear, accurate, and informative.
2.6-8 INQ.C.2: Recognize and interpret patterns ? as well as variations from previously learned or observed patterns ? in data, diagrams, symbols, and words.
2.6-8 INQ.C.3: Use statistical procedures (e.g., median, mean, or mode) to analyze data and make inferences about relationships.
2.6-8 INQ.D: For an experiment to be valid, all (controlled) variables must be kept the same whenever possible, except for the manipulated (independent) variable being tested and the responding (dependent) variable being measured and recorded. If a variable cannot be controlled, it must be reported and accounted for.
2.6-8 INQ.D.1: Plan and conduct a controlled experiment to test a hypothesis about a relationship between two variables. Determine which variables should be kept the same (controlled), which (independent) variable should be systematically manipulated, and which responding (dependent) variable is to be measured and recorded. Report any variables not controlled and explain how they might affect results.
2.6-8 INQ.F: It is important to distinguish between the results of a particular investigation and general conclusions drawn from these results.
2.6-8 INQ.F.1: Generate a scientific conclusion from an investigation using inferential logic, and clearly distinguish between results (e.g., evidence) and conclusions (e.g., explanation).
3.6-8 APP.D: The process of technological design begins by defining a problem and identifying criteria for a successful solution, followed by research to better understand the problem and brainstorming to arrive at potential solutions.
3.6-8 APP.D.3: Brainstorm different solutions.
4.6-8 ES1.A: The Moon?s monthly cycle of phases can be explained by its changing relative position as it orbits Earth. An eclipse of the Moon occurs when the Moon enters Earth?s shadow. An eclipse of the Sun occurs when the Moon is between the Earth and Sun, and the Moon?s shadow falls on the Earth.
4.6-8 ES1.A.1: Use a physical model or diagram to explain how the Moon?s changing position in its orbit results in the changing phases of the Moon as observed from Earth.
4.6-8 ES1.B: Earth is the third planet from the sun in a system that includes the Moon, the Sun, seven other major planets and their moons, and smaller objects such as asteroids, plutoids, dwarf planets and comets. These bodies differ in many characteristics (e.g., size, composition, relative position).
4.6-8 ES1.B.1: Compare the relative sizes and distances of the Sun, Moon, Earth, other major planets, moons, asteroids, plutoids, and comets.
4.6-8 ES1.C: Most objects in the Solar System are in regular and predictable motion. These motions explain such phenomena as the day, the year, phases of the Moon, and eclipses.
4.6-8 ES1.C.1: Use a simple physical model or labeled drawing of the Earth-Sun-Moon system to explain day and night, phases of the Moon, and eclipses of the Moon and Sun.
4.6-8 ES1.E: Our Sun is one of hundreds of billions of stars in the Milky Way galaxy. Many of these stars have planets orbiting around them. The Milky Way galaxy is one of hundreds of billions of galaxies in the universe.
4.6-8 ES1.E.1: Construct a physical model or diagram showing Earth?s position in the Solar System, the Solar System?s position in the Milky Way, and the Milky Way among other galaxies.
4.6-8 ES2.B: The Sun is the major source of energy for phenomena on Earth?s surface, such as winds, ocean currents, and the water cycle.
4.6-8 ES2.B.2: Describe the role of the Sun in the water cycle.
4.6-8 ES2.C: In the water cycle, water evaporates from Earth?s surface, rises and cools, condenses to form clouds and falls as rain or snow and collects in bodies of water.
4.6-8 ES2.C.1: Describe the water cycle and give local examples of where parts of the water cycle can be seen.
4.6-8 ES2.F: The crust is composed of huge crustal plates on the scale of continents and oceans which move centimeters per year, pushed by convection in the upper mantle, causing earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountains.
4.6-8 ES2.F.2: Describe what may happen when plate boundaries meet (e.g., earthquakes, tsunami, faults, mountain building), with examples from the Pacific Northwest.
4.6-8 ES2.G: Landforms are created by processes that build up structures and processes that break down and carry away material through erosion and weathering.
4.6-8 ES2.G.1: Explain how a given landform (e.g., mountain) has been shaped by processes that build up structures (e.g., uplift) and by processes that break down and carry away material (e.g., weathering and erosion).
4.6-8 ES2.H: The rock cycle describes the formation of igneous rock from magma or lava, sedimentary rock from compaction of eroded particles, and metamorphic rock by heating and pressure.
4.6-8 ES2.H.1: Identify samples of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rock from their properties and describe how their properties provide evidence of how they were formed.
4.6-8 LS1.A: All organisms are composed of cells, which carry on the many functions needed to sustain life.
4.6-8 LS1.A.2: Describe the functions performed by cells to sustain a living organism (e.g., division to produce more cells, taking in nutrients, releasing waste, using energy to do work, and producing materials the organism needs).
4.6-8 LS1.B: One-celled organisms must contain parts to carry out all life functions.
4.6-8 LS1.B.1: Draw and describe observations made with a microscope showing that a single-celled organism (e.g., paramecium) contains parts used for all life functions.
4.6-8 LS1.C: Multicellular organisms have specialized cells that perform different functions. These cells join together to form tissues that give organs their structure and enable the organs to perform specialized functions within organ systems.
4.6-8 LS1.C.1: Relate the structure of a specialized cell (e.g., nerve and muscle cells) to the function that the cell performs.
4.6-8 LS1.C.2: Explain the relationship between tissues that make up individual organs and the functions the organ performs (e.g., valves in the heart control blood flow, air sacs in the lungs maximize surface area for transfer of gases).
4.6-8 LS1.C.3: Describe the components and functions of the digestive, circulatory, and respiratory systems in humans and how these systems interact.
4.6-8 LS1.D: Both plant and animal cells must carry on life functions, so they have parts in common, such as nuclei, cytoplasm, cell membranes, and mitochondria. But plants have specialized cell parts, such as chloroplasts for photosynthesis and cell walls, which provide plants their overall structure.
4.6-8 LS1.D.1: Use labeled diagrams or models to illustrate similarities and differences between plant and animal cell structures and describe their functions (e.g., both have nuclei, cytoplasm, cell membranes, and mitochondria, while only plants have chloroplasts and cell walls).
4.6-8 LS1.E: In classifying organisms, scientists consider both internal and external structures and behaviors.
4.6-8 LS1.E.1: Use a classification key to identify organisms, noting use of both internal and external structures as well as behaviors.
4.6-8 LS2.A: An ecosystem consists of all the populations living within a specific area and the nonliving factors they interact with. One geographical area may contain many ecosystems.
4.6-8 LS2.A.1: Explain that an ecosystem is a defined area that contains populations of organisms and nonliving factors.
4.6-8 LS2.B: Energy flows through an ecosystem from producers (plants) to consumers to decomposers. These relationships can be shown for specific populations in a food web.
4.6-8 LS2.B.1: Analyze the flow of energy in a local ecosystem, and draw a labeled food web showing the relationships among all of the ecosystem?s plant and animal populations.
4.6-8 LS2.C: The major source of energy for ecosystems on Earth?s surface is sunlight. Producers transform the energy of sunlight into the chemical energy of food through photosynthesis. This food energy is used by plants, and all other organisms to carry on life processes. Nearly all organisms on the surface of Earth depend on this energy source.
4.6-8 LS2.C.1: Explain how energy from the Sun is transformed through photosynthesis to produce chemical energy in food.
4.6-8 LS2.C.2: Explain that producers are the only organisms that make their own food. Animals cannot survive without producers because animals get food by eating producers or other animals that eat producers.
4.6-8 LS2.D: Ecosystems are continuously changing. Causes of these changes include nonliving factors such as the amount of light, range of temperatures, and availability of water, as well as living factors such as the disappearance of different species through disease, predation, habitat destruction and overuse of resources or the introduction of new species.
4.6-8 LS2.D.1: Predict what may happen to an ecosystem if nonliving factors change (e.g., the amount of light, range of temperatures, or availability of water or habitat), or if one or more populations are removed from or added to the ecosystem.
4.6-8 LS3.B: Every organism contains a set of genetic information (instructions) to specify its traits. This information is contained within genes in the chromosomes in the nucleus of each cell.
4.6-8 LS3.B.1: Explain that information on how cells are to grow and function is contained in genes in the chromosomes of each cell nucleus and that during the process of reproduction the genes are passed from the parent cells to offspring.
4.6-8 LS3.C: Reproduction is essential for every species to continue to exist. Some plants and animals reproduce sexually while others reproduce asexually. Sexual reproduction leads to greater diversity of characteristics because offspring inherit genes from both parents.
4.6-8 LS3.C.1: Identify sexually and asexually reproducing plants and animals.
4.6-8 LS3.D: In sexual reproduction the new organism receives half of its genetic information from each parent, resulting in offspring that are similar but not identical to either parent. In asexual reproduction just one parent is involved, and genetic information is passed on nearly unchanged.
4.6-8 LS3.D.1: Describe that in sexual reproduction the offspring receive genetic information from both parents, and therefore differ from the parents.
4.6-8 LS3.D.2: Predict the outcome of specific genetic crosses involving one characteristic (using principles of Mendelian genetics).
4.6-8 LS3.D.3: Explain the survival value of genetic variation.
4.6-8 LS3.E: Adaptations are physical or behavioral changes that are inherited and enhance the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment.
4.6-8 LS3.E.1: Give an example of a plant or animal adaptation that would confer a survival and reproductive advantage during a given environmental change.
4.6-8 PS1.A: Average speed is defined as the distance traveled in a given period of time.
4.6-8 PS1.A.1: Measure the distance an object travels in a given interval of time and calculate the object?s average speed, using S = d/t. (e.g., a battery-powered toy car travels 20 meters in 5 seconds, so its average speed is 4 meters per second).
4.6-8 PS2.A: Substances have characteristic intrinsic properties such as density, solubility, boiling point, and melting point, all of which are independent of the amount of the sample.
4.6-8 PS2.A.1: Use characteristic intrinsic properties such as density, boiling point, and melting point to identify an unknown substance.
4.6-8 PS2.E: Solids, liquids, and gases differ in the motion of individual particles. In solids, particles are packed in a nearly rigid structure; in liquids, particles move around one another; and in gases, particles move almost independently.
4.6-8 PS2.E.1: Describe how solids, liquids, and gases behave when put into a container (e.g., a gas fills the entire volume of the container). Relate these properties to the relative movement of the particles in the three states of matter.
4.6-8 PS2.F: When substances within a closed system interact, the total mass of the system remains the same. This concept, called conservation of mass, applies to all physical and chemical changes.
4.6-8 PS2.F.1: Apply the concept of conservation of mass to correctly predict changes in mass before and after chemical reactions, including reactions that occur in closed containers, and reactions that occur in open containers where a gas is given off.
4.6-8 PS3.A: Energy exists in many forms which include: heat, light, chemical, electrical, motion of objects, and sound. Energy can be transformed from one form to another and transferred from one place to another.
4.6-8 PS3.A.1: List different forms of energy (e.g., thermal, light, chemical, electrical, kinetic, and sound energy).
4.6-8 PS3.A.2: Describe ways in which energy is transformed from one form to another and transferred from one place to another (e.g., chemical to electrical energy in a battery, electrical to light energy in a bulb).
4.6-8 PS3.B: Heat (thermal energy) flows from warmer to cooler objects until both reach the same temperature. Conduction, radiation, and convection, or mechanical mixing, are means of energy transfer.
4.6-8 PS3.B.1: Use everyday examples of conduction, radiation, and convection, or mechanical mixing, to illustrate the transfer of energy from warmer objects to cooler ones until the objects reach the same temperature.
4.6-8 PS3.C: Heat (thermal energy) consists of random motion and the vibrations of atoms and molecules. The higher the temperature, the greater the atomic or molecular motion. Thermal insulators are materials that resist the flow of heat.
4.6-8 PS3.C.1: Explain how various types of insulation slow transfer of heat energy based on the atomic-molecular model of heat (thermal energy).
4.6-8 PS3.D: Visible light from the Sun is made up of a mixture of all colors of light. To see an object, light emitted or reflected by that object must enter the eye.
4.6-8 PS3.D.1: Describe how to demonstrate that visible light from the Sun is made up of different colors.
4.6-8 PS3.E: Energy from a variety of sources can be transformed into electrical energy, and then to almost any other form of energy. Electricity can also be distributed quickly to distant locations.
4.6-8 PS3.E.1: Illustrate the transformations of energy in an electric circuit when heat, light, and sound are produced. Describe the transformation of energy in a battery within an electric circuit.
4.6-8 PS3.F: Energy can be transferred from one place to another through waves. Waves include vibrations in materials. Sound and earthquake waves are examples. These and other waves move at different speeds in different materials.
4.6-8 PS3.F.2: Explain that sound is caused by a vibrating object.
Correlation last revised: 1/20/2017