### I: Kinematics and Dynamics

#### I.B: Vector and Scalar Quantities

I.B.1: Define the following terms: vector quantity, scalar quantity, resultant vector, vector resolution, equivalent vectors, collinear vectors.

I.B.2: Identify vector and scalar quantities.

I.B.3: Distinguish between vector and scalar quantities.

I.B.6: Explain or demonstrate an understanding of the following important concepts: a resultant vector, vector addition, resolving a vector into components.

I.B.8: Add two or more collinear vectors algebraically and graphically to determine the resultant vector.

I.B.9: Identify collinear and non-collinear vectors.

I.B.10: Identify equivalent vectors.

I.B.14: Demonstrate an understanding of vector addition and subtraction in two dimensions.

I.B.15: Determine the magnitude and the direction of a resultant vector, both graphically and mathematically, given any two or more vectors acting in two dimensions.

I.B.16: Demonstrate an understanding that both magnitude and direction must be stated to specify vector quantities.

I.B.21: Resolve a vector into the effective values of two independent component vectors.

I.B.22: Determine the resultant vector of two or more non-perpendicular vectors acting in two dimensions using the vector component method.

#### I.C: Distance and Displacement

I.C.1: Define the following terms: position, reference point, number line, displacement, equivalent displacements, distance, negative vector.

I.C.7: Determine the displacement of an object on a velocity versus time graph or a position versus time graph.

#### I.D: Speed and Velocity

I.D.1: Define the following terms: speed, velocity, average speed, average velocity, instantaneous speed, instantaneous velocity.

I.D.2: Distinguish among: speed and velocity; velocity, average velocity, and instantaneous velocity; speed, average speed, and instantaneous speed.

I.D.3: Calculate speed, average speed, velocity and average velocity.

I.D.6: Interpret the type of motion depicted by a displacement versus time graph or a position versus time graph.

I.D.9: Analyze position versus time graphs or displacement versus time graphs to determine velocity, average velocity, and instantaneous velocity.

I.D.10: Solve problems relating to speed and velocity.

I.D.12: Determine the slope on a graph and derive the correct units depending on the physical quantities which have been plotted on the graph.

#### I.E: Acceleration

I.E.1: Define the following terms: acceleration, average acceleration, instantaneous acceleration.

I.E.4: Give examples of objects undergoing constant acceleration.

I.E.5: Determine the average velocity of an object graphically and algebraically.

I.E.7: Distinguish between positive and negative acceleration.

I.E.8: Recognize situations which illustrate an acceleration of zero.

I.E.9: Analyze velocity versus time graphs to determine acceleration, average acceleration, and instantaneous acceleration.

I.E.10: Analyze velocity versus time graphs to determine an object's displacement during specified time intervals.

I.E.12: Obtain instantaneous accelerations from a velocity versus time graph and use them to develop an acceleration versus time graph.

I.E.13: Recognize that the equations for uniformly accelerated motion can be derived from first principles.

I.E.14: Solve problems involving acceleration using the equations for uniformly accelerated motion.

I.E.15: Use a velocity versus time graph to develop a displacement versus time graph and an acceleration versus time graph.

I.E.18: Relate an understanding of acceleration to familiar experiences and practical applications.

#### I.F: Newton's Laws of Motion

I.F.1: Define the following terms: inertia, free body diagram, unbalanced force, net force, inertial mass.

I.F.2: Explain what is meant by inertia.

I.F.6: Explain what is meant by an unbalanced force.

I.F.7: Analyze situations involving balanced and unbalanced forces on various objects with the aid of free body diagrams.

I.F.11: Solve problems involving Newton's laws of motion.

I.F.12: Predict the direction of acceleration on an object, given the direction of the unbalanced force.

I.F.13: Predict the direction of the unbalanced force acting on an object, given the direction of the acceleration.

I.F.14: Interpret direct and inverse relationships, as they occur in Newton's second law.

I.F.16: Explain how the inertial mass of an object can be determined.

### II: Mechanical Energy

#### II.A: Work

II.A.1: Define the following terms: applied force, work, energy, positive work, negative work.

II.A.2: Distinguish between positive work and negative work.

II.A.5: Express the correct SI fundamental or derived units for work, energy, and various other types of physical quantities.

II.A.8: Give examples to illustrate how energy is transferred from one object to another when work is done.

II.A.10: Solve problems involving work and energy.

#### II.B: Power

II.B.4: Solve problems involving work, power, and energy.

#### II.C: Kinetic Energy

II.C.3: Show how the fundamental units for kinetic energy or potential energy are related to the derived units (J) for energy.

II.C.4: Solve problems relating to kinetic energy.

#### II.D: Gravitational Potential Energy

II.D.1: Define the following terms: gravitational potential energy, base level, ground level, total mechanical energy.

II.D.2: Distinguish between ground level and an arbitrary base level.

II.D.3: Recognize that as an object is raised vertically, the work done on the object results in an equivalent increase in gravitational potential energy.

II.D.4: Solve problems relating to gravitational potential energy, and to its relationship with kinetic energy and total mechanical energy.

### III: Electricity

#### III.B: Current and Potential Difference

III.B.1: Current

III.B.1.1: Define the following terms: elementary charge, electric circuit, electric current, ammeter, schematic diagram, direct current, alternating current.

III.B.1.10: Draw a schematic diagram of an electric circuit.

III.B.2: Electric Potential Difference

III.B.2.1: Define the following terms: electric field, positive test charge, electric lines of force, chassis ground, electric potential difference.

III.B.2.2: State the convention used to represent electric lines of force in an electric field.

III.B.2.3: Explain what happens to a charge in an electric field.

III.B.2.11: Explain that there is a zero potential difference between a ground and the rest of the circuit.

III.B.2.14: Show the correct method for connecting a voltmeter in an electric circuit.

III.B.2.15: Explain how the terminals of both a voltmeter and an ammeter must be connected in an electric circuit.

III.B.3: Ohm's Law

III.B.3.1: Define the following terms: resistance, conductance, superconductivity, resistivity.

III.B.3.2: Recognize that a relationship exists between the potential difference and the current in an electric circuit.

III.B.3.3: State Ohm's Law.

III.B.3.4: Apply Ohm's Law to problems in electricity.

III.B.3.5: Use the correct units and symbol for resistance.

#### III.C: Electric Circuits

III.C.2: Series and Parallel Circuits

III.C.2.1: Define the following terms: series circuit, parallel circuit, equivalent resistance.

III.C.2.2: Draw a schematic diagram of a series circuit and a parallel circuit.

III.C.2.4: Determine an equivalent resistance to replace two or more resistors in an electric circuit.

III.C.2.6: Recognize the importance of using Ohm's Law and Kirchhoff's Laws in analyzing electric circuits.

#### III.D: Electric Power and Energy

III.D.13: Understand overloading of circuits in the home (circuit breakers and fuses).

### IV: Nuclear Physics

IV.A.1: Define the following terms: radioactivity, isotopes, alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, dosimetry, absorbed dose, dose equivalent, quality factor.

### V: Applications of Kinematics and Dynamics: Optional

#### V.A: Momentum

V.A.1: Impulse and Momentum

V.A.1.1: Define the following terms: momentum, impulse.

V.A.1.4: Compare the directions of the momentum, impulse, force, and velocity vectors in a given situation.

V.A.2: The Law of Conservation of Momentum

V.A.2.1: Define the following terms: isolated system, centre of mass.

V.A.2.3: Recognize that momentum is conserved in an isolated system in one or more dimensions.

V.A.2.4: Apply mathematical expressions of the Law of Conservation of Momentum to problem solving.

V.A.2.5: Recognize the significance of the centre of mass of an isolated system.

#### V.B: Frictional Forces

V.B.3: Give examples of some moving objects which will eventually come to rest due to friction.

V.B.4: Explain that a sufficient force needs to be applied to an object before it will begin to move.

V.B.5: Identify situations in which it is desirable to increase or reduce the amount of friction between surfaces in contact.

V.B.6: Give examples of various ways in which frictional forces can either be increased or decreased.

V.B.7: Explain that the normal force acts to oppose the force of gravity.

V.B.8: Explain that the normal force must be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force of gravity for the object to remain in equilibrium.

V.B.9: Explain that the structure supporting an object must be capable of producing a normal force to withstand the force of gravity acting on the structure by the object, otherwise the structure will undergo failure.

V.B.11: Solve problems involving kinetic or static friction.

#### V.C: Projectile Motion

V.C.1: Define the following terms: acceleration due to gravity, projectile, firing angle, trajectory, frame of reference, and terminal velocity.

V.C.2: Explain that mass will not substantially influence the motion of objects falling in a vacuum.

V.C.3: State the approximate value of the acceleration due to gravity for an object falling freely near the surface of the Earth.

V.C.4: State that an object dropped from rest experiences a downward acceleration.

V.C.5: Explain that an object thrown vertically upward experiences a downward acceleration.

V.C.6: Explain the effect of air resistance on falling bodies.

V.C.7: Predict the motion that would be experienced by various different types of falling objects.

V.C.8: Devise strategies for changing the terminal velocity of falling objects.

V.C.10: Solve problems involving vertical free fall using equations for uniformly accelerated motion.

V.C.11: Recognize that projectile motion can be analyzed by considering the horizontal and vertical components of the motion separately.

V.C.14: Apply kinematic equations for uniform acceleration to analyze the vertical motion of a projectile.

V.C.15: Solve a variety of problems related to projectile motion.

#### V.D: Uniform Circular Motion

V.D.1: Define the following terms: centripetal acceleration, centripetal force.

V.D.2: Explain why an object travelling in a circular path at a constant speed undergoes a change in velocity.

V.D.3: Illustrate the direction of the velocity vector, the centripetal acceleration vector, and the centripetal force vector for a moving object at a specific position on a circular path.

V.D.5: Recognize that if an object were suddenly released from its circular path, it would tend to continue to move in the direction of the velocity vector, unless it was acted upon by some external force.

V.D.6: Explain that centripetal acceleration acts in the same direction as the change in velocity.

V.D.7: Explain that centripetal force acts in the same direction as centripetal acceleration.

V.D.8: Use mathematical relationships for centripetal acceleration and centripetal force to solve problems involving circular motion.

#### V.E: Universal Gravitation

V.E.1: Define the following terms: field, force, mass, weight, gravitational field strength.

V.E.2: State the correct SI units and symbols for force, mass, and weight.

V.E.3: Describe the effects that a force can have when acting on an object.

V.E.12: Solve problems relating to gravitational force.

V.E.14: Determine the gravitational force on an object at various distances, expressed in multiples of Earth radii, from the centre of the Earth.

### VI: Fluid Mechanics: Optional

#### VI.A: Density

VI.A.1: Define the following terms: density, relative density (specific gravity).

VI.A.2: Recognize that density is a characteristic property of matter.

VI.A.3: State the SI unit for density.

VI.A.4: Solve problems based on an understanding of density.

VI.A.5: Apply concepts of length, mass, area, volume (etc.) to specific tasks.

#### VI.D: Archimedes' Principle

VI.D.1: Define the following terms: buoyant force, apparent weight.

VI.D.4: Solve problems relating to Archimedes principle.

### VII: Electromagnetism: Optional

#### VII.A: Magnetism

VII.A.1: Define the following terms: ferromagnetic, soft ferromagnetic, hard ferromagnetic, compass, magnetic field, magnetic lines of force, north- seeking pole, angle of declination, south- seeking pole, angle of magnetic dip.

VII.A.7: State some important properties of magnetic lines of force.

VII.A.10: Investigate important uses of magnets in different technological applications.

#### VII.B: Electromagnetism

VII.B.9: State Ampere's Rule (right-hand rule) for a solenoid.

VII.B.13: Transfer an understanding of electromagnetism to practical applications.

VII.B.14: Solve problems relating to electromagnetism.

#### VII.C: The Motor Principle

VII.C.1: State the motor principle.

VII.C.4: Apply the motor principle to explain important applications such as electric meters or electric motors.

VII.C.5: Identify the main components of an electric motor.

#### VII.D: Electromagnetic Induction

VII.D.1: Define the following terms: induce, induced field, inducing field.

VII.D.2: Identify the conditions which must occur before a current can be induced within a conductor.

VII.D.4: Explain that the interaction between the induced and inducing magnetic fields produces a temporary change in the external magnetic field.

VII.D.5: State Lenz's Law.

VII.D.7: Apply Lenz's Law to investigate electromagnetic induction.

### VIII: Atomic Physics: Optional

#### VIII.A: Atomic Theory

VIII.A.1: Define the following terms: atomic number, isotope, radioisotopes, nuclear binding force, average binding energy, nuclear mass defect, nuclear binding energy, photon.

VIII.A.8: Explain some of the important characteristics of the Bohr model of the atom.

VIII.A.14: Describe some of the electron orbital descriptions provided by quantum theory.

#### VIII.B: Half Life and Radioactive Decay

VIII.B.1: Define the following terms: transmutation, alpha decay, beta decay, gamma decay, neutrino, disintegration (decay) series, nuclide charts, background radiation, decay constant, half-life.

VIII.B.4: Explain that in alpha particle decay an element with a lower mass is formed.

VIII.B.7: Recognize that in beta particle decay the beta particle released originated in the nucleus of the atom, not in the electron orbital. A neutron disappears, and in its place a proton and an electron appear.

VIII.B.8: Develop general expressions for alpha and beta decay.

VIII.B.9: Identify alpha, beta, and gamma decay from generalized expressions or nuclear equations.

VIII.B.14: Write equations representing nuclear decay.

VIII.B.15: Balance nuclear equations correctly for atomic number and atomic mass number.

VIII.B.25: Determine the decay constant from the half-life and vice versa.

Correlation last revised: 9/16/2020

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