### I: The Physics of Everyday Things

#### I.A: Introduction to Physics

I.A.6: Demonstrate that observation is an essential part of science.

I.A.7: Recognize that new things are always being learned in science.

#### I.C: Measurement and Data Analysis

I.C.9: Collect experimental data.

I.C.10: Graph numeric information.

### II: Wave Motion

#### II.A: Properties of Waves

II.A.2: Universal Wave Equation

II.A.2.1: Explain that the universal wave equation applies to all types of waves.

II.A.3: Principle of Superposition

II.A.3.1: Define the following terms: interference, constructive interference, destructive interference.

II.A.3.2: State the Principle of Superposition.

II.A.3.4: Illustrate constructive and destructive interference using diagrams, models, or computers.

#### II.B: Wave Phenomena

II.B.1: Transmission, Reflection, and Refraction

II.B.1.1: Define the following terms: medium, amplitude, fixed-end reflection, free-end reflection, partial reflection, boundary, angle of incidence, angle of reflection, normal, barrier, parabolic reflector, stroboscope, refraction.

II.B.1.6: Describe the changes in wavelength and speed that occur when waves travel from one medium to another.

II.B.1.7: Explain the relationship between speed and wavelength for periodic waves experiencing refraction.

II.B.1.9: State the laws of reflection.

II.B.1.10: Explain how the laws of reflection apply to straight water waves reflecting from a straight barrier.

II.B.1.11: Demonstrate an understanding of wave transmission, reflection, and refraction by relating these phenomena to practical and common experiences.

II.B.1.12: Interpret the relationship between speed and wavelength for waves undergoing refraction.

II.B.2: Diffraction and other Wave Phenomena

II.B.2.1: Define the following terms: diffraction, phase, nodal lines (nodes), antinodes (loops), standing wave pattern, resonant frequency, dispersion, dispersive medium, phase delay.

II.B.2.5: Explain standing wave interference patterns by relating them to an understanding of constructive and destructive interference.

### III: Light

#### III.A: Characteristics of Light

III.A.1: Sources and Transmission of Light

III.A.1.3: Explain that light usually travels in straight lines.

III.A.1.4: Give some examples which illustrate the rectilinear propagation of light.

III.A.2: The Speed of Light

III.A.2.7: Apply the definition of the absolute index of refraction (or the definition of the index of refraction) to solve problems.

III.A.2.10: Solve problems to determine the relative index of refraction between any two given media.

#### III.B: Reflection

III.B.1: Laws of Reflection

III.B.1.2: State the laws of reflection.

III.B.1.3: Compare and contrast specular and diffuse reflection.

III.B.1.4: Explain why the laws of reflection still apply for diffuse (irregular) reflection.

III.B.1.6: Compare the effects produced by direct and indirect lighting.

III.B.2: Plane Mirrors

III.B.2.1: Define the following terms: real image, virtual image, plane mirror, magnification, ray diagram.

III.B.2.2: Identify the characteristics of an image formed by a plane mirror.

III.B.2.3: Distinguish between a real and a virtual image.

III.B.2.4: Identify some optical systems which produce either a real or a virtual image.

III.B.2.5: Draw ray diagrams neatly, accurately, and to some appropriate scale.

III.B.2.6: Apply the correct use of solid and dotted lines on ray diagrams.

III.B.2.7: Interpret solid and dotted lines on ray diagrams.

III.B.2.9: Determine appropriate scales to use when drawing ray diagrams.

III.B.2.10: Apply the magnification formula and the mirror equation in problem solving.

III.B.2.11: State the four important image characteristics which need to be considered for any type of optical system.

III.B.2.12: Recognize and explain the importance of ray diagrams in geometric optics.

III.B.2.13: Demonstrate an understanding of important principles of drawing ray diagrams.

III.B.2.14: Draw ray diagrams for analysis and for solving problems dealing with optics.

III.B.2.15: Recognize the combined use of ray diagrams and equations in solving problems related to optics.

III.B.2.16: Use ray diagrams, along with other experimental or theoretical methods, to determine the characteristics of an image in an optical system.

III.B.2.17: Describe the location and number of images formed by two perpendicular plane mirrors.

III.B.2.18: Suggest some applications of multiple images formed by more than one mirror.

III.B.3: Curved Mirrors

III.B.3.1: Define the following terms: converging mirror, concave surface, diverging mirror, convex surface, vertex, principal axis, focal plane, centre of curvature, radius of curvature, focal length, paraxial rays, axial point, principal focus, spherical mirror, cylindrical mirror, aberration, spherical aberration, parabolic mirror, conjugate points.

III.B.3.3: Distinguish between a concave and a convex surface.

III.B.3.4: Draw diagrams of converging and diverging mirrors, showing the principal axis and important points located on the principal axis for each.

III.B.3.5: Explain the difference between a focal point and a focal plane.

III.B.3.6: Explain one way that spherical aberration can be corrected in a curved mirror.

III.B.3.9: Use the rules for drawing ray diagrams for converging and diverging mirrors (parallel-ray method) to position an object on the principal axis and locate the position and other characteristics of the image.

III.B.3.12: Observe and explain that the image position in either a converging or a diverging mirror depends on the location of the object.

III.B.3.13: Observe and explain that except for the image position, all other characteristics of an image formed in a diverging mirror are independent of the object position.

III.B.3.14: Observe and explain that the characteristics of an image formed in a converging mirror depend on the object position.

III.B.3.15: Apply mirror equations to solving problems.

III.B.3.16: Apply the sign conventions for mirror equations correctly when solving problems.

#### III.C: Refraction

III.C.1: Snell's Law

III.C.1.1: Define the following terms: refraction, boundary, partial reflection, point of incidence, refracted ray, angle of refraction, spectrum, dispersion, dispersive medium, chromatic aberration, lateral displacement, angle of deviation.

III.C.1.2: Explain why refraction occurs.

III.C.1.3: Explain that no bending of the incident ray occurs if it strikes the boundary while travelling along the normal.

III.C.1.4: Draw and label a diagram which illustrates the way in which light behaves when it undergoes refraction.

III.C.1.5: State the three laws of refraction.

III.C.1.6: Apply Snell's Law to solve problems relating to refraction.

III.C.1.7: Recognize the direction that a refracted light ray will bend, depending on the relative index of refraction for the two media.

III.C.1.8: Explain what causes chromatic aberration.

III.C.1.9: Solve problems relating to the refraction of light.

III.C.1.10: Identify several applications or examples from common experience which illustrate the refraction of light.

III.C.2: Total Internal Reflection

III.C.2.1: Define the following terms: total internal reflection, critical angle.

III.C.2.2: Solve problems involving the refraction of light.

III.C.2.3: Recognize situations in which total internal reflection could occur.

III.C.2.5: Recognize that the critical angle depends on the relative index of refraction between two media.

III.C.2.6: Explain how an incident ray, travelling towards a medium with a lower index of refraction, would behave if the angle of incidence were smaller than the critical angle, the same size as the critical angle, or larger than the critical angle.

### IV: Heat

#### IV.A: Heat and Temperature

IV.A.1: Define the following terms: thermal energy, heat, temperature, convection, conduction, radiation, thermal expansion, linear expansion, coefficient of linear expansion.

IV.A.2: Identify some important postulates of the kinetic molecular theory.

IV.A.3: State what is meant by a theory.

IV.A.9: Explain that heat can not be measured directly whereas temperature can.

IV.A.14: Convert a temperature reading from degrees Celsius to Kelvin and vice versa.

IV.A.21: Solve problems involving heat and temperature, and thermal expansion.

#### IV.B: Specific Heat Capacity and Latent Heat

IV.B.1: Define the following terms: specific heat capacity, specific latent heat, specific latent heat of fusion, specific latent heat of vaporization.

IV.B.2: Solve problems involving specific heat capacity and specific latent heat.

IV.B.3: Distinguish between specific heat capacity and specific latent heat.

#### IV.C: Thermodynamics

IV.C.1: Define the following terms: calorimeter, heat engine, heat pump.

IV.C.4: State the Principle of Heat Exchange.

IV.C.5: Give a practical example which illustrates the Principle of Heat Exchange.

IV.C.6: State the Zeroth, First, Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics.

### V: Sound: Optional

#### V.A: Applications

V.A.2: Other Applications

#### V.B: Transmission of Sound

V.B.1: Production of Sound

V.B.1.1: Define the following terms: sound, pressure, longitudinal waves, compression, rarefaction, vacuum, echo, reverberation, damping.

V.B.1.2: Describe some of the ways in which sound illustrates wave behaviour.

V.B.1.3: Explain that sound is produced by vibration.

V.B.1.4: Determine some vibrating sources which produce different sounds.

V.B.1.5: Explain that the vibrations cause a change in pressure near the vibrating source.

V.B.1.6: Explain that the changes in pressure can create a series of longitudinal sound waves which are transmitted from the source.

V.B.1.7: State that sound can not travel in a vacuum.

V.B.1.8: Explain that sound can travel through different types of solids, liquids, and gasses.

V.B.1.9: Define an echo and reverberation and state similarities and differences between them.

V.B.1.10: Identify two important damping principles.

V.B.1.11: Give examples of different kinds of damping devices.

#### V.C: Characteristics of Sound

V.C.1: Intensity

V.C.1.30: Suggest various ways in which the amount of noise pollution experienced in any given situation might be reduced.

V.C.2: Pitch

V.C.2.1: Define the following terms: pitch, infrasonic, ultrasonic.

V.C.2.2: Explain that pitch is a term used to describe the frequency of sound waves.

V.C.2.4: State some important applications for ultrasonic and infrasonic sound.

V.C.2.5: Explain that doubling the frequency will raise the pitch of a sound by one octave.

V.C.3: The Doppler Effect

V.C.3.1: Explain that when a sound source generating waves moves relative to an observer, or when an observer moves relative to a source, there is an apparent shift in frequency.

V.C.3.5: Describe a situation or an application which involves the Doppler Effect.

V.C.3.6: Transfer an understanding of the Doppler Effect to practical examples and common experiences.

V.C.4: Harmonics, Resonance, and Interference

V.C.4.1: Define the following terms: natural frequency of vibration, mechanical resonance, fundamental frequency, overtones, harmonics, beat frequency.

V.C.4.5: Explain that mechanical resonance may cause objects to undergo failure.

V.C.4.6: Suggest ways in which the failure of an object due to mechanical resonance can be prevented.

V.C.4.7: Transfer an understanding of mechanical resonance to practical examples and common experiences.

V.C.4.9: State that the fundamental frequency is the lowest frequency which will produce a standing wave pattern in a one dimensional medium.

V.C.4.10: State that the first overtone has twice the frequency of the fundamental frequency.

V.C.4.12: State that overtones have whole number multiples of the fundamental frequency.

V.C.4.17: State that an air column will resonate if certain specific frequencies of sound pass through it.

V.C.4.19: Explain that an adjustable air column can be made to resonate at several different lengths for a given frequency of sound.

V.C.4.21: Explain why a vibrating tuning fork produces an interference pattern.

V.C.4.22: Explain why the placement of one or more speakers in a room affects the quality of sound produced.

V.C.4.23: Explain that beats are produced when two sound sources vibrate at slightly different frequencies.

V.C.4.24: Explain that the beat frequency depends on the difference in the frequencies of the two vibrating sources.

V.C.4.25: Apply an understanding of beat frequency in problem solving.

### VI: Optics: Optional

#### VI.A: Applications

VI.A.1: Human Vision

VI.A.1.6: Explain the differences between regular eye glasses, bifocals, and trifocals.

#### VI.B: Lenses

VI.B.1: Define the following terms: converging (positive) lens, diverging (negative) lens, optical centre, principal axis, principal focus, focal length, focal plane, achromatic lens, virtual object.

VI.B.2: Distinguish between a converging (positive) lens and a diverging (negative) lens.

VI.B.3: Draw diagrams of converging and diverging lenses, showing the principal axis and important points on the principal axis for each type of lens.

VI.B.4: Draw neat, properly labelled, accurate, scaled ray diagrams for single thin lenses.

VI.B.5: Apply the rules for drawing ray diagrams for converging and diverging lenses (parallel-ray method) to draw an object on the principal axis and locate the position and other characteristics of its image.

VI.B.6: Use a ray diagram to interpret the characteristics of an image formed by a lens.

VI.B.8: Recognize that, even though light rays are refracted at both surfaces by a lens, for thin lenses the incident rays can be shown refracting at the construction line passing through the optical centre of the lens.

VI.B.10: Apply lens equations, in conjunction with ray diagrams and other methods, to solve problems in optics dealing with lenses.

VI.B.11: Explain one method that can be used to correct for spherical aberration in lenses.

VI.B.12: Distinguish between a real object and a virtual object.