I: The Physics of Everyday Things

I.A: Introduction to Physics

I.A.6: Demonstrate that observation is an essential part of science.

Pendulum Clock

I.A.7: Recognize that new things are always being learned in science.

Diffusion
Pendulum Clock

I.C: Measurement and Data Analysis

I.C.9: Collect experimental data.

Diffusion
Seed Germination

I.C.10: Graph numeric information.

Determining a Spring Constant
Seasons Around the World

II: Wave Motion

II.A: Properties of Waves

II.A.2: Universal Wave Equation

II.A.2.1: Explain that the universal wave equation applies to all types of waves.

Ripple Tank

II.A.3: Principle of Superposition

II.A.3.1: Define the following terms: interference, constructive interference, destructive interference.

Ripple Tank
Sound Beats and Sine Waves

II.A.3.2: State the Principle of Superposition.

Ripple Tank
Sound Beats and Sine Waves

II.A.3.4: Illustrate constructive and destructive interference using diagrams, models, or computers.

Ripple Tank
Sound Beats and Sine Waves

II.B: Wave Phenomena

II.B.1: Transmission, Reflection, and Refraction

II.B.1.1: Define the following terms: medium, amplitude, fixed-end reflection, free-end reflection, partial reflection, boundary, angle of incidence, angle of reflection, normal, barrier, parabolic reflector, stroboscope, refraction.

Basic Prism
Refraction

II.B.1.6: Describe the changes in wavelength and speed that occur when waves travel from one medium to another.

Ripple Tank

II.B.1.7: Explain the relationship between speed and wavelength for periodic waves experiencing refraction.

Ripple Tank

II.B.1.9: State the laws of reflection.

Longitudinal Waves
Ripple Tank

II.B.1.10: Explain how the laws of reflection apply to straight water waves reflecting from a straight barrier.

Ripple Tank

II.B.1.11: Demonstrate an understanding of wave transmission, reflection, and refraction by relating these phenomena to practical and common experiences.

Basic Prism
Refraction

II.B.1.12: Interpret the relationship between speed and wavelength for waves undergoing refraction.

Basic Prism
Refraction
Ripple Tank

II.B.2: Diffraction and other Wave Phenomena

II.B.2.1: Define the following terms: diffraction, phase, nodal lines (nodes), antinodes (loops), standing wave pattern, resonant frequency, dispersion, dispersive medium, phase delay.

Basic Prism

II.B.2.5: Explain standing wave interference patterns by relating them to an understanding of constructive and destructive interference.

Ripple Tank

III: Light

III.A: Characteristics of Light

III.A.1: Sources and Transmission of Light

III.A.1.3: Explain that light usually travels in straight lines.

Herschel Experiment - Metric
Refraction
Ripple Tank

III.A.1.4: Give some examples which illustrate the rectilinear propagation of light.

Herschel Experiment - Metric

III.A.2: The Speed of Light

III.A.2.7: Apply the definition of the absolute index of refraction (or the definition of the index of refraction) to solve problems.

Refraction
Ripple Tank

III.A.2.10: Solve problems to determine the relative index of refraction between any two given media.

Refraction
Ripple Tank

III.B: Reflection

III.B.1: Laws of Reflection

III.B.1.2: State the laws of reflection.

Ripple Tank

III.B.1.3: Compare and contrast specular and diffuse reflection.

Ripple Tank

III.B.1.4: Explain why the laws of reflection still apply for diffuse (irregular) reflection.

Ripple Tank

III.B.1.6: Compare the effects produced by direct and indirect lighting.

Basic Prism
Refraction

III.B.2: Plane Mirrors

III.B.2.1: Define the following terms: real image, virtual image, plane mirror, magnification, ray diagram.

Ray Tracing (Lenses)
Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.2.2: Identify the characteristics of an image formed by a plane mirror.

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.2.3: Distinguish between a real and a virtual image.

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.2.4: Identify some optical systems which produce either a real or a virtual image.

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.2.5: Draw ray diagrams neatly, accurately, and to some appropriate scale.

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.2.6: Apply the correct use of solid and dotted lines on ray diagrams.

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.2.7: Interpret solid and dotted lines on ray diagrams.

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.2.9: Determine appropriate scales to use when drawing ray diagrams.

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.2.10: Apply the magnification formula and the mirror equation in problem solving.

Ray Tracing (Lenses)
Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.2.11: State the four important image characteristics which need to be considered for any type of optical system.

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.2.12: Recognize and explain the importance of ray diagrams in geometric optics.

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.2.13: Demonstrate an understanding of important principles of drawing ray diagrams.

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.2.14: Draw ray diagrams for analysis and for solving problems dealing with optics.

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.2.15: Recognize the combined use of ray diagrams and equations in solving problems related to optics.

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.2.16: Use ray diagrams, along with other experimental or theoretical methods, to determine the characteristics of an image in an optical system.

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.2.17: Describe the location and number of images formed by two perpendicular plane mirrors.

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.2.18: Suggest some applications of multiple images formed by more than one mirror.

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.3: Curved Mirrors

III.B.3.1: Define the following terms: converging mirror, concave surface, diverging mirror, convex surface, vertex, principal axis, focal plane, centre of curvature, radius of curvature, focal length, paraxial rays, axial point, principal focus, spherical mirror, cylindrical mirror, aberration, spherical aberration, parabolic mirror, conjugate points.

Ray Tracing (Lenses)
Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.3.3: Distinguish between a concave and a convex surface.

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.3.4: Draw diagrams of converging and diverging mirrors, showing the principal axis and important points located on the principal axis for each.

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.3.5: Explain the difference between a focal point and a focal plane.

Ray Tracing (Lenses)
Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.3.6: Explain one way that spherical aberration can be corrected in a curved mirror.

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.3.9: Use the rules for drawing ray diagrams for converging and diverging mirrors (parallel-ray method) to position an object on the principal axis and locate the position and other characteristics of the image.

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.3.12: Observe and explain that the image position in either a converging or a diverging mirror depends on the location of the object.

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.3.13: Observe and explain that except for the image position, all other characteristics of an image formed in a diverging mirror are independent of the object position.

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.3.14: Observe and explain that the characteristics of an image formed in a converging mirror depend on the object position.

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.3.15: Apply mirror equations to solving problems.

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.B.3.16: Apply the sign conventions for mirror equations correctly when solving problems.

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

III.C: Refraction

III.C.1: Snell's Law

III.C.1.1: Define the following terms: refraction, boundary, partial reflection, point of incidence, refracted ray, angle of refraction, spectrum, dispersion, dispersive medium, chromatic aberration, lateral displacement, angle of deviation.

Basic Prism

III.C.1.2: Explain why refraction occurs.

Basic Prism
Refraction
Ripple Tank

III.C.1.3: Explain that no bending of the incident ray occurs if it strikes the boundary while travelling along the normal.

Basic Prism
Refraction
Ripple Tank

III.C.1.4: Draw and label a diagram which illustrates the way in which light behaves when it undergoes refraction.

Basic Prism
Refraction
Ripple Tank

III.C.1.5: State the three laws of refraction.

Refraction
Ripple Tank

III.C.1.6: Apply Snell's Law to solve problems relating to refraction.

Refraction

III.C.1.7: Recognize the direction that a refracted light ray will bend, depending on the relative index of refraction for the two media.

Basic Prism
Refraction

III.C.1.8: Explain what causes chromatic aberration.

Basic Prism
Refraction
Ripple Tank

III.C.1.9: Solve problems relating to the refraction of light.

Refraction

III.C.1.10: Identify several applications or examples from common experience which illustrate the refraction of light.

Basic Prism
Refraction
Ripple Tank

III.C.2: Total Internal Reflection

III.C.2.1: Define the following terms: total internal reflection, critical angle.

Longitudinal Waves
Ripple Tank

III.C.2.2: Solve problems involving the refraction of light.

Refraction

III.C.2.3: Recognize situations in which total internal reflection could occur.

Longitudinal Waves
Ripple Tank

III.C.2.5: Recognize that the critical angle depends on the relative index of refraction between two media.

Basic Prism
Refraction

III.C.2.6: Explain how an incident ray, travelling towards a medium with a lower index of refraction, would behave if the angle of incidence were smaller than the critical angle, the same size as the critical angle, or larger than the critical angle.

Basic Prism
Refraction
Ripple Tank

IV: Heat

IV.A: Heat and Temperature

IV.A.1: Define the following terms: thermal energy, heat, temperature, convection, conduction, radiation, thermal expansion, linear expansion, coefficient of linear expansion.

Herschel Experiment - Metric

IV.A.2: Identify some important postulates of the kinetic molecular theory.

Temperature and Particle Motion

IV.A.3: State what is meant by a theory.

Temperature and Particle Motion

IV.A.9: Explain that heat can not be measured directly whereas temperature can.

Energy Conversion in a System

IV.A.14: Convert a temperature reading from degrees Celsius to Kelvin and vice versa.

Temperature and Particle Motion

IV.A.21: Solve problems involving heat and temperature, and thermal expansion.

Energy Conversion in a System

IV.B: Specific Heat Capacity and Latent Heat

IV.B.1: Define the following terms: specific heat capacity, specific latent heat, specific latent heat of fusion, specific latent heat of vaporization.

Phase Changes

IV.B.2: Solve problems involving specific heat capacity and specific latent heat.

Calorimetry Lab
Energy Conversion in a System
Phase Changes

IV.B.3: Distinguish between specific heat capacity and specific latent heat.

Calorimetry Lab

IV.C: Thermodynamics

IV.C.1: Define the following terms: calorimeter, heat engine, heat pump.

Calorimetry Lab
Energy Conversion in a System

IV.C.4: State the Principle of Heat Exchange.

Calorimetry Lab

IV.C.5: Give a practical example which illustrates the Principle of Heat Exchange.

Calorimetry Lab

IV.C.6: State the Zeroth, First, Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics.

Energy Conversion in a System

V: Sound: Optional

V.A: Applications

V.A.2: Other Applications

Longitudinal Waves

V.B: Transmission of Sound

V.B.1: Production of Sound

V.B.1.1: Define the following terms: sound, pressure, longitudinal waves, compression, rarefaction, vacuum, echo, reverberation, damping.

Longitudinal Waves

V.B.1.2: Describe some of the ways in which sound illustrates wave behaviour.

Longitudinal Waves
Ripple Tank
Sound Beats and Sine Waves

V.B.1.3: Explain that sound is produced by vibration.

Longitudinal Waves

V.B.1.4: Determine some vibrating sources which produce different sounds.

Longitudinal Waves

V.B.1.5: Explain that the vibrations cause a change in pressure near the vibrating source.

Longitudinal Waves

V.B.1.6: Explain that the changes in pressure can create a series of longitudinal sound waves which are transmitted from the source.

Longitudinal Waves

V.B.1.7: State that sound can not travel in a vacuum.

Longitudinal Waves
Ripple Tank
Sound Beats and Sine Waves

V.B.1.8: Explain that sound can travel through different types of solids, liquids, and gasses.

Ripple Tank

V.B.1.9: Define an echo and reverberation and state similarities and differences between them.

Longitudinal Waves
Ripple Tank
Sound Beats and Sine Waves

V.B.1.10: Identify two important damping principles.

Longitudinal Waves
Ripple Tank
Sound Beats and Sine Waves

V.B.1.11: Give examples of different kinds of damping devices.

Longitudinal Waves
Ripple Tank
Sound Beats and Sine Waves

V.C: Characteristics of Sound

V.C.1: Intensity

V.C.1.30: Suggest various ways in which the amount of noise pollution experienced in any given situation might be reduced.

Longitudinal Waves

V.C.2: Pitch

V.C.2.1: Define the following terms: pitch, infrasonic, ultrasonic.

Longitudinal Waves

V.C.2.2: Explain that pitch is a term used to describe the frequency of sound waves.

Longitudinal Waves

V.C.2.4: State some important applications for ultrasonic and infrasonic sound.

Longitudinal Waves

V.C.2.5: Explain that doubling the frequency will raise the pitch of a sound by one octave.

Longitudinal Waves

V.C.3: The Doppler Effect

V.C.3.1: Explain that when a sound source generating waves moves relative to an observer, or when an observer moves relative to a source, there is an apparent shift in frequency.

Doppler Shift
Doppler Shift Advanced

V.C.3.5: Describe a situation or an application which involves the Doppler Effect.

Doppler Shift
Doppler Shift Advanced

V.C.3.6: Transfer an understanding of the Doppler Effect to practical examples and common experiences.

Doppler Shift
Doppler Shift Advanced

V.C.4: Harmonics, Resonance, and Interference

V.C.4.1: Define the following terms: natural frequency of vibration, mechanical resonance, fundamental frequency, overtones, harmonics, beat frequency.

Longitudinal Waves
Refraction
Ripple Tank

V.C.4.5: Explain that mechanical resonance may cause objects to undergo failure.

Longitudinal Waves

V.C.4.6: Suggest ways in which the failure of an object due to mechanical resonance can be prevented.

Longitudinal Waves

V.C.4.7: Transfer an understanding of mechanical resonance to practical examples and common experiences.

Longitudinal Waves

V.C.4.9: State that the fundamental frequency is the lowest frequency which will produce a standing wave pattern in a one dimensional medium.

Longitudinal Waves
Ripple Tank

V.C.4.10: State that the first overtone has twice the frequency of the fundamental frequency.

Ripple Tank

V.C.4.12: State that overtones have whole number multiples of the fundamental frequency.

Ripple Tank

V.C.4.17: State that an air column will resonate if certain specific frequencies of sound pass through it.

Longitudinal Waves

V.C.4.19: Explain that an adjustable air column can be made to resonate at several different lengths for a given frequency of sound.

Longitudinal Waves

V.C.4.21: Explain why a vibrating tuning fork produces an interference pattern.

Longitudinal Waves

V.C.4.22: Explain why the placement of one or more speakers in a room affects the quality of sound produced.

Longitudinal Waves
Ripple Tank
Sound Beats and Sine Waves

V.C.4.23: Explain that beats are produced when two sound sources vibrate at slightly different frequencies.

Longitudinal Waves

V.C.4.24: Explain that the beat frequency depends on the difference in the frequencies of the two vibrating sources.

Longitudinal Waves

V.C.4.25: Apply an understanding of beat frequency in problem solving.

Refraction
Ripple Tank

VI: Optics: Optional

VI.A: Applications

VI.A.1: Human Vision

VI.A.1.6: Explain the differences between regular eye glasses, bifocals, and trifocals.

Ray Tracing (Lenses)

VI.B: Lenses

VI.B.1: Define the following terms: converging (positive) lens, diverging (negative) lens, optical centre, principal axis, principal focus, focal length, focal plane, achromatic lens, virtual object.

Ray Tracing (Lenses)

VI.B.2: Distinguish between a converging (positive) lens and a diverging (negative) lens.

Ray Tracing (Lenses)

VI.B.3: Draw diagrams of converging and diverging lenses, showing the principal axis and important points on the principal axis for each type of lens.

Ray Tracing (Lenses)

VI.B.4: Draw neat, properly labelled, accurate, scaled ray diagrams for single thin lenses.

Ray Tracing (Lenses)

VI.B.5: Apply the rules for drawing ray diagrams for converging and diverging lenses (parallel-ray method) to draw an object on the principal axis and locate the position and other characteristics of its image.

Ray Tracing (Lenses)

VI.B.6: Use a ray diagram to interpret the characteristics of an image formed by a lens.

Ray Tracing (Lenses)

VI.B.8: Recognize that, even though light rays are refracted at both surfaces by a lens, for thin lenses the incident rays can be shown refracting at the construction line passing through the optical centre of the lens.

Ray Tracing (Lenses)
Ripple Tank

VI.B.10: Apply lens equations, in conjunction with ray diagrams and other methods, to solve problems in optics dealing with lenses.

Ray Tracing (Lenses)

VI.B.11: Explain one method that can be used to correct for spherical aberration in lenses.

Ray Tracing (Lenses)
Ripple Tank

VI.B.12: Distinguish between a real object and a virtual object.

Ray Tracing (Lenses)
Ripple Tank

VI.C: Physical Optics

VI.C.2: Electromagnetic Radiation

VI.C.2.1: Define the following terms: electromagnetic spectrum, electromagnetic radiation, monochromatic light, continuous spectrum, line spectrum, visible light, infrared light, ultraviolet light.

Herschel Experiment - Metric

VI.C.2.3: State the range of wavelengths for visible light.

Herschel Experiment - Metric

VI.C.2.4: Describe the infrared and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Herschel Experiment - Metric

Correlation last revised: 9/24/2019

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this province's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.