1: From Kinetics to Equilibrium

1.1: Collision Theory, Reaction Mechanisms, and Catalysts

1.1.1: describe collision theory and its connection to factors involved in altering reaction rates

1.1.1.a: state the Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) of matter

Temperature and Particle Motion

1.1.1.b: describe two pieces of evidence that support the KMT

1.1.1.b.i: pressure

Temperature and Particle Motion

1.1.1.b.ii: diffusion

Diffusion

1.1.1.c: state the collision theory

Collision Theory

1.1.1.d: recognize that reaction rate can be measured by monitoring a variety of changing macroproperties including; mass, colour, volume and pH

Collision Theory

1.1.1.e: relate the rate of reaction to the number of successful collisions between reacting particles

Collision Theory

1.1.2: identify and discuss the properties and factors which affect reaction rate

1.1.2.a: explain using collision theory how temperature, concentration/pressure, surface area and nature of reactants affect the rate of reaction

Collision Theory

1.1.2.b: describe the effect of a catalyst on the rate of reaction

Collision Theory

1.1.5: compile and display evidence and information in charts, tables and graphs

Earthquakes 1 - Recording Station
Seasons Around the World

1.1.8: describe a reaction mechanism and a catalystâ??s role in a chemical reaction

1.1.8.a: define a reaction mechanism as a series of elementary reactions which determine the reaction rate and when added together result in an overall balanced equation

Collision Theory

1.1.8.c: define a reaction intermediate as a substance which is produced by an elementary process, only to be consumed by a later elementary process

Chemical Equations
Equilibrium and Concentration

1.1.8.d: define rate determining step (RDS) as the slowest elementary process in the reaction mechanism, which is the step that determines the overall reaction rate

Collision Theory

1.1.8.f: given a reaction mechanism with the RDS identified, determine all catalysts, intermediates, the overall balanced equation and state the effect of changing a reactant concentration on the overall rate

Collision Theory

1.1.8.g: state that a catalyst speeds up a chemical reaction by means of providing an alternate mechanism (â??alternate pathwayâ??)

Collision Theory

1.2: Applications of Collision Theory

1.2.1: analyze and describe examples where technologies were developed based upon scientific understanding.

Electromagnetic Induction

1.3: Dynamic Equilibrium

1.3.1: define the concept of dynamic equilibrium as it pertains to reversible chemical reactions

1.3.1.a: state the criteria that apply to a system at equilibrium: closed system with constant temperature, constancy of macroscopic properties, evidence of reversibility, and equal rates of forward and reverse processes

Equilibrium and Concentration
Equilibrium and Pressure

1.3.1.b: describe the steps in which a chemical system attains dynamic equilibrium

Equilibrium and Concentration
Equilibrium and Pressure

1.3.1.c: write and interpret chemical equations for chemical systems at equilibrium

Equilibrium and Concentration
Equilibrium and Pressure

1.3.2: explain how different factors affect chemical equilibrium

1.3.2.a: explain how the forward and reverse reaction rates in a chemical equilibrium are affected by changes in the temperature, pressure/ volume, and concentration (of one reactant or product), of a chemical equilibrium

Collision Theory

1.3.2.b: state Le Châtelierâ??s Principle

Equilibrium and Concentration
Equilibrium and Pressure

1.4: Le Châtelierâ??s Principle

1.4.1: explain how different factors affect chemical equilibrium

1.4.1.a: use Le Châtelierâ??s Principle to predict, qualitatively, shifts in equilibrium caused by changes in temperature, pressure, volume or concentration

Equilibrium and Concentration
Equilibrium and Pressure

1.4.1.b: use Le Châtelierâ??s Principle to determine how the concentration of a reactant and/or product changes after a change is imposed on an equilibrium (not relative to initial conditions)

Equilibrium and Concentration

1.4.2: explain the roles of evidence and theories, in Le Châtelierâ??s Principle

Equilibrium and Concentration
Equilibrium and Pressure

1.4.4: identify the theoretical basis of an investigation and develop a prediction

Pendulum Clock

1.5: Equlibrium Constant

1.5.1: define the concept of equilibrium constant expression as it pertains to chemical systems

1.5.1.a: write equilibrium constant expression, K, for chemical systems

Equilibrium and Concentration
Equilibrium and Pressure

1.5.1.b: recognize that solids and liquids are not included in the equilibrium expression, K

Equilibrium and Concentration

1.5.1.d: calculate equilibrium constants for simple chemical systems when concentrations at equilibrium are known

Equilibrium and Concentration

1.5.1.e: calculate equilibrium concentrations for chemical systems when K and all other equilibrium concentrations are known

Equilibrium and Concentration

1.5.1.f: predict whether or not reactants or products are favoured in a reversible reaction, on the basis of the magnitude of the equilibrium constant

Equilibrium and Concentration
Equilibrium and Pressure

1.5.2: solve Keq problems involving the initial concentrations, the changes that occur in each substance, and the resulting equilibrium concentrations

1.5.2.a: calculate equilibrium concentrations for simple chemical systems when

1.5.2.a.i: initial concentrations of reactants and one equilibrium concentration are known

Equilibrium and Concentration

1.5.2.a.ii: initial concentrations of reactants and the percent reaction is known

Equilibrium and Concentration

1.5.2.b: calculate equilibrium constants, K, for simple chemical systems when:

1.5.2.b.i: initial concentrations, and one equilibrium concentration are known

Equilibrium and Concentration

1.5.2.b.ii: initial concentrations, and the percent reaction of one of the reactants are known

Equilibrium and Concentration

2: Acids and Bases

2.1: Properties and Definitions of Acids and Bases

2.1.2: describe and apply classification systems and nomenclature used in acids and bases

2.1.2.a: define acids and bases operationally in terms of their effect on pH, taste, reactions with metals, reactions with each other, solution conductivity, and effect on indicators

Titration

2.1.3: explain the roles of evidence, theories, and paradigms in acid-base theories

2.1.3.a: trace the development of acid-base theories from the original operational definition to Arrhenius theory, to the modern revised Arrhenius concept up to the Brønsted-Lowry theory

Titration

2.1.4: describe various acid-base definitions up to the Brønsted-Lowry definition, including the limitations of these definitions

2.1.4.a: define and identify Arrhenius, modern Arrhenius and Brønsted- Lowry acids and bases.

Titration

2.2: Acids/Base Calculations

2.2.3: define pH and calculate it for an acid (or base) given the initial concentration and vice-versa

2.2.3.h: differentiate between strength and concentration operationally, using pH, indicator colour, and rate of reaction with metals (acids), for acid and base solutions of equal concentration

Titration

2.4: Acid/Base Titrations

2.4.1: calculate the concentration of an acid or base solution using stoichiometry

2.4.1.b: describe the process of a titration

Titration

2.4.1.c: define primary standard and recognize its importance in a titration procedure

Titration

2.4.1.d: differentiate between indicator end point and equivalence (stoichiometric) point

Titration

2.4.1.e: perform stoichiometric titration calculations where one of molarity of acid, molarity of base, volume of acid or volume of base is to be determined from the others

Titration

2.4.2: use instruments effectively and accurately for collecting titration data

2.4.2.a: perform a titration experiment and related calculations to determine the concentration of an acid or base solution

Titration

2.4.3: select appropriate instruments and use them safely, for collecting evidence and appropriate processes for titrations

Titration

2.4.4: select and use appropriate symbolic, graphical modes of representation to communicate titrations and results

Titration

2.4.5: interpret patterns and trends in data and infer or calculate relationships among variables from titration labs

Titration

2.4.8: explain how acid-base indicators function

2.4.8.a: define acid/base indicators operationally

Titration

2.4.8.b: define acid/base indicators theoretically

Titration

2.4.8.c: determine an appropriate indicator for an acid-base titration

Titration

2.4.8.d: determine the appropriate pH of a solution using indicator colours, and vice versa

Titration

2.4.10: identify a line of best fit on a scatter plot and interpolate and extrapolate based on the line of best fit

2.4.10.a: draw titration curve graphs, using data from titration experiments involving acids and bases in various combinations

Titration

2.4.11: interpret patterns and trends in data and infer or calculate relationships among variables from titration labs

2.4.11.a: interpret titration curve graphs

Titration

2.4.11.c: sketch and interpret titration curves qualitatively

Titration

2.4.11.d: determine qualitatively the nature of the equilibrium at the stoichiometric equivalence point when a strong acid is mixed with a weak base and vice versa

Titration

2.5: Determining Ka

2.5.1: perform an experiment identifying and controlling major variables

Diffusion
Pendulum Clock
Real-Time Histogram
Seed Germination

2.5.2: evaluate and select appropriate instruments for collecting evidence and appropriate processes for problem solving, inquiring, and decision making

Diffusion
Estimating Population Size
Pendulum Clock

2.5.3: compile and display data in charts, tables and graphs

Earthquakes 1 - Recording Station
Seasons Around the World

2.5.4: use instruments effectively, accurately and safely for collecting data

Triple Beam Balance

3: Thermochemistry

3.1: Temperature and Kinetic Energy

3.1.1: explain temperature and heat using the concept of kinetic energy and the particle model of matter

3.1.1.b: identify and describe the changes to particle movement in systems in which the energy change is accompanied by a change in temperature of the system

Temperature and Particle Motion

3.1.2: calculate and compare the energy involved in changes of temperature

3.1.2.a: define the terms: joule, heat capacity and specific heat capacity

Calorimetry Lab
Energy Conversion in a System

3.2: Calculating Heat

3.2.1: calculate and compare the energy involved in changes of temperature

3.2.1.a: identify that the amount of heat lost or gained by an object is dependent upon; type of material, change in temperature of material, and mass of material

Calorimetry Lab

3.2.1.b: perform calculations involving heat capacity, C, and specific heat capacity, c

Calorimetry Lab
Energy Conversion in a System

3.2.1.f: state the First Law of Thermodynamics and apply it to determine the amount of heat an object contains

Energy Conversion in a System

3.2.1.g: define the calorimeter and identify it as the basic instrument for measuring heat transfer

Calorimetry Lab

3.2.1.h: calculate the heat gained or lost from a system using the formulas q = mc delta T or q = C delta T where c is the specific heat capacity, C is the heat capacity and delta T is the change in temperature

Calorimetry Lab
Energy Conversion in a System

3.3: Enthalpy Change

3.3.1: define enthalpy, endothermic process, exothermic process, and molar enthalpy

Chemical Changes

3.3.2: calculate and compare the energy involved in changes of state and that in chemical reactions

3.3.2.f: identify and explain that energy changes are observed during phase changes and chemical changes where forces of attractions between particles are formed or broken yet no change in the temperature of the system occurs

Chemical Changes

3.4: Thermochemistry and Potential Energy

3.4.3: write and balance thermochemical equations including the combustion reaction of alkanes

3.4.3.b: calculate the heat gained or lost from a system using the formula q = n delta H when delta H is the molar heat of a phase change or chemical reaction

Calorimetry Lab

3.4.3.d: perform calculations which apply the First Law of Thermodynamics in determining the heat of a reaction (or phase change) given experimental data for changes to the surroundings

Calorimetry Lab

3.4.4: perform an experiment identifying and controlling major variables

Diffusion
Pendulum Clock
Real-Time Histogram
Seed Germination

3.4.5: evaluate instruments for collecting data

Triple Beam Balance

3.5: Heating and Cooling Curves

3.5.1: compile, display and interpret evidence and information in a graphical format

3.5.1.c: calculate the total heat for a multi-step process that includes a temperature and phase change

Energy Conversion in a System
Temperature and Particle Motion

3.6: Science Decisions Involving Thermochemistry

3.6.1: analyze the knowledge and skills acquired in their study of thermochemistry to identify areas of further study

3.6.1.b: compare physical, chemical, and nuclear changes in terms of the species and the magnitude of energy involved

Chemical Changes
Nuclear Decay

3.8: Determining Enthalpy Change

3.8.1: determine experimentally the changes in energy of various chemical reactions

Chemical Changes

3.8.5: evaluate and select appropriate instruments for collecting evidence and appropriate processes for problem solving, inquiring, and decision making

Diffusion
Estimating Population Size
Pendulum Clock

4: Electrochemistry

4.2: Redox and Half Reactions

4.2.2: compare oxidation-reduction reactions with other kinds of reactions

4.2.2.a: define oxidation number

Electron Configuration

4.4: Electrolytic Cells

4.4.2: evaluate processes used in planning, problem-solving and decision-making, and completing a task

Estimating Population Size
Pendulum Clock
Real-Time Histogram
Sight vs. Sound Reactions

4.5: Applications of Electrochemistry

4.5.1: identify questions to investigate that arise from practical problems and issues

Pendulum Clock

4.5.2: define and delimit problems to facilitate investigation

Pendulum Clock

4.5.3: carry out procedures controlling the major variables and adapting or extending procedures where required

Diffusion
Pendulum Clock
Real-Time Histogram

Correlation last revised: 9/24/2019

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this province's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.