### 1: Kinematics

#### 1.1: Vector Analysis

1.1.1: use vectors to represent position, displacement, velocity and acceleration

1.1.1.a: define scalar and vector quantities

1.1.1.b: distinguish between scalar and vector quantities, using distance and displacement, respectively, as examples

1.1.1.c: add and subtract linear and perpendicular vectors, algebraically and graphically

#### 1.2: Graphical and Mathematical Analysis

1.2.1: analyze graphically and mathematically the relationship among displacement, velocity, and time

1.2.1.a: explain how one can tell from the position-time graph whether the magitude of an object?s velocity is increasing, decreasing, or constant

1.2.1.b: using the sign convention that motion to the right is positive and motion to the left is negative, determine the direction of motion of a uniformly accelerating object from its position-time graph and its velocity-time graph

1.2.1.c: given velocity-time graphs, tell if the velocity is increasing, decreasing or remaining constant

1.2.1.d: use a velocity-time graph for uniform acceleration to derive an equation

1.2.1.d.i: for displacement in terms of initial velocity (or final velocity), acceleration, and elapsed time

1.2.1.d.ii: relating final velocity, initial velocity, acceleration, and displacement

1.2.1.e: solve kinematics problems using algebraic techniques including the manipulation of formulae (and including the special case of acceleration due to gravity)

1.2.4: identify questions to investigate that arise from practical problems and issues

1.2.5: carry out an experiment to investigate the motion of an object falling vertically near Earth

1.2.6: evaluate and select appropriate instruments for collecting evidence and appropriate processes for problem solving, inquiring, and decision making

1.2.8: interpret trends in data, and infer or calculate relationships among variables

### 2: Dynamics

#### 2.1: Dynamics Introduction

2.1.1: use vectors to represent forces

2.1.1.a: draw free - body diagrams

2.1.1.b: explain what is meant by net force and apply it to several situations

2.1.1.d: add two or more forces acting on an object to find the net or resultant force when:

2.1.1.d.i: the forces are in the same direction

2.1.1.d.ii: one or more of the forces are in the opposite direction to the others

2.1.1.d.iii: one or more of the forces are perpendicular to the others

2.1.1.d.iv: the forces make any angle in general with each other

#### 2.2: Newton?s Laws

2.2.1: apply Newton?s laws of motion to explain inertia, the relationships among force, mass and acceleration, and the interaction of forces between two objects

2.2.1.a: state Newton?s first law of motion, and describe applications

2.2.1.c: physically demonstrate the property of inertia

2.2.1.d: state Newton?s second law of motion, and describe applications

2.2.1.e: explain how Newton?s second law of motion may be used to define the Newton as a unit of force

2.2.1.f: given two of the net force, the mass, and the acceleration, or information from which they can be determined, calculate the third quantity

2.2.1.g: state Newton?s third law of motion, and describe applications

2.2.1.j: state, in words and in equation form, Newton?s Law of universal gravitation

2.2.1.k: demonstrate that Newton?s Law of universal gravitation is an inverse square law

2.2.1.m: perform calculations using Newton?s Law of universal gravitation

2.2.1.o: given two of an object?s weight, its mass, and the acceleration due to gravity near Earth?s surface, calculate the third quantity

2.2.1.p: explain, qualitatively and quantitatively, what is meant by friction, and describe static and kinetic friction

2.2.1.q: solve exercises / problems involving Newton?s laws of motion

2.2.2: investigate the relationship between acceleration and net force, for a constant mass of an object

2.2.3: evaluate and select appropriate instruments for collecting evidence and appropriate processes for problem solving, inquiring, and decision making

2.2.4: investigate the relationship between acceleration and mass, for a constant net force

2.2.5: use instruments effectively and accurately for collecting data

2.2.7: interpret patterns and trends in data, and infer or calculate linear and nonlinear relationships among variables

2.2.8: provide a statement that addresses the problem or answers the question investigated in light of the link between data and the conclusion

#### 2.3: Momentum and Impulse

2.3.1: apply quantitatively the law of conservation of momentum to one-dimensional collisions and explosions

2.3.1.b: given two of an object?s mass, velocity, and momentum, calculate the third quantity

2.3.1.c: define impulse, and use Newton?s second law to show how it is related to change in momentum

2.3.1.e: solve numerical and nonnumerical exercises by using the concept of impulse equals change in momentum

2.3.1.f: state the law of conservation of linear momentum and test it in an experiment involving a one-dimensional collision of two carts, where one cart collides with a second cart that is initially at rest, and where the carts stick and move together with a common velocity after the collision

2.3.1.g: write an equation applying the law of conservation of momentum to a one-dimensional collision between two objects, in terms of two masses and the two velocities before and after the collision

2.3.1.h: given any five of: the two masses of objects involved in a one-dimensional collision, their velocities before and their velocities after the collision, calculate the sixth quantity

2.3.1.i: differentiate qualiatively between elastic and inelastic collisions

2.3.2: use appropriate language and conventions when describing events related to momentum and energy

2.3.3: describe the functioning of a natural technology based on principles of momentum

2.3.5: compile and display evidence and information, by hand or computer, in a variety of formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, graphs, and scatter plots

2.3.6: interpret patterns and trends in data, and infer or calculate linear and nonlinear relationships among variables

### 3: Work and Energy

#### 3.1: Work and Power

3.1.1: analyze quantitatively the relationships among force, distance, and work

3.1.1.a: list the conditions under which work is done on an object when a force is applied to that object

3.1.1.b: define work in terms of an object?s displacement and the force acting on it in the direction of the displacement

3.1.1.c: given two of work, displacement and force, calculate the third term

3.1.1.d: explain how the direction of the applied force affects the work done

3.1.1.e: compare the physics use of the term ?work? with everyday usage

3.1.1.f: apply the concept of work to novel situations involving such variables as mass, force, distance and direction

#### 3.2: Potential and Kinetic Energy

3.2.1: analyze quantitatively the relationships among mass, height, gravitation field strength, gravitational potential energy, and kinetic energy

3.2.1.a: define gravitational potential energy in terms of its height, mass, and the force of gravity

3.2.1.b: relate energy transformations to work done

3.2.1.c: solve numerical problems related to gravitational potential energy

3.2.1.d: define an object?s kinetic energy in terms of its mass and its speed

3.2.1.e: solve numerical problems related to kinetic energy

#### 3.3: Hooke?s Law and Simple Harmonic Motion

3.3.1: analyze quantitatively the relationships among force, distance, and spring constant

3.3.1.b: define the spring constant k

3.3.1.c: state Hooke?s Law

3.3.1.d: given two of: force, distance, and k, determine the third quantity

3.3.3: explain quantitatively the relationship between potential and kinetic energies of a mass in SHM

3.3.3.a: define SHM

#### 3.4: Conservation of Energy

3.4.1: analyze common energy transformation situations using the closed system work-energy theorem

3.4.1.a: state the work-energy theorem as it applies to an object experiencing a force on a horizontal frictionless surface

3.4.1.b: given the expression for work-energy theorem, calculate the value of any variable, given the value of the other variables, or information from which they may be found

3.4.1.c: given the expression for work-energy theorem, calculate the value of any variable, given the value of the other variables, or information from which they may be found

3.4.1.d: carry out an investigation of the work-energy theorem

3.4.2: describe quantitatively mechanical energy as the sum of kinetic and potential energies

3.4.3: analyze quantitatively the relationship between kinetic and potential energy, using the law of conservation of energy

3.4.3.a: state the law of conservation of energy

3.4.3.b: state the law of conservation of energy as it applies to mechanical energy

3.4.3.c: solve problems using the law of conservation of energy, including changes in gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy

3.4.3.d: solve problems using the law of conservation of energy, including changes in elastic potential energy

3.4.4: investigate the relationship between Ep and Ek

3.4.5: evaluate and select appropriate instruments for collecting evidence and appropriate processes for problem solving, inquiring, and decision making

3.4.6: carry out procedures controlling the major variables and adapting or extending procedures where required

3.4.7: use instruments effectively and accurately for collecting data

3.4.8: compile and display evidence and information, by hand or computer, in a variety of formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, graphs, and scatter plots

3.4.9: interpret patterns and trends in data, and infer or calculate linear and nonlinear relationships among variables

3.4.10: provide a statement that addresses the problem or answers the question investigated in light of the link between data and the conclusion

3.4.11: determine the percent efficiency of energy transformation including the comparision of empirical and theoretical values of total energy, accounting for discrepancies

3.4.11.a: explain the role of friction in the loss of mechanical energy from a system

3.4.11.b: compute the percent efficiency of a system where energy is ?lost? due to friction

3.4.12: determine whether the law of conservation of momentum, or, the law of conservation of energy is best to analyze and solve particular real-life problems in elastic and inelastic interactions

3.4.13: analyze quantitatively problems related to kinematics and dynamics using the mechanical energy concept

3.4.14: analyze and describe examples where energy related technologies were developed and improved over time

### 4: Waves

#### 4.1: Introduction to Waves

4.1.1: describe the production, characteristics, and behaviors of longitudinal and transverse mechanical waves

4.1.1.i: explain what is meant by a longitudinal pulse and wave, recognizing its compressions and rarefactions, and describe how such pulses and waves are created and transmitted, giving examples

4.1.1.j: identify points in phase and points out of phase on a wave train

4.1.1.k: draw diagrams of two waves (i) in phase (ii) completely out of phase

4.1.1.l: describe and apply the principle of superposition as it applies to transverse pulses and waves

4.1.1.m: describe the constructive interference and destructive interference of pulses or waves, giving an illustration of each

4.1.2: apply the universal wave equation to explain and predict the behavior of waves

4.1.2.a: derive the wave equation

#### 4.2: Light

4.2.1: state a prediction and a hypothesis about wave behavior based on available evidence and background information

4.2.2: describe how light, as a form of energy, is produced and transmitted

4.2.2.a: given two of the speed of light, the distance it travels, and the time taken, calculate the third quantity

4.2.2.b: explain the term ?rectilinear propagation?

4.2.2.c: differentiate between (i) a beam and (ii) a ray of light

4.2.3: explain qualitatively and quantitatively, with respect to light, the phenomena of wave interference, diffraction, reflection and refraction, and the Doppler effect

4.2.3.e: describe what is meant by refraction of light, and explain why it occurs

4.2.3.g: define the index of refraction in terms of the speed of light

4.2.3.h: given the index of refraction, draw accurate diagrams for a ray of light passing through a variety of materials

4.2.3.i: given two of the index of refraction, the speed of light in a medium, and the speed of light in a vacuum, calculate the third quantity

4.2.3.j: state Snell?s Law of Refraction

4.2.3.k: given two of the angle of incidence, the angle of refraction, and the index of refraction, calculate the third quantity

4.2.3.n: describe the Doppler effect as it applies to light

4.2.3.o: carry out calculations involving the red and blue shift of light

4.2.4: carry out procedures controlling the major variables to investigate Snell?s Law

4.2.5: evaluate and select appropriate instruments for collecting evidence and appropriate processes for problem solving, inquiring, and decision making

4.2.6: use instruments effectively and accurately for collecting data

4.2.9: interpret patterns and trends in data, and infer or calculate linear and nonlinear relationships among variables

4.2.10: provide a statement that addresses the problem or answers the question investigated in light of the link between data and the conclusion

#### 4.3: Sound

4.3.1: describe how sound, as a form of energy, is produced and transmitted

4.3.1.a: describe how sound is produced, giving examples

4.3.1.b: describe how sound is transmitted

4.3.1.c: explain how the transmission of sound is dependent on the medium

4.3.1.d: given two of the speed of sound, the distance travelled, and the time taken, calculate the third quantity

4.3.1.i: explain the phenomenon the Doppler Effect, both qualitatively and quantitatively, and indicate examples

4.3.2: explain with respect to sound, the phenomena of wave interference and reflection

4.3.2.k: given two of the higher frequency of source A, the lower frequency of source B, and the beat frequency, calculate the third quantity

4.3.6: analyze society?s influence on scientific and technological endeavours

Correlation last revised: 9/24/2019

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