Program of Studies
1.1.1: develop a questioning attitude about changing life forms and environmental conditions on Earth
1.1.1.A: forces deep within Earth cause continual changes on Earth's surface, by:
1.1.1.A.2: describing the theory of plate tectonics and identifying pieces of evidence that support the theory; e.g., location of volcanoes and earthquakes, ocean floor spreading, patterns in mountain structure
1.1.1.A.3: describing how radioactive decay could be the source of geothermal energy
1.1.1.A.4: explaining how convection circulation of molten material provides the driving force of plate tectonics
1.1.1.A.5: explaining how the energy from earthquakes is transmitted by seismic waves
1.1.1.A.1: identifying and describing the three layers of Earth: lithosphere, asthenosphere and mesosphere, in terms of density, composition and thickness
1.1.1.A.1.a: longitudinal (particles vibrate parallel to the direction of propagation); i.e., P-waves
1.1.1.A.1.b: transverse (particles vibrate perpendicular to the direction of propagation); i.e., S-waves
1.1.1.A.6: explaining how seismic waves are used to provide information about the internal structure of Earth
1.1.2: look for consistency in the data coming from different geological sources
1.1.2.A: comparing the magnitude of earthquakes, given their rating on the Richter scale
1.1.2.B: evaluating the theory of plate tectonics in terms of its ability to explain and predict changes in Earth's surface
1.1.2.C: demonstrating the difference between primary and secondary earthquake waves, with the use of a flexible coil
1.1.2.D: determining the location and magnitude of an earthquake, given P- and S-wave data, maps and conversion charts.
1.1.3: respect the role of empirical evidence in developing scientific theories related to changing life forms and environmental conditions
1.1.3.A: understanding how forces within Earth cause changes on Earth's surface, the theory of plate tectonics, and its ability to explain earthquakes; how the measurement of seismic waves provides information about the internal structure of Earth and is useful in locating and predicting earthquakes, within the context of:
1.1.3.A.1: describing a recent earthquake, the technology used to measure the magnitude and location of earthquakes, and the limitations of current methods used to predict earthquakes
1.1.3.A.2: explaining, in terms of scientific and technological principles, how more accurate predictions of earthquakes, and the use of earthquake-resistant buildings, would benefit millions of people globally; and analyzing how human environments can be made more earthquake resistant
1.1.3.A.3: any other relevant context.
1.2.1.A: fossils are used in the study of ancient life, by extending from Science 8, Unit 4, the knowledge that the diversity of rocks on Earth today is the result of processes redistributing components of the original igneous rocks, and by:
1.2.1.A.1: defining radioisotope, radioactive decay and half-life
1.2.1.A.2: describing the radiometric procedures used to estimate the age of minerals and fossils
1.2.1.A.3: explaining how the layers in sedimentary rock, together with the fossils they contain, form a chronology of natural history
1.2.2.A: identifying examples of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks
1.2.2.B: interpreting data from radiometric dating of minerals and fossils, using the concept of half-life
1.2.2.D: making inferences about the characteristics of life forms, based on the fossil record
1.2.2.E: making inferences about climate, based on the fossil record
1.2.3: STS Connections
1.2.3.A: understanding how paleontology and the analysis of fossils and minerals, through radiometric dating, has led to knowledge of ancient life and climate on Earth; and by interpreting data obtained from rocks, minerals and fossils in order to make inferences about ancient life forms and climate, within the context of:
1.2.3.A.1: describing, in general terms, the functioning of radiometric dating technology and its use in gathering evidence of prehistoric life
1.2.3.A.2: describing the research conducted at the Royal Tyrell Museum of Paleontology and other cooperative research projects, such as the Canada/China project, which have provided a better understanding of ancient life and climate on Earth
1.2.3.A.4: describing how paleontologists gather and interpret evidence of ancient life, explaining the central role of evidence in the accumulation of knowledge, and the way in which proposed theories may be supported, modified or refuted
1.2.3.A.5: any other relevant context.
1.3.1.A: the fossil record indicates that changes in life forms and environment have occurred on Earth, by:
1.3.1.A.1: explaining why oxygen was not a significant component of Earth's atmosphere until photosynthesis and chlorophyll evolved
1.3.1.A.2: explaining the view of evolution as a gradual and persistent modification over a very long time
1.3.1.A.6: describing the common types of rock formation that serve as reservoirs for oil and gas.
1.3.3: STS Connections
1.3.3.A: understanding the significance of the fossil record in indicating how the environment and life forms have changed on Earth; the role of inherited variations and the theory of evolution in explaining these changes; and by assessing traditional and alternative views of evolution, within the context of:
1.3.3.A.1: explaining the scientific principles involved in using fossils and seismic surveying in oil exploration
1.3.3.A.3: explaining the central role of the fossil record in the accumulation of knowledge about changes that occurred on Earth over time, and that current scientific knowledge is unable to provide complete answers to all questions
1.3.3.A.4: any other relevant context.
1.4.1.A: the geologic record indicates that dramatic variations in Earth's climate have occurred over the last two million years, by extending from Science 10, Unit 1, how energy from the Sun determines climate, and by:
1.4.1.A.4: explaining, qualitatively, how the geometry of Earth's orbit around the Sun could account for periods of glaciation
1.4.1.A.5: explaining how changes in the composition of the atmosphere could cause major changes in Earth's climate
1.4.3: STS Connections
1.4.3.A: understanding the geologic evidence for the existence and causes of the ice ages and their relationship to climate change; and by interpreting topographical features and drainage patterns in terms of past glaciation; making inferences from ice cores, and evaluating and synthesizing current predictions of global climatic change, within the context of:
1.4.3.A.5: any other relevant context.
2.1.1: appreciate the unity of science through the application of physical and chemical principles and measurements to biological systems
2.1.1.A: matter cycles through the biosphere, changing location and chemical combination, by extending from Science 10, Unit 1, the relationship between solar energy and the hydrologic cycle, and by:
2.1.1.A.1: describing the hydrologic cycle in detail, including the underground movement and storage of water
2.1.1.A.2: outlining the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen
2.1.1.A.3: explaining why carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are much lower now than they were in Earth's early history.
2.1.2: appreciate that biological principles emerge from the investigation of the structures and functions of biological systems
2.1.2.A: analyzing and interpreting the rates of precipitation and evaporation in the local area, and comparing the data to long-term trends
2.1.2.C: formulating hypotheses on how alterations in the carbon cycle, as a result of the burning of fossil fuels, might influence other cycling phenomena, and suggesting how the hypotheses could be tested.
2.1.3: appreciate that biological principles apply to all levels of biological organization
2.1.3.A: understanding the cycling of matter through the biosphere, including the hydrologic cycle and the biogeochemical cycles; and by collecting data, measuring, comparing and formulating testable hypotheses, within the context of:
2.1.3.A.1: describing the importance of aquifers in supplying fresh water to many parts of the world, and assessing, qualitatively, the risks and benefits to the environment and quality of life of using deep-well injection to dispose of waste materials
2.1.3.A.3: analyzing the greenhouse effect in terms of the biogeochemical cycling of carbon, and the limitations of scientific knowledge and technology in providing complete answers to all questions
2.1.3.A.5: any other relevant context.
2.2.1.A: solar energy flows through ecosystems, by extending from Science 10, Unit 2, how solar energy is trapped by photosynthesis, and by:
2.2.1.A.1: describing how energy moves through trophic levels, using the concepts of food chains and webs, using specific examples of autotrophs and heterotrophs
2.2.1.A.2: explaining how trophic levels can be described in terms of pyramids of numbers, biomass or energy
2.2.2.A: constructing, from data on the energy available at various tropic levels, a food chain to show the numbers of organisms consumed at each level
2.2.2.B: designing a model to explain the relationship between the populations of predator and prey, outlining the characteristics of each that adapt them to their trophic level.
2.2.3: STS Connections
2.2.3.A: understanding energy flow through the biosphere, using biotic relationships, food chains, webs and pyramids; and by hypothesizing, designing models and performing simulations, within the context of:
2.2.3.A.1: describing how the movement of energy and matter through food chains and webs that may concentrate pollutants by biological magnification has implications for protecting the environment for future generations
2.2.3.A.3: any other relevant context.
2.3.2.A: performing a field study and measuring, quantitatively and qualitatively, appropriate biotic and abiotic factors in the aquatic or terrestrial ecosystem chosen, and presenting the data in a form that describes, in general terms, the structure of the ecosystem; e.g., pH, temperature, precipitation, hardness, oxygen content, humidity, invertebrates, vertebrates, plants
2.3.2.B: performing a field study and measuring, quantitatively and qualitatively, appropriate biotic and abiotic factors in the aquatic or terrestrial ecosystem chosen, and presenting the data in a form that describes, in general terms, the structure of the ecosystem; e.g., pH, temperature, precipitation, hardness, oxygen content, humidity, invertebrates, vertebrates, plants
2.3.3: STS Connections
2.3.3.A: understanding the range of factors that define ecosystems through the study of a natural ecosystem; and by measuring and recording relevant quantitative and qualitative data, inferring biotic relationships from data collected and presenting the information, within the context of:
2.3.3.A.1: reviewing factors in terms of the limitations of scientific knowledge and technology, that may influence the natural quality of water in freshwater ecosystems
2.3.3.A.3: any other relevant context.
2.4.3: STS Connections
2.4.3.A: understanding that ecosystems and communities change over time, by describing their stages of primary or secondary succession; and by researching, observing, recording, tabulating, graphing and interpreting, within the context of:
2.4.3.A.2: evaluating the impact of secondary succession on society following dramatic disturbances in natural ecosystems; e.g., Frank Slide, Mount St. Helens, strip mining, clear cutting
2.4.3.A.3: any other relevant context.
2.5.1.A: how populations of plant and animal species adapt to a changing environment, by:
2.5.1.A.1: describing the range of variation in species and populations
2.5.1.A.2: explaining the principles of survival of the fittest and natural selection
2.5.1.A.3: exploring the factors that limit the size of populations.
2.5.2.A: examining homologous structures in a range of fossil and living species, and inferring the adaptive significance of variations observed
2.5.3: STS Connections
2.5.3.A: understanding the role and influence of variation, fitness, natural selection and population growth on the adaptation of organisms to their environments; and by inferring from observation; and by hypothesizing trends from experiments or simulations, within the context of:
2.5.3.A.3: any other relevant context.
3.1.4: develop an appreciation for the usefulness and importance of stoichiometric methods in science and in industry
3.1.1: develop a questioning attitude and a desire to understand more about matter and its changes
3.1.1.A: aqueous solutions provide a convenient medium for chemical changes, by extending from Science 8, Unit 1, the meaning of the terms solute, solvent, solution, dissolving and solubility, and by:
3.1.1.A.2: differentiating on the basis of properties among electrolytes, nonelectrolytes, acids and bases
3.1.1.A.4: using chemical names and formulas for dissolved substances, acids and bases
3.1.1.A.5: calculating the concentration of solutions in a variety of ways, including moles per litre, and calculating mass or volume when the concentration is known; e.g., per cent by volume, parts per million (ppm)
3.1.2: develop an awareness of the importance of water as a medium for chemical reactions
3.1.2.B: preparing solutions of specified concentrations, using a balance and volumetric glassware
3.1.3: appreciate that observations are the foundation for generalizations and explanations about chemical change
3.1.3.A: understanding dissolving, aqueous solutions and concentration; and by investigating the properties of solutions, preparing solutions of specific concentration and identifying ions in solution, within the context of:
3.1.3.A.1: relating the properties of electrolytes, nonelectrolytes, acids and bases and reactions in aqueous solution to solutions and processes in everyday life
3.1.3.A.2: comparing the ways in which concentrations of solutions are expressed in the chemistry laboratory (moles per litre), in industry (a variety of ways), in household products (per cent by volume) and in environmental studies (parts per million), then evaluating the importance of concentration in relation to biomagnification and risk management
3.1.3.A.4: any other relevant context.
3.2.1.A: the mole ratios in balanced chemical reaction equations provide quantitative information about the substances involved, by recalling from Science 10, Unit 3, how to balance chemical equations, and by:
3.2.1.A.1: predicting, using stoichiometry, the quantities of products and reactants involved in chemical reactions, given the reaction equation and the limiting reagent.
3.2.2.B: performing simple experiments to illustrate the validity of the assumptions contained in stoichiometric methods, given the reaction equation and the limiting reagent
3.2.2.C: evaluating the design of stoichiometric experiments.
3.2.3: STS Connections
3.2.3.A: understanding the quantitative relationships in a balanced chemical equation; and by performing stoichiometric experiments and calculations, within the context of:
3.2.3.A.1: relating stoichiometric methods to chemical processes, such as the production of fertilizers, metal extraction and burning fossil fuels
3.2.3.A.2: relating stoichiometric methods to such chemical processes as cooking, cleaning and gardening
3.2.3.A.3: any other relevant context.
3.3.3: STS Connections
3.3.3.A: understanding the activity series and oxidation- reduction; and by constructing, observing and describing electrolytic and electrochemical cells, within the context of:
3.3.3.A.1: identifying examples and making analogies among oxidation-reduction occurring in everyday processes; e.g., corrosion, combustion, photosynthesis, respiration
4.1.1: appreciate the need for computational competence in quantifying motion and momentum
4.1.1.A: motion is described in terms of displacement, time, velocity and acceleration, by extending from Science 10, Unit 4, the principles of one-dimensional uniform motion, and by:
4.1.1.A.1: comparing scalar and vector quantities
4.1.1.A.2: comparing distance and displacement, and speed and velocity
4.1.1.A.3: defining velocity as a change in position during a time interval, v = delta d/delta t
4.1.1.A.4: defining acceleration as a change in velocity during a time interval, a = delta v/delta t
4.1.2: appreciate the need for empirical evidence in interpreting observed phenomena
4.1.2.A: gathering data necessary to infer the relationships among acceleration, velocity and time
4.1.2.B: determining velocity, displacement and acceleration from position-time and velocity-time graphs
4.1.2.C: obtaining new data from straight-line graphs by determining the slope of the line and the area under the line
4.1.2.D: performing and evaluating an experiment to determine the local value of the acceleration due to gravity
4.1.2.E: solving uniform motion and uniform accelerated motion problems, involving the relationships d = vi t 1/2 at² and d = ((vi + vf)/2)t
4.1.3: appreciate the restricted nature of evidence when interpreting the results of physical interactions
4.1.3.A: understanding and explaining, quantitatively, linear motion in terms of displacement, time, velocity and acceleration; and by gathering, numerically analyzing and graphing relevant data, within the context of:
4.1.3.A.1: determining safe lengths for airport runways, and freeway entrance and exit ramps, in terms of kinematics principles
4.1.3.A.2: analyzing traffic control light patterns, using kinematics principles
4.1.3.A.3: any other relevant context.
4.2.1.A: Newton's laws of motion describe the effects of forces on the motion of bodies, by extending from Science 7, Unit 3, the concepts of force, inertia and friction, and by:
4.2.1.A.3: applying Newton's first law of motion to explain an object's state of rest or uniform motion
4.2.1.A.4: applying Newton's second law of motion, and using it to relate force, mass and motion
4.2.1.A.5: applying Newton's third law of motion to explain situations where objects interact.
4.2.2.A: gathering data necessary to infer the relationships among acceleration, force and mass
4.2.2.C: solving, numerically, linear motion problems, using Newton's second law of motion
4.2.2.D: solving linear motion problems involving friction.
4.2.3: STS Connections
4.2.3.A: understanding the effects of forces on the linear motion of objects described in terms of force, mass, acceleration and momentum, and analyzed in terms of Newton's laws of motion; and by gathering and numerically analyzing relevant data, within the context of:
4.2.3.A.1: explaining the movement of passengers inside a moving car in terms of Newton's first law of motion
4.2.3.A.3: establishing the relationship between the principles of mechanics and the need for legislation, such as seat belts and speed limits in terms of the influence of the needs, interests and financial support of society
4.2.3.A.5: any other relevant context.
4.3.1.A: uniform circular motion requires an unbalanced force of constant magnitude, by:
4.3.1.A.1: describing uniform circular motion as a special case of two-dimensional motion
4.3.1.A.3: applying the centripetal force and acceleration equations to uniform circular motion
4.3.1.A.4: applying the centripetal force and acceleration equations to uniform circular motion Fg = (Gm1m2)/r², as it applies to planetary and satellite motion.
4.3.2.A: performing and evaluating an experiment to investigate the relationship between centripetal force and centripetal acceleration.
4.3.3: STS Connections
4.3.3.A: understanding, explaining and using the relationship among uniform circular motion, Newton's universal law of gravitation and Kepler's laws; and by investigating the relationship between centripetal force and centripetal acceleration, and solving satellite motion problems, within the context of:
4.3.3.A.5: explaining, qualitatively, how Kepler's laws were used to test Newton's universal law of gravitation
4.3.3.A.6: any other relevant context.
4.4.1.A: the total momentum of any system of revolving or colliding bodies remains constant in the absence of outside forces, by:
4.4.1.A.1: defining momentum as a quantity of motion equal to the product of the mass and the velocity of an object p = mv
4.4.1.A.2: relating the role of change in momentum to acceleration delta p/delta t = ma
4.4.1.A.3: applying the law of conservation of momentum to linear collisions and explosions m1v1 + m2v2 = m1v'1 + m2v'2
4.4.2.A: performing and evaluating an experiment that illustrates the law of conservation of momentum
4.4.2.B: solving one-dimensional momentum problems, using numerical means, scale diagrams and vector addition.
4.4.3: STS Connections
4.4.3.A: understanding and explaining the conservation of the total momentum of a system of objects in the absence of outside forces, numerically and graphically; and by performing and evaluating an experiment that illustrates the conservation of momentum to solve a one-dimensional momentum problem, using scale diagrams and vector methods, within the context of:
4.4.3.A.1: investigating traffic accidents in terms of the principles of mechanics and the conservation of momentum
4.4.3.A.2: analyzing throwing, catching and striking in sports in terms of relevant scientific principles
4.4.3.A.3: any other relevant context.
Correlation last revised: 2/26/2010